CN107069824B - Photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system - Google Patents

Photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system Download PDF

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CN107069824B
CN107069824B CN201710378045.6A CN201710378045A CN107069824B CN 107069824 B CN107069824 B CN 107069824B CN 201710378045 A CN201710378045 A CN 201710378045A CN 107069824 B CN107069824 B CN 107069824B
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capacitor
pin
lithium battery
power supply
resistor
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CN107069824A (en
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鞠振河
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Juliushun Clean Energy Technology Shenyang Co ltd
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Shenyang Qingneng Institute Clean Energy Co ltd
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/10Photovoltaic [PV]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Power Engineering (AREA)
  • Charge And Discharge Circuits For Batteries Or The Like (AREA)

Abstract

Photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system belongs to the technical field of photovoltaic energy storage systems, and particularly relates to a photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system. The invention provides a photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system which effectively and reasonably utilizes electricity generated by solar energy. The system comprises a grid-connected inverter, an AC/DC switching power supply, a lithium battery charging and discharging controller, a lithium battery pack, a DC/AC inverter, a dual-power automatic conversion switch, a dispatching system and a photovoltaic module, and is structurally characterized in that an electric energy input port of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with an electric energy output port of the photovoltaic module and the lithium battery pack, a positive terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy positive input end of the grid-connected inverter through a forward diode, and a negative terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy negative input end of the grid-connected inverter through a relay K1 normally-open switch.

Description

Photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of photovoltaic energy storage systems, and particularly relates to a photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system.
Background
At present, the capacity of a PV solar panel is generally 3 Kw-10 kW, the PV solar panel is installed in household usage, direct current generated by solar energy is converted into alternating current through an inverter, and the generated power from the inverter is supplied to a load for use. But the solar energy can not be effectively and reasonably utilized because the energy storage part is not scheduled.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems, the invention provides a photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system which effectively and reasonably utilizes the electricity generated by solar energy.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme that the system comprises a grid-connected inverter, an AC/DC switching power supply, a lithium battery charging and discharging controller, a lithium battery pack, a DC/AC inverter, a dual-power automatic conversion switch, a dispatching system and a photovoltaic module, and is structurally characterized in that an electric energy input port of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with an electric energy output port of the photovoltaic module and the lithium battery pack, a positive terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy positive input end of the grid-connected inverter through a forward diode, and a negative terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy negative input end of the grid-connected inverter through a relay K1 normally open switch.
The electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with a power grid, the standby electric energy input end of the double-power automatic conversion switch and the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply, the N end of the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with the N end of the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter through the relay K2 normally open switch, and the L end of the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with the L end of the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter; and a control output port of the dispatching system is respectively connected with a control input port of the relay K1 and a control input port of the relay K2.
The electric energy output end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with a lithium battery pack through a lithium battery charging and discharging controller, the lithium battery pack is connected with the electric energy input end of the DC/AC inverter, the electric energy output end of the DC/AC inverter is connected with the common electric energy input end of the dual-power automatic conversion switch, and the load wiring end of the dual-power automatic conversion switch is connected with the household general electric brake.
The scheduling system comprises an STC89C52 MCU, wherein a pin 40 of the MCU is respectively connected with one end of a first resistor and one end of a second resistor, the other end of the first resistor is connected with the positive electrode of the input end of a first PC817 chip, the negative electrode of the input end of the first PC817 chip is connected with a pin 32 of the MCU, the collector of the output end of the first PC817 chip is connected with the base electrode of a PNP triode Q1, the emitter of the triode Q1 is respectively connected with one end of the control input port of the relay K1 and the anode of a first diode, the cathode of the first diode is respectively connected with the other end of the control input port of the relay K1 and a 5V power supply, and the collector of the triode Q1 and the emitter of the output end of the first PC817 chip are grounded.
The other end of the second resistor is connected with the positive electrode of the input end of a second PC817 chip, the negative electrode of the input end of the second PC817 chip is connected with a pin 22 of the MCU, the collector of the output end of the second PC817 chip is connected with the base electrode of the PNP triode Q2, the emitter of the triode Q2 is respectively connected with one end of the control input port of the relay K2 and the anode of a second diode, the cathode of the second diode is respectively connected with the other end of the control input port of the relay K2 and a 5V power supply, and the collector of the triode Q2 and the emitter of the output end of the second PC817 chip are grounded.
The lithium battery charge-discharge controller comprises a charge signal control part, a signal inverting part, a first charging path, a second charging path, a first switch part and a second switch part, the lithium battery pack comprises a first lithium battery part and a second lithium battery part, a control signal output port of the charge signal control part is respectively connected with a control signal input port of the first charging path and a control signal input port of the signal inverting part, and a control signal output port of the signal inverting part is connected with a control signal input port of the second charging path.
