CN106996900B - Axial tension and compression test device under constraint action and test method thereof - Google Patents

Axial tension and compression test device under constraint action and test method thereof Download PDF

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CN106996900B
CN106996900B CN201710344610.7A CN201710344610A CN106996900B CN 106996900 B CN106996900 B CN 106996900B CN 201710344610 A CN201710344610 A CN 201710344610A CN 106996900 B CN106996900 B CN 106996900B
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horizontal
plate
test piece
actuator
fixed
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CN106996900A (en
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陈海彬
武立伟
韩流涛
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North China University of Science and Technology
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North China University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • G01N3/12Pressure testing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0017Tensile
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0019Compressive
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/003Generation of the force
    • G01N2203/0042Pneumatic or hydraulic means
    • G01N2203/0048Hydraulic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/025Geometry of the test
    • G01N2203/0254Biaxial, the forces being applied along two normal axes of the specimen
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E30/00Energy generation of nuclear origin
    • Y02E30/30Nuclear fission reactors

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Abstract

The invention relates to an axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action and a test method thereof. The device comprises a counter-force wall, a portal, an axial tension and compression device and a horizontal constraint device, wherein the axial tension and compression device comprises a vertical actuator, an upper connecting plate, a lower connecting plate, an upper connector, a lower connector and a fixed compression beam; the horizontal restraint device comprises a horizontal actuator, a horizontal loading head, a horizontal fixing head, a triangular support frame and a support frame pressing beam. The axial tension and compression test device can be used for loading test of an axial tension and compression test piece needing to exert horizontal constraint action, and can be used for simulating axial tension and compression performance test of the test piece under the constraint action of steel pipes or encrypted spiral stirrups and the like.

Description

Axial tension and compression test device under constraint action and test method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of axial tension and compression tests, in particular to an axial tension and compression test device and an axial tension and compression test method capable of providing and maintaining horizontal constraint stress or constraint displacement under the constant constraint effect.
Background
The restraining concrete is applied with radial restraint on the outside, so that the transverse deformation of the concrete generated when the concrete is axially pressed is limited, the generation and development of cracks in the material are delayed, the original compression characteristics of the core concrete are improved, the compressive strength and the deformability of the core concrete are improved, the restraint effect is stronger, the concrete strength is improved greatly, a great amount of experimental researches are carried out on the axial bearing capacity of the concrete under the restraint effect at home and abroad at present, but the detailed stress mechanism and the damage form of the concrete cannot be directly observed, the calculation can only be carried out in a theoretical analysis or numerical simulation mode, and in order to intuitively observe the damage form of the concrete under the restraint state, a test device and a test method capable of providing radial restraint stress, ensuring uniform distribution of horizontal contact surface stress and enough rigidity and maintaining the horizontal restraint displacement or restraint stress unchanged are needed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the problem that the internal damage form of concrete or grouting materials cannot be directly observed under the constraint action of a steel pipe or an encrypted spiral stirrup, thereby providing an axial tension-compression test device and a test method thereof under the constraint action of providing and maintaining horizontal constraint stress or constant constraint displacement.
The invention solves the problems, and adopts the following technical scheme:
the axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action comprises a counter-force wall, an axial tension and compression device, a horizontal constraint device and a portal frame fixed on a trench, wherein a test piece is arranged on the axial tension and compression device;
the axial tension and compression device comprises a vertical actuator, an upper connecting plate, a lower connecting plate, an upper connector, a lower connector and a fixed compression beam; the vertical actuator is suspended on the portal, the upper connecting plate is fixedly connected with the vertical actuator, the upper connector is vertically arranged on the lower end face of the upper connecting plate, the lower connecting plate is fixedly connected with the fixed pressing beam, the lower connector is vertically arranged on the upper end face of the lower connecting plate, the fixed pressing beam is fixed on a trench, and the upper end and the lower end of the test piece are respectively hinged with the upper connector and the lower connector;
the horizontal restraint device comprises a horizontal actuator, a horizontal loading head, a horizontal fixing head, a triangular support frame and a support frame pressing beam, wherein the horizontal actuator is fixed on a counter-force wall, the horizontal loading head and the horizontal fixing head are respectively arranged on two sides of a test piece, the horizontal loading head is connected with the horizontal actuator through high-strength screws, the horizontal fixing head is connected with the triangular support frame through adjusting screws and adjusting nuts, two adjusting nuts are arranged on each adjusting screw and used for adjusting the position of the horizontal fixing head, and the triangular support frame is fixed on a trench through the support frame pressing beam.
