CN107140945B - 一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖 - Google Patents

一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖 Download PDF

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CN107140945B
CN107140945B CN201710360401.1A CN201710360401A CN107140945B CN 107140945 B CN107140945 B CN 107140945B CN 201710360401 A CN201710360401 A CN 201710360401A CN 107140945 B CN107140945 B CN 107140945B
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顾幸勇
廖祖旺
罗婷
董伟霞
马东升
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,其特征在于:采用工业级化工原料,由以下组分按重量百分比组成:铬铁废渣21~35%、粉煤灰32~38%、西矿陶土26~37%、石英4~6%,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖。本发明制备的仿古砖不仅具有较高的抗折强度和较宽的烧成温度范围广泛应用于建筑陶瓷产品中,而且在原料使用上大量地引入两种工业废渣,在对废物进行循环利用的同时,大大降低了生产成本、提高经济效益,又减少对环境的污染,因此具有广阔的应用前景。

Description

一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖
技术领域
本发明属于建筑陶瓷领域,具体是一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖。
背景技术
铬铁废渣和粉煤灰是目前我国排量较大的工业废渣。内蒙古市明拓集团炼钢铁厂是全国最大的高碳铬铁生产企业,计划二期项目项目建成后,明拓集团炼钢铁厂“铬铁废渣”将达到100万吨,为全球最大的高碳铬铁生产企业;同时内蒙古又作为我国重要的煤碳重地,在国家鼓励建设大型坑口电站,煤电一体化开发的大背景下,未来粉煤灰排放量必将大幅提高,预测到2017年后,内蒙古粉煤灰排放量将达1900万吨/年以上,为当地的生态环境带来巨大的压力。这些工业废渣为工业生产中排出的副产品,其排放量巨大,且一般是渣场堆放,不仅浪费了宝贵的土地,而且污染环境,故应尽快对堆存的废渣进行处理。最佳的处理方法就是对工业废渣进行综合利用,而用其制备建筑陶瓷仿古砖则可较大量地资源化利用。本发明即是复合利用该两种工业废料制备高强度建筑瓷质仿古砖,其中废渣粉煤灰中含有一定的铁元素,这些铁元素可参与对强度有利的铁铝尖晶石的复合形成,此外粉煤灰中还含有部分针状莫来石对样品的强度等性能有提高。炼钢铁厂“铬铁废渣”和粉煤灰的化学成分及其高熔点等物理性能满足陶瓷砖的要求,可利用粉煤灰和炼钢铁厂“铬铁废渣”的这些性质通过外加一定矿物使其达到陶瓷砖料化学组成范围以及满足其生产的工艺性能。经XRD分析表明,本发明的瓷质仿古砖显微结构中的主晶相为石英、铁铝尖晶石(FeAl2O4)、镁铝铬尖晶石【Mg(Al1.5Cr0.5)O4】和莫来石(Mullite)。其中形成的尖晶石和莫来石对制成的建筑陶瓷仿古砖强度等性能有较大的改善,这种方法使得工业废弃物粉煤灰和炼钢铁厂“铬铁废渣”得到综合利用,耗渣量大,减少了这些工业废渣对环境的污染,将工业渣变废为宝,不仅有效地起到降低成本、增加效益的作用;同时拓宽了建筑陶瓷原料的新领域,减少了缓解了建陶产业迅猛发展可能造成的资源枯竭及由此而导致的生态平衡和环境的破坏,符合国家提倡的废物循环利用的原则,对于可持续发展具有重大的意义。
发明内容
本发明要解决的技术问题是提供一种成本低廉、工艺简单、绿色环保的利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖。
为解决以上技术问题,本发明的技术方案是:一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,其特征在于:采用工业级化工原料,由以下组分按重量百分比组成:铬铁废渣21~35%、粉煤灰32~38%、西矿陶土26~37%、石英4~6%,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖。
所述铬铁废渣使用前先进行过筛,所述过筛目数为200目。
所述混料工序中添加重量百分比为80 wt%水、0.5 wt%羧甲基纤维素钠。
所述过筛工序的筛网细度为250目,过筛后筛余<1%。
所述烧成工序的烧成温度为1140~1160℃,保温20~30min。
所述造粒工序的粉粒含水率为5~7%。
所述制得仿古砖的抗折强度为63~100Mpa,吸水率<0.5%,体积密度为2.3~2.4g/cm3