The control signal output port of the first path of charging is connected with the control signal input port of the first switch part, the electric energy input end of the first switch part is connected with the positive output end of the AC/DC switching power supply, the electric energy output end of the first switch part is respectively connected with the negative output end of the first lithium battery part and the negative electrode of the diode D25, the positive electrode of the diode D25 is grounded, the positive electrode end of the first lithium battery part is respectively connected with the negative output end of the AC/DC switching power supply and the positive electrode of the lithium battery pack, and the negative electrode of the lithium battery pack is grounded.
The control signal output port of the second charging path is connected with the control signal input port of the second switch part, the electric energy input end of the second switch part is connected with the output positive terminal of the AC/DC switch power supply, the electric energy output end of the second switch part is respectively connected with the negative terminal of the second lithium battery part and the cathode of the diode D26, the anode of the diode D26 is grounded, and the anode of the second lithium battery part is respectively connected with the output negative terminal of the AC/DC switch power supply and the positive terminal of the lithium battery pack.
The charging signal control part comprises an STM32F103C8T6 chip U1, wherein a pin 10 of the U1 is grounded through a resistor R76 and an address setting connector P3 in sequence, a pin 13 of the U1 is connected with one end of a capacitor C9 and a pin 1 of an infrared receiving connector P2 respectively, the other end of the capacitor C9 is connected with a ground wire, a pin 2 of the infrared receiving connector P2 and one end of a capacitor C8 respectively, and the other end of the capacitor C8 is connected with a pin 3 of the infrared receiving connector P2 and a 3.3V power supply respectively; the 14 pin of U1 is connected with 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D7, the 15 pin of U1 is connected with 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D6, the 16 pin of U1 is connected with 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D5, and the 17 pin of U1 is connected with 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D4.
The 5 feet of the U1 are respectively connected with one end of a capacitor C12 and one end of a crystal oscillator G1, the other end of the crystal oscillator G1 is respectively connected with the 6 feet of the U1 and one end of a capacitor C13, the other end of the capacitor C13 is respectively connected with the other end of the capacitor C12, the ground wire and the 1 foot of a MAX812 chip D14 through a resistor R11, 4 feet of the D14 are connected with a 3.3V power supply, 2 feet of the D14 are connected with 7 feet of the U1 through a resistor R15, 24 feet of the U1 are respectively connected with one end of an inductor L1, 36 feet of the U1, 48 feet of the U1, one end of an inductor L2, one end of a capacitor C14, one end of a capacitor C15 and one end of a capacitor C17, the other end of the capacitor C16 and the other end of the capacitor C18 are respectively connected with one end of the capacitor C16, one end of the capacitor C18 and the other end of the U1, and the other end of the capacitor C14, the other end of the capacitor C15, the other end of the capacitor C17, the other end of the capacitor C16 and the other end of the capacitor C18 are grounded.
A pin 18 of the U1 is respectively connected with a cathode of the diode D24, one end of the resistor R75, one end of the capacitor C33 and one end of the resistor R74, and an anode of the diode D24, the other end of the resistor R75 and the other end of the capacitor C33 are grounded; the other end of the resistor R74 is respectively connected with the positive electrode end of the lithium battery pack and the anode of the diode D3, the cathode of the diode D3 is respectively connected with the positive electrode of the capacitor C4, one end of the capacitor C5, the 3 pin of the HT7550-5 chip D1 and the 3 pin of the HT7550-5 chip D1, the cathode of the capacitor C4 and the other end of the capacitor C5 are grounded, the 1 pin of the D1-1 is respectively connected with the 1 pin of the D1, the cathode of the voltage stabilizing diode D10, one end of the resistor R1 and the anode of the capacitor C7, the anode of the voltage stabilizing diode D10 and the cathode of the capacitor C7 are grounded, the other end of the resistor R1 is respectively connected with the 2 pin of the D1, the 2 pin of the D1-1, one end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP1, the positive electrode of the capacitor C6, one end of the capacitor C2, the power supply VCC, the LM1117MPX-3.3 chip D2, the other end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP1, the cathode of the capacitor C6, the other end of the capacitor C2 is respectively connected with the 3V power supply, the positive electrode of the 3C 1, the capacitor C3C 1 and the other end of the capacitor C3.
As a preferable scheme, the grid-connected inverter adopts HP10000-148 type, the AC/DC switching power supply adopts S-120-48 type switching power supply, the DC/AC inverter adopts 48-500 type inverter, and the dual-power automatic conversion switch adopts GCQ2-63 type automatic conversion switch.
As another preferred scheme, pins 14 and 15 of the MCU are correspondingly connected with pins 16 and 15 of an ESP-07 chip U7, pin 10 of U7 is grounded through a third resistor, pin 9 of U7 is grounded, pin 3 of U7 is connected with a 3.3V power supply through a fourth resistor, and pin 8 of U7 is connected with a 3.3V power supply.