Preferably, the fixed press beams comprise a first fixed press beam, a second fixed press beam and a third fixed press beam, the horizontal loading head is connected with the first fixed press beam through a loading head fixing mechanism, the first fixed press beam is fixed on a trench through an anchoring screw, the second fixed press beam and the third fixed press beam are overlapped up and down and are fixed on the trench through the anchoring screw, and the second fixed press beam is welded with the lower connecting plate.
Preferably, a backing plate and a lateral pulley block are respectively arranged between the test piece and the horizontal loading head and between the test piece and the horizontal fixing head, and the lateral pulley block is used for enabling the test piece to freely slide in the vertical direction.
Preferably, the horizontal actuator, the horizontal loading head, the horizontal fixing head and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same horizontal plane; the vertical actuator and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same vertical plane.
Preferably, the horizontal fixing head is supported through the supporting rod and the supporting plate, the supporting plate is arranged on the triangular support frame, and the supporting rod is arranged on the supporting plate and has the function of ensuring that the horizontal position of the horizontal fixing head is unchanged when the position of the horizontal fixing head is regulated, so that the horizontal loading head and the center of the horizontal fixing head are always on the same horizontal plane.
Preferably, the triangular support frame comprises a vertical support, an inclined support and a horizontal support, wherein the vertical support is arranged on the horizontal support, two ends of the inclined support are respectively connected with the vertical support and the horizontal support, one end of the horizontal support extends out of the vertical support, a support frame pressing beam is respectively arranged on the horizontal support on the front side and the rear side of the vertical support, the support frame pressing beam is fixed with a trench by a screw rod, the triangular support frame is prevented from tilting under a larger bending moment, concrete is poured between the other end of the horizontal support and a fixed wall, the horizontal support completely withstands the fixed wall, and horizontal sliding of the triangular support frame is avoided.
Preferably, the horizontal loading head and the horizontal fixing head respectively comprise a front steel plate, a rear steel plate, a connecting rib plate and a stiffening rib plate, the two stiffening rib plates are vertically welded on the connecting rib plate, the two ends of the connecting rib plate and the stiffening rib plate are respectively welded with the front steel plate and the rear steel plate, the rear steel plate of the horizontal loading head is connected with the horizontal actuator through a high-strength screw rod, and the rear steel plate of the horizontal fixing head is connected with the triangular support frame through an adjusting screw rod and an adjusting nut.
Preferably, the loading head fixing mechanism comprises a stand column, a connecting plate, a sliding plate and a connecting rod; the two stand columns are made of I-steel, are welded with the first fixed pressing beam and play a role in connection and support, the sliding plate is welded on the two stand columns, the side baffles are welded on two sides of the sliding plate respectively, the bearings are respectively installed at two ends of the two connecting rods, the connecting plate is welded on the two connecting rods, the bearings and the connecting plate are connected together to form a trolley structure, the height of the side baffles is larger than the diameter of the bearings, the bearings at two ends of the connecting rods are respectively arranged in grooves formed by the connection of the side baffles and the sliding plate, the bearings can slide on the sliding plate, the trolley only slides on the sliding plate, the upper end of the connecting plate is welded with the horizontal loading head, the limiting plates are welded at two ends of the side baffles respectively, so that the trolley can be prevented from sliding out of the sliding plate, and simultaneously, large vertical force is provided for the side baffles, and the loading head fixing mechanism enables the horizontal loading head to move only in the horizontal direction.
Preferably, the test piece comprises a middle plate, a side plate and grouting materials or concrete, connecting holes are respectively formed in the middle plate, the side plate, the upper connector and the lower connector are respectively hinged with the middle plate and the side plate of the test piece through bolts, and the lower connecting plate is welded on the second fixed pressing beam.