本发明在满足瓷质砖国家标准的同时,在配方中大量的掺入炼钢铁厂“铬铁废渣”和粉煤灰两种工业废料,经低温烧成后强度大大高于标准值。该制备方法不仅可以减少环境污染,降低生产成本、降低资源浪费,并且制备的高强度瓷质砖具有较宽的烧成温度范围和较低的烧成收缩而广泛应用于建筑陶瓷行业中,因此具有广阔的市场。
具体实施方式
本发明实施例铬铁废渣的化学百分比组成为
Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> SiO<sub>2</sub> MgO Na<sub>2</sub>O Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> CaO SO<sub>3</sub> I.L
30.1 34.4 19.5 0.3 3.7 7.4 2.6 0.3 1.7
本发明实施例粉煤灰的化学百分比组成
Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> SiO<sub>2</sub> MgO Na<sub>2</sub>O Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> K<sub>2</sub>O CaO TiO<sub>2</sub> SO<sub>3</sub> I.L
30.07 55.30 0.54 0.33 4.53 0.23 1.07 3.13 1.16 0.26 3.38
实施例1:
一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,采用工业级化工原料,由以下配方:铬铁废渣27g、粉煤灰32g、西矿陶土37g、石英4g,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖;
所述铬铁废渣使用前先进行过筛,所述过筛目数为200目;
所述混料工序中添加80g水、0.5g羧甲基纤维素钠;
所述过筛工序的筛网细度为250目,过筛后筛余<1%;
所述烧成工序的烧成温度为1140℃,保温20min;
所述造粒工序的粉粒含水率为5%;
所述制得仿古砖的抗折强度为92Mpa,吸水率0.15%,体积密度为2.4g/cm3
实施例2:
一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,采用工业级化工原料,由以下配方:铬铁废渣22g、粉煤灰38g、西矿陶土35g、石英5g,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖;
所述铬铁废渣使用前先进行过筛,所述过筛目数为200目;
所述混料工序中添加80g水、0.5g羧甲基纤维素钠;
所述过筛工序的筛网细度为250目,过筛后筛余<1%;
所述烧成工序的烧成温度为1140℃,保温30min;
所述造粒工序的粉粒含水率为6%;
所述制得仿古砖的抗折强度为100Mpa,吸水率0.1%,体积密度为2.4g/cm3
实施例3:
一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,采用工业级化工原料,由以下配方:铬铁废渣21g、粉煤灰38g、西矿陶土35g、石英6g,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖;
所述铬铁废渣使用前先进行过筛,所述过筛目数为200目;
所述混料工序中添加80g水、0.5g羧甲基纤维素钠;
所述过筛工序的筛网细度为250目,过筛后筛余<1%;
所述烧成工序的烧成温度为1140℃,保温20min;
所述造粒工序的粉粒含水率为7%;
所述制得仿古砖的抗折强度为87Mpa,吸水率0.44%,体积密度为2.4g/cm3
实施例4:
一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,采用工业级化工原料,由以下配方:铬铁废渣35g、粉煤灰34g、西矿陶土26g、石英5g,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖;
所述铬铁废渣使用前先进行过筛,所述过筛目数为200目;
所述混料工序中添加80g水、0.5g羧甲基纤维素钠;
所述过筛工序的筛网细度为250目,过筛后筛余<1%;
所述烧成工序的烧成温度为1160℃,保温25min;
所述造粒工序的粉粒含水率为6%;
所述制得仿古砖的抗折强度为64Mpa,吸水率0.15%,体积密度为2.3g/cm3

Claims (1)

1.一种利用两种废渣复合制备的高强度瓷质建筑陶瓷仿古砖,采用工业级化工原料,由以下配方:铬铁废渣22g、粉煤灰38g、西矿陶土35g、石英5g,经混料、湿法球磨、过筛、造粒、半干压成型、干燥、烧成制得仿古砖;
所述铬铁废渣使用前先进行过筛,所述过筛目数为200目;
所述混料工序中添加80g水、0.5g羧甲基纤维素钠;
所述过筛工序的筛网细度为250目,过筛后筛余<1%;
所述烧成工序的烧成温度为1140℃,保温30min;
所述造粒工序的粉粒含水率为6%;
所述制得仿古砖的抗折强度为100MPa ,吸水率0.1%,体积密度为2.4g/cm3
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