The invention has the beneficial effects.
The inverter of the invention converts direct current generated by solar energy into alternating current which is connected with a power grid, wherein the direct current is used as soon as the power is generated, and the surplus power is on the Internet. Through lithium cell energy storage electric quantity, the dispatch energy storage, K1, K2 receive the dispatch energy storage control, if the user is in the area when realizing ladder price of electricity (peak valley flat price of electricity), 11 o 'clock evening to 5 o' clock early morning, the charges of electricity are very cheap, and the valley electricity should not exceed 3 gross money, and K2 closes, charges for the battery, is full of. After the morning is bright, people start to use electricity from 5 to 8, the electricity price is high, when solar energy is insufficient, electricity in the lithium battery is sent to a power grid through the grid-connected inverter through K1 closing, and the electricity price is high at this time, so that more money can be sold.
In order to ensure the storage battery to work normally, the storage battery is charged by the power grid and the solar energy.
On the basis of the construction of the distributed photovoltaic peasant households, the distributed peasant households are constructed to store energy. Each house is provided with 10kWh ternary lithium battery energy storage, which is equivalent to 4 yuan/Ah cost of 13 200Ah/3.6V series ternary lithium batteries, 1 ten thousand yuan is input into each house, the energy is stored into the valley according to 0.2 yuan/kWh and 10 degrees of electricity is abandoned for energy storage, the energy storage cost is 2 yuan, the peak value of a power grid is sold, 0.83+0.42 yuan =1.25 yuan/degree, and income is realized every day: 12.5 yuan-2 yuan =10 yuan, the energy storage income of one year is 4320 yuan, and the energy storage investment recovery period is 2.3 years.
Drawings
The invention is further described with reference to the following figures and detailed description. The scope of the invention is not limited to the following expressions.
Fig. 1 is a schematic block diagram of the circuit of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a circuit schematic of the scheduling system of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic block diagram of a lithium battery charging and discharging controller and a lithium battery pack according to the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of a lithium battery charge and discharge controller and a lithium battery pack according to the present invention.
Fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are enlarged views of portions of fig. 4.
A, B, C, D in fig. 4 corresponds to A, B, C, D in fig. 3.
Detailed Description
As shown in the figure, the system comprises a grid-connected inverter, an AC/DC switching power supply, a lithium battery charging and discharging controller, a lithium battery pack, a DC/AC inverter, a dual-power automatic conversion switch, a dispatching system and a photovoltaic module, wherein an electric energy input port of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with an electric energy output port of the photovoltaic module and the lithium battery pack, a positive terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy positive input end of the grid-connected inverter through a forward diode, and a negative terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy negative input end of the grid-connected inverter through a relay K1 normally-open switch.
The electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with a power grid, a standby electric energy input end of a dual-power automatic conversion switch and an electric energy input end of an AC/DC switching power supply, the N end of the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with the N end of the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter through a relay K2 normally-open switch, and the L end of the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with the L end of the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter; and a control output port of the dispatching system is respectively connected with a control input port of the relay K1 and a control input port of the relay K2.
The electric energy output end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with a lithium battery pack through a lithium battery charging and discharging controller, the lithium battery pack is connected with the electric energy input end of the DC/AC inverter, the electric energy output end of the DC/AC inverter is connected with the common electric energy input end of the dual-power automatic conversion switch, and the load wiring end of the dual-power automatic conversion switch is connected with the household general electric brake.
The grid-connected inverter adopts HP10000-148 type, the AC/DC switching power supply adopts S-120-48 type switching power supply, the DC/AC inverter adopts 48-500 type inverter, and the dual-power automatic conversion switch adopts GCQ2-63 type automatic conversion switch.
The scheduling system comprises an STC89C52 MCU, wherein a pin 40 of the MCU is respectively connected with one end of a first resistor and one end of a second resistor, the other end of the first resistor is connected with the positive electrode of the input end of a first PC817 chip, the negative electrode of the input end of the first PC817 chip is connected with a pin 32 of the MCU, the collector of the output end of the first PC817 chip is connected with the base electrode of a PNP triode Q1, the emitter of the triode Q1 is respectively connected with one end of the control input port of the relay K1 and the anode of a first diode, the cathode of the first diode is respectively connected with the other end of the control input port of the relay K1 and a 5V power supply, and the collector of the triode Q1 and the emitter of the output end of the first PC817 chip are grounded.
The other end of the second resistor is connected with the positive electrode of the input end of a second PC817 chip, the negative electrode of the input end of the second PC817 chip is connected with a pin 22 of the MCU, the collector of the output end of the second PC817 chip is connected with the base electrode of a PNP triode Q2, the emitter of the triode Q2 is respectively connected with one end of the control input port of the relay K2 and the anode of a second diode, the cathode of the second diode is respectively connected with the other end of the control input port of the relay K2 and a 5V power supply, and the collector of the triode Q2 and the emitter of the output end of the second PC817 chip are grounded.