The test method of the axial tension-compression test device under the constraint action is carried out according to the following steps:
(1) The horizontal actuator and the vertical actuator are arranged, so that the test phenomenon is convenient to observe, the height of the horizontal actuator is not too high, and the horizontal actuator is ensured to be horizontal; the vertical actuator and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same vertical plane, and the horizontal actuator and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same horizontal plane;
(2) The upper connecting plate, the lower connecting plate, the upper connector and the lower connector are installed, the upper connecting plate is connected with the vertical actuator through bolts, the second fixed pressing beam and the lower connecting plate are welded, the position of the second fixed pressing beam is determined, and the centers of the upper connector and the lower connector are ensured to be on the same vertical line; the lengths of the upper connector and the lower connector can be adjusted according to the size of the test piece, so that the center horizontal plane of the test piece coincides with the center horizontal planes of the horizontal loading head and the horizontal fixing head in the loading process;
(3) The position of the triangular support frame is adjusted to enable the central vertical plane of the triangular support frame to coincide with the central vertical planes of the horizontal actuator and the vertical actuator, the distance between the triangular support frame and a test piece is adjusted according to the size of the horizontal fixing head, and the triangular support frame is fixed with a trench through a support frame pressing beam; then welding a supporting rod and a supporting plate to enable the horizontal fixing head and the horizontal actuator to be positioned on the same horizontal plane, and fixing by using an adjusting bolt and an adjusting nut;
(4) Installing a horizontal loading head and a loading head fixing mechanism, adjusting the position of the horizontal loading head to be in the same horizontal plane with the center of the horizontal fixing head, then placing the manufactured loading head fixing mechanism at the lower part of the horizontal loading head, adjusting the position to ensure that the horizontal loading head has enough loading displacement, placing a first fixed pressing beam below the loading head fixing mechanism and carrying out anchoring connection with a trench through an anchoring screw rod, and then respectively welding a connecting plate and a stand column of the loading head fixing mechanism with the horizontal loading head and the first fixed pressing beam to form a whole;
(5) Installing a test piece, extending the vertical actuator downwards, respectively hinging the test piece with the upper connector and the lower connector through pin bolts, and lifting the vertical actuator to enable the test piece to be in a lower tensile stress state; placing a lateral pulley block and a backing plate between the test piece and the horizontal loading head and between the test piece and the horizontal fixing head, and extending out of the horizontal actuator to enable the test piece to reach preset constraint stress;
(6) And (3) test loading, namely keeping the displacement of the horizontal actuator unchanged or the bearing capacity unchanged according to test requirements, lifting the vertical actuator, and observing the crack generation and development conditions at two sides of the test piece, so as to obtain the damage form of the test piece under the constraint action.
Compared with the prior art, the invention adopting the technical scheme has the outstanding characteristics that:
(1) the device can provide and maintain the horizontal constraint stress or constraint displacement unchanged, has uniform stress distribution of the horizontal contact surface, has enough rigidity and performs axial tension and compression test under the constraint action, can be used for loading test on an axial tension and compression test piece needing to exert the horizontal constraint action, and can be used for simulating axial tension and compression performance test of the test piece under the constraint action of a steel pipe or an encrypted spiral stirrup and the like.
(2) The axial tension and compression test device has the advantages of being capable of better simulating the circumferential constraint effect of steel pipes and the like, high in measurement accuracy, reasonable in stress, high in accuracy and the like, and capable of accurately simulating the axial tension and compression test under the constraint effect.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a partially enlarged structure of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a structure of an axial tension and compression device for installing a test piece according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic perspective view of a loading head fixing mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a front view of a loading head fixing mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic side view of a loading head securing mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic perspective view of a connecting mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a front view of a connection mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a schematic side view of a connection mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a schematic perspective view of a horizontal loading head according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of a front view of a horizontal loading head according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 12 is a schematic right-side view of a horizontal loading head according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 13 is a schematic view showing a front view of a test piece according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 14 is a schematic side view of a test piece according to an embodiment of the present invention;
in the figure: the device comprises a counter-force wall 1, a triangular support frame 2, a horizontal actuator 3, a horizontal loading head 4, a loading head fixing mechanism 5, a first fixed pressing beam 6, a horizontal fixing head 7, a supporting plate 8, a supporting rod 9, an adjusting nut 10, an adjusting screw 11, a diagonal support 12, a horizontal support 13, a vertical support 14, a support frame pressing beam 15, an anchoring screw 16, an upper connecting plate 17, a lower connecting plate 18, a third fixed pressing beam 19, a lateral pulley block 20, a backing plate 21, a vertical actuator 22, a portal 23, a stand 24, a connecting plate 25, a side baffle 26, a limiting plate 27, a connecting rod 28, a sliding plate 29, a bearing 30, an upper connecting head 31, a lower connecting head 32, a pin 33, a fixed wall 34, a trench 35, a rear steel plate 36, a connecting rib plate 37, a front steel plate 38, a stiffening rib plate 39, a test piece 40, a middle plate 41, a side plate 42, grouting material or concrete 43; a connection hole 44; and a second fixed press beam 45.