Pins 14 and 15 of the MCU are correspondingly connected with pins 16 and 15 of an ESP-07 chip U7 respectively, pin 10 of the U7 is grounded through a third resistor, pin 9 of the U7 is grounded, pin 3 of the U7 is connected with a 3.3V power supply through a fourth resistor, and pin 8 of the U7 is connected with the 3.3V power supply.
The device can be controlled by the mobile phone APP, the device operates in a wifi internet state at home, U7 is a wifi module, and the STC89C52 MCU drives the triode Q1 (Q2) through the optocoupler PC817 to control the opening and closing K1 (K2) of the relay.
The lithium battery charge-discharge controller comprises a charge signal control part, a signal inverting part, a first charging path, a second charging path, a first switch part and a second switch part, the lithium battery pack comprises a first lithium battery part and a second lithium battery part, a control signal output port of the charge signal control part is respectively connected with a control signal input port of the first charging path and a control signal input port of the signal inverting part, and a control signal output port of the signal inverting part is connected with a control signal input port of the second charging path.
The control signal output port of the first path of charging is connected with the control signal input port of the first switch part, the electric energy input end of the first switch part is connected with the positive output end of the AC/DC switching power supply, the electric energy output end of the first switch part is respectively connected with the negative output end of the first lithium battery part and the negative electrode of the diode D25, the positive electrode of the diode D25 is grounded, the positive electrode end of the first lithium battery part is respectively connected with the negative output end of the AC/DC switching power supply and the positive electrode of the lithium battery pack, and the negative electrode of the lithium battery pack is grounded.
The control signal output port of the second charging path is connected with the control signal input port of the second switch part, the electric energy input end of the second switch part is connected with the output positive terminal of the AC/DC switch power supply, the electric energy output end of the second switch part is respectively connected with the negative terminal of the second lithium battery part and the cathode of the diode D26, the anode of the diode D26 is grounded, and the anode of the second lithium battery part is respectively connected with the output negative terminal of the AC/DC switch power supply and the positive terminal of the lithium battery pack.
The charging signal control part comprises an STM32F103C8T6 chip U1, wherein a pin 10 of the U1 is grounded through a resistor R76 and an address setting connector P3 in sequence, a pin 13 of the U1 is connected with one end of a capacitor C9 and a pin 1 of an infrared receiving connector P2 respectively, the other end of the capacitor C9 is connected with a ground wire, a pin 2 of the infrared receiving connector P2 and one end of a capacitor C8 respectively, and the other end of the capacitor C8 is connected with a pin 3 of the infrared receiving connector P2 and a 3.3V power supply respectively; a pin 14 of the U1 is connected with a 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D7, a pin 15 of the U1 is connected with the 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D6, a pin 16 of the U1 is connected with the 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D5, and a pin 17 of the U1 is connected with the 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D4.
The 5 feet of the U1 are respectively connected with one end of a capacitor C12 and one end of a crystal oscillator G1, the other end of the crystal oscillator G1 is respectively connected with the 6 feet of the U1 and one end of a capacitor C13, the other end of the capacitor C13 is respectively connected with the other end of the capacitor C12, the ground wire and the 1 foot of a MAX812 chip D14 through a resistor R11, 4 feet of the D14 are connected with a 3.3V power supply, 2 feet of the D14 are connected with 7 feet of the U1 through a resistor R15, 24 feet of the U1 are respectively connected with one end of an inductor L1, 36 feet of the U1, 48 feet of the U1, one end of an inductor L2, one end of a capacitor C14, one end of a capacitor C15 and one end of a capacitor C17, the other end of the capacitor C16 and the other end of the capacitor C18 are respectively connected with one end of the capacitor C16, one end of the capacitor C18 and the other end of the U1, and the other end of the capacitor C14, the other end of the capacitor C15, the other end of the capacitor C17, the other end of the capacitor C16 and the other end of the capacitor C18 are grounded.
A pin 18 of the U1 is respectively connected with a cathode of the diode D24, one end of the resistor R75, one end of the capacitor C33 and one end of the resistor R74, and an anode of the diode D24, the other end of the resistor R75 and the other end of the capacitor C33 are grounded; the other end of the resistor R74 is respectively connected with the positive electrode end of the lithium battery pack and the anode of the diode D3, the cathode of the diode D3 is respectively connected with the positive electrode of the capacitor C4, one end of the capacitor C5, the 3 pin of the HT7550-5 chip D1 and the 3 pin of the HT7550-5 chip D1, the negative electrode of the capacitor C4 and the other end of the capacitor C5 are grounded, the 1 pin of the D1-1 is respectively connected with the 1 pin of the D1, the cathode of the voltage stabilizing diode D10, one end of the resistor R1 and the positive electrode of the capacitor C7, the anode of the voltage stabilizing diode D10 and the negative electrode of the capacitor C7 are grounded, the other end of the resistor R1 is respectively connected with the 2 pin of the D1, the 2 pin of the D1-1, one end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP1, the positive electrode of the capacitor C6, one end of the capacitor C2, the power supply VCC, LM1117MPX-3.3 chip D2, the other end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP1, the negative electrode of the capacitor C6, the other end of the capacitor C2 and the pin of the capacitor C3, the other end of the D2 are respectively connected with the 3V power supply, one end of the capacitor C3V, the positive electrode of the capacitor D3C 3, the capacitor C3V power supply, the negative electrode and the negative electrode of the capacitor C3.
The signal inverting part comprises an NPN triode VT17, the base electrode of the triode VT17 is connected with the 45 pin of the U1 through a resistor R17, the emitting electrode of the triode VT17 is grounded, and the collecting electrode of the triode VT17 is connected with a power supply VCC through a resistor R21.
The first switch part comprises N-channel enhancement type field effect transistors Q2, Q3, Q5 and Q6, wherein forward Zener diodes are connected between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q2, between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q3, between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q5 and between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q6.
The first charging path comprises a resistor R35, one end of the resistor R35 is connected with a pin 45 of the U1, the other end of the resistor R35 is connected with a base electrode of an NPN triode VT5, an emitting electrode of the triode VT5 is grounded, a collecting electrode of the triode VT5 is respectively connected with one end of a resistor R18 and a base electrode of a PNP triode VT2 through a resistor R22, the emitting electrode of the triode VT2 is respectively connected with the other end of the resistor R18, a power supply VCC, one end of a resistor R19 and a collecting electrode of the NPN triode VT1, the base electrode of the triode VT1 is respectively connected with the other end of the resistor R19, the collecting electrode of the NPN triode VT3 and the base electrode of the PNP triode VT4, the base electrode of the triode VT3 is connected with a pin 30 of the U1 through a resistor R34, the emitting electrode of the triode VT3 is respectively connected with a ground wire, the collecting electrode of the triode VT4 and one end of the resistor R36, the emitting electrode of the triode VT4 is respectively connected with the emitting electrode of the triode VT1, the other end of the resistor R36, one end of the resistor R50 and one end of the resistor R51, the other end of the resistor R50 is connected with a gate of the field effect tube Q6, the source electrode of the field effect tube Q3, the cathode of the lithium battery Q20 and the first capacitor C52, the anode of the lithium battery and the lithium battery C52; the cathode of the diode D20 is connected with one end of the resistor R52, one end of the resistor C28, one end of the resistor R44 and one end of the resistor R8 respectively, the other end of the resistor R44 is connected with one end of the resistor R42 and the anode of the diode D21 respectively, and the other end of the resistor R42 is connected with the positive end of the first lithium battery part.
The other end of the resistor R8 is respectively connected with one end of a capacitor C10 and one end of a resistor R12, the other end of the capacitor C10 is grounded, the other end of the resistor R12 is respectively connected with one end of the resistor R10 and a pin 3 of an LM258AD chip U2A, the other end of the resistor R10 is respectively connected with one end of a resistor R2 and one end of a resistor R3, the other end of the resistor R3 is grounded, and the other end of the resistor R2 is connected with a power supply VCC; pin 2 of U2A is connected with one end of a resistor R9, one end of a resistor R13 and one end of a capacitor C20 respectively, and the other end of the resistor R9 is grounded; the other end of the capacitor C20 is connected with the other end of the resistor R13, a pin 1 of the U2A and one end of the resistor R14 respectively, a pin 8 of the U2A is connected with a power supply VCC and one end of the capacitor C25 respectively, and the other end of the capacitor C25 is grounded; the other end of the resistor R14 is respectively connected with one end of a resistor R16, one end of a capacitor C23 and the 14 pin of the U1, and the other end of the resistor R16 and the other end of the capacitor C23 are grounded.
The drain electrode of a field effect transistor Q6 is respectively connected with the drain electrode of a field effect transistor Q3, the drain electrode of a field effect transistor Q2 and the drain electrode of a field effect transistor Q5, the grid electrode of the field effect transistor Q5 is respectively connected with one end of a resistor R47, one end of a resistor R49, the emitting electrode of an NPN triode VT7 and the emitting electrode of a PNP triode VT11 through a resistor R48, the other end of the resistor R47 is connected with the grid electrode of the field effect transistor Q2, the other end of the resistor R49 is respectively connected with the source electrode of the field effect transistor Q2, the source electrode of the field effect transistor Q5, the collecting electrode of the NPN triode VT11, the cathode of a diode D21, the emitting electrode of the triode VT9, one end of a resistor R54, the anode of a diode D17, the cathode of a capacitor C26, one end of a bidirectional transient suppression diode VP2 and the output anode of an AC/DC switching power supply, the base electrode of the triode VT11 is respectively connected with the base electrode of the triode VT7, one end of the resistor R41 and the collecting electrode of the triode VT9, the other end of the resistor R41 is respectively connected with the collecting electrode of the triode VT7, the collector of the triode VT7, the anode of the resistor R17, one end of the resistor R26, one end of the resistor R37, the anode of the resistor R37 and the cathode of the resistor R37, one end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode D16, the other end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode D16, the bidirectional transient diode D16 is connected with one end of the bidirectional diode R37, and the bidirectional diode VP2, and the other end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode D16, and the bidirectional lithium battery, and the other end of the bidirectional lithium battery of the bidirectional transient suppression diode T2; the base electrode of the triode VT9 is respectively connected with the other end of the resistor R54 and one end of the resistor R23, and the other end of the resistor R23 is connected with the collector electrode of the triode VT2 through the backward diode D13.
The second switch part comprises N-channel enhancement type field effect transistors Q10, Q12, Q9 and Q11, wherein forward Zener diodes are connected between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q10, between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q12, between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q9 and between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the field effect transistor Q11.
The second charging path comprises a resistor R25, one end of the resistor R25 is connected with a collector of a triode VT17, the other end of the resistor R25 is connected with a base electrode of an NPN triode VT18, an emitting electrode of the triode VT18 is grounded, the collector of the triode VT18 is respectively connected with one end of a resistor R27 and a base electrode of a PNP triode VT19 through a resistor R30, the emitting electrode of the triode VT19 is respectively connected with the other end of the resistor R27, a power supply VCC, one end of a resistor R63 and a collector electrode of an NPN triode VT24, the base electrode of the triode VT24 is respectively connected with the other end of the resistor R63, the collector electrode of the NPN triode VT21 and the base electrode of the PNP triode VT25, the base electrode of the triode VT21 is connected with a pin 30 of U1 through a resistor 61, the emitting electrode of the triode VT21 is respectively connected with a ground wire, the collector electrode of the triode VT25 and one end of the resistor R68, the emitting electrode of the triode VT25 is respectively connected with the emitting electrode of the triode VT24, the other end of the resistor R68, one end of the resistor R69 and one end of the resistor R70, the other end of the resistor R69 is connected with a grid of a field effect tube Q12, the source electrode of the field effect tube Q11, the other end of the resistor R71 and the negative electrode of the lithium battery 71.
The drain electrode of the field effect tube Q11 is respectively connected with the drain electrode of the field effect tube Q12, the drain electrode of the field effect tube Q10 and the drain electrode of the field effect tube Q9, the grid electrode of the field effect tube Q10 is respectively connected with one end of a resistor R65, one end of a resistor R67, the emitting electrode of an NPN triode VT23 and the emitting electrode of a PNP triode VT22 through a resistor R66, the other end of the resistor R67 is connected with the grid electrode of the field effect tube Q9, the other end of the resistor R65 is respectively connected with the source electrode of the field effect tube Q10, the source electrode of the field effect tube Q9, the collecting electrode of the triode VT22, the emitting electrode of the NPN triode VT20, one end of a resistor R59, the anode of a diode D28, the cathode of a capacitor C27, one end of a bidirectional transient suppression diode VP3 and the output positive electrode of an AC/DC switching power supply, the base electrode of the triode VT23 is respectively connected with the base electrode of the triode VT22, one end of the resistor R62 and the collecting electrode of the triode VT20, the other end of the resistor R62 is respectively connected with the collecting electrode of the triode VT23, the cathode of the diode D28, the cathode of the resistor D27, one end of the resistor R31 and one end of the resistor R33 are respectively connected with the positive electrode of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP3, and the other end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode D27, and the lithium battery VP 3; the base electrode of the triode VT20 is respectively connected with the other end of the resistor R59 and one end of the resistor R45, and the other end of the resistor R45 is connected with the collector electrode of the triode VT19 through the backward diode D15.
As shown in fig. 4, 5 and 7, the PWM2 signal, two groups (the first path for charging and the second path for charging) are common, and the MOS transistor circuit (Q3/Q6, Q11/Q12) controlled by the PWM2 signal is equivalent to the master gate for charging, and as long as the MOS transistor circuit is closed, no matter what PWM1 is, the charging cannot be performed.
Q2/Q5 is opposite to Q9/Q10 in working state because it is controlled by two signals with opposite phases.
The PWM1 is the main control signal, but because the storage battery is divided into two groups, and the two groups are charged respectively under one PWM signal, one path of control signal needs to be inverted by a triode.
The electricity generated by the solar cell panel is transmitted to a national power grid through a grid-connected inverter, and the national power grid has a lot of abandoned electricity due to less electricity consumption at night, and most of the abandoned electricity comes from a thermal power plant, wind energy, a nuclear power plant and the like. Therefore, after ten hours at night, an instruction can be sent to the dispatching system (the system is connected with wifi of a family) through the mobile phone app, the dispatching system is enabled to close K2, and electric energy which is wasted is stored in the lithium battery pack through the AC/DC voltage-stabilizing switching power supply and the lithium battery charging and discharging controller.
When the electricity consumption in daytime is high, such as 9-16 points, an instruction is sent to the dispatching system through the mobile phone app, the switch K1 is closed, the lithium battery pack also supplies power to a national power grid through the grid-connected inverter, and users can benefit from the difference between the price of electricity abandoning and the price of electricity generation. For example, the capacity of the grid-connected inverter is 8000W, and if the lithium battery can generate electricity for 4 hours, the capacity is 32 degrees. The more households are provided with the system, the more obvious the benefit is, because the charging and discharging of the abandoned power can be uniformly controlled.
If when the daytime power consumption peak, the family also uses electricity, then dual supply automatic transfer switch then keeps normal condition, even use the electric energy that lithium cell group sent out through ordinary dc-to-ac converter, abandon the electricity when more night, automatic transfer switch can jump, jumps to reserve zero line live wire from commonly used zero line live wire, realizes seamless electric power switching, supplies with the household power consumption.
It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only, not limitation, and it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention; as long as the use requirements are met, the method is within the protection scope of the invention.

Claims (1)

1. The photovoltaic grid-connected high-efficiency energy storage and transmission system comprises a grid-connected inverter, an AC/DC switching power supply, a lithium battery charge-discharge controller, a lithium battery pack, a DC/AC inverter, a dual-power automatic conversion switch, a scheduling system and a photovoltaic module, and is characterized in that an electric energy input port of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with an electric energy output port of the photovoltaic module and the lithium battery pack, a positive terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy positive input end of the grid-connected inverter through a forward diode, and a negative terminal of the lithium battery pack is connected with an electric energy negative input end of the grid-connected inverter through a relay K1 normally open switch;
the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter is respectively connected with a power grid, a standby electric energy input end of a dual-power automatic conversion switch and an electric energy input end of an AC/DC switching power supply, the N end of the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with the N end of the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter through a relay K2 normally-open switch, and the L end of the electric energy input end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with the L end of the electric energy output end of the grid-connected inverter; a control output port of the dispatching system is respectively connected with a control input port of the relay K1 and a control input port of the relay K2;
the electric energy output end of the AC/DC switching power supply is connected with a lithium battery pack through a lithium battery charging and discharging controller, the lithium battery pack is connected with the electric energy input end of a DC/AC inverter, the electric energy output end of the DC/AC inverter is connected with the common electric energy input end of a dual-power automatic conversion switch, and a load wiring end of the dual-power automatic conversion switch is connected with a home-entering main switch;
the scheduling system comprises an STC89C52 MCU, wherein a pin 40 of the MCU is respectively connected with one end of a first resistor and one end of a second resistor, the other end of the first resistor is connected with the positive electrode of the input end of a first PC817 chip, the negative electrode of the input end of the first PC817 chip is connected with a pin 32 of the MCU, the collector of the output end of the first PC817 chip is connected with the base of a PNP triode Q1, the emitter of the triode Q1 is respectively connected with one end of the control input port of the relay K1 and the anode of a first diode, the cathode of the first diode is respectively connected with the other end of the control input port of the relay K1 and a 5V power supply, and the collector of the triode Q1 and the emitter of the output end of the first PC817 chip are grounded;
the other end of the second resistor is connected with the positive electrode of the input end of a second PC817 chip, the negative electrode of the input end of the second PC817 chip is connected with a pin 22 of the MCU, the collector of the output end of the second PC817 chip is connected with the base electrode of a PNP triode Q2, the emitter of the triode Q2 is respectively connected with one end of the control input port of the relay K2 and the anode of a second diode, the cathode of the second diode is respectively connected with the other end of the control input port of the relay K2 and a 5V power supply, and the collector of the triode Q2 and the emitter of the output end of the second PC817 chip are grounded;
the lithium battery charge-discharge controller comprises a charge signal control part, a signal inverting part, a charge first path, a charge second path, a first switch part and a second switch part, wherein the lithium battery pack comprises a first lithium battery part and a second lithium battery part, a control signal output port of the charge signal control part is respectively connected with a control signal input port of the charge first path and a control signal input port of the signal inverting part, and a control signal output port of the signal inverting part is connected with a control signal input port of the charge second path;
the control signal output port of the first charging path is connected with the control signal input port of the first switch part, the electric energy input end of the first switch part is connected with the output positive terminal of the AC/DC switching power supply, the electric energy output end of the first switch part is respectively connected with the negative terminal of the first lithium battery part and the cathode of the diode D25, the anode of the diode D25 is grounded, the anode of the first lithium battery part is respectively connected with the output negative terminal of the AC/DC switching power supply and the positive terminal of the lithium battery pack, and the negative terminal of the lithium battery pack is grounded;
the control signal output port of the second charging path is connected with the control signal input port of the second switch part, the electric energy input end of the second switch part is connected with the output positive terminal of the AC/DC switch power supply, the electric energy output end of the second switch part is respectively connected with the negative terminal of the second lithium battery part and the cathode of the diode D26, the anode of the diode D26 is grounded, and the anode of the second lithium battery part is respectively connected with the output negative terminal of the AC/DC switch power supply and the positive terminal of the lithium battery pack;
the charging signal control part comprises an STM32F103C8T6 chip U1, wherein a pin 10 of the U1 is grounded through a resistor R76 and an address setting connector P3 in sequence, a pin 13 of the U1 is connected with one end of a capacitor C9 and a pin 1 of an infrared receiving connector P2 respectively, the other end of the capacitor C9 is connected with a ground wire, a pin 2 of the infrared receiving connector P2 and one end of a capacitor C8 respectively, and the other end of the capacitor C8 is connected with a pin 3 of the infrared receiving connector P2 and a 3.3V power supply respectively; a pin 14 of the U1 is connected with a 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D7, a pin 15 of the U1 is connected with the 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D6, a pin 16 of the U1 is connected with the 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D5, and a pin 17 of the U1 is connected with the 3.3V power supply through a forward diode D4;
the 5 pin of U1 is connected with one end of a capacitor C12 and one end of a crystal oscillator G1 respectively, the other end of the crystal oscillator G1 is connected with 6 pin of U1 and one end of a capacitor C13 respectively, the other end of the capacitor C13 is connected with the other end of the capacitor C12, a ground wire and 1 pin of a MAX812 chip D14 through a resistor R11 respectively, 4 pin of D14 is connected with 3.3V power supply, 2 pin of D14 is connected with 7 pin of U1 through a resistor R15, 24 pin of U1 is connected with one end of an inductor L1, 36 pin of U1, 48 pin of U1, one end of an inductor L2, one end of a capacitor C14, one end of a capacitor C15 and one end of a capacitor C17 respectively, the other end of the inductor L1 is connected with 3.3V power supply, the other end of the inductor L2 is connected with one end of a capacitor C16, one end of a capacitor C18 and a pin of U1 respectively, the other end of the capacitor C14, the other end of the capacitor C15, the other end of the capacitor C17, the other end of the capacitor C16 and the other end of the capacitor C18 are grounded;
a pin 18 of the U1 is respectively connected with a cathode of the diode D24, one end of the resistor R75, one end of the capacitor C33 and one end of the resistor R74, and an anode of the diode D24, the other end of the resistor R75 and the other end of the capacitor C33 are grounded; the other end of the resistor R74 is respectively connected with the positive terminal of the lithium battery pack and the anode of the diode D3, the cathode of the diode D3 is respectively connected with the positive terminal of the capacitor C4, one end of the capacitor C5, the 3 pin of the HT7550-5 chip D1-1 and the 3 pin of the HT7550-5 chip D1, the cathode of the capacitor C4 and the other end of the capacitor C5 are grounded, the 1 pin of the D1-1 is respectively connected with the 1 pin of the D1, the cathode of the voltage stabilizing diode D10, one end of the resistor R1 and the anode of the capacitor C7, the anode of the voltage stabilizing diode D10 and the cathode of the capacitor C7 are grounded, the other end of the resistor R1 is respectively connected with the 2 pin of the D1, the 2 pin of the D1-1, one end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP1, the anode of the capacitor C6, one end of the capacitor C2, one end of the power supply VCC, LM1117MPX-3.3 chip D2, the other end of the bidirectional transient suppression diode VP1, the cathode of the capacitor C6, the other end of the capacitor C2 is grounded, the 3V power supply of the 3, the anode of the capacitor C1 and the cathode of the capacitor C3.3;
the grid-connected inverter adopts HP10000-148 type, the AC/DC switching power supply adopts S-120-48 type switching power supply, the DC/AC inverter adopts 48-500 type inverter, and the dual-power automatic conversion switch adopts GCQ2-63 type automatic conversion switch;
pins 14 and 15 of the MCU are correspondingly connected with pins 16 and 15 of an ESP-07 chip U7 respectively, pin 10 of the U7 is grounded through a third resistor, pin 9 of the U7 is grounded, pin 3 of the U7 is connected with a 3.3V power supply through a fourth resistor, and pin 8 of the U7 is connected with the 3.3V power supply.
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