The specific embodiment is as follows:
the invention is further described below in connection with the following examples which are provided for the purpose of better understanding of the present invention and are, therefore, not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.
Referring to fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, the device comprises a reaction wall 1, a portal 23, an axial tension-compression device, a horizontal restraint device and a portal 23 fixed on a trench 35, wherein a test piece 40 is arranged on the axial tension-compression device;
the axial tension and compression device comprises a vertical actuator 22, an upper connecting plate 17, a lower connecting plate 18, an upper connector 31, a lower connector 32 and a fixed compression beam; the vertical actuator 22 is suspended on the portal 23, the upper connecting plate 17 is fixedly connected with the vertical actuator 22, the upper connecting head 31 is vertically arranged on the lower end surface of the upper connecting plate 17, the lower connecting plate 18 is fixedly connected with the fixed pressing beam, the lower connecting head 32 is vertically arranged on the upper end surface of the lower connecting plate 18, the fixed pressing beam is fixed on the trench 35, and the upper end and the lower end of the test piece 40 are respectively hinged with the upper connecting head 31 and the lower connecting head 32;
the horizontal restraint device comprises a horizontal actuator 3, a horizontal loading head 4, a horizontal fixing head 7, a triangular support frame 2 and a support frame pressing beam 15, wherein the horizontal actuator 3 is fixedly arranged on a counterforce wall 1, the horizontal loading head 4 and the horizontal fixing head 7 are respectively arranged on two sides of a test piece 40, the horizontal loading head 4 is connected with the horizontal actuator 22 through high-strength screws, the horizontal fixing head 7 is connected with the triangular support frame 2 through adjusting screws 11 and adjusting nuts 10, two adjusting nuts 10 are arranged on each adjusting screw 11 to accurately position the horizontal fixing head 7, the position of the horizontal fixing head 7 can be adjusted at will to adapt to the test pieces with different thicknesses, and the triangular support frame 2 is fixed on a trench 35 through the support frame pressing beam 15.
The horizontal actuator 3 and the vertical actuator 22 are all electrohydraulic servo actuators, and are controlled by a computer, in a test, the horizontal actuator 3 can keep displacement unchanged, so that a reaction force in the horizontal direction is obtained, the axial tension and compression performance of a test piece under the passive constraint actions such as a steel pipe, an encrypted spiral stirrup and the like can be simulated, and the load can be kept unchanged, so that the axial tension and compression performance of the test piece under uniform confining pressure can be simulated.
The fixed press beam is made of I-steel, the thickness of the I-steel is not too small, so that the fixed press beam is guaranteed to have enough rigidity, the fixed press beam comprises a first fixed press beam 6, a second fixed press beam 45 and a third fixed press beam 19, a horizontal loading head 4 is connected with the first fixed press beam 6 through a loading head fixing mechanism 5, the first fixed press beam 6 is fixed on a trench 35 through an anchor screw 16, the second fixed press beam 45 and the third fixed press beam 19 are overlapped up and down and fixed on the trench 35 through the anchor screw 16, and the second fixed press beam 45 is welded with a lower connecting plate 18.
A backing plate 21 and a lateral pulley block 20 are respectively arranged between the test piece 40 and the horizontal loading head 4 and between the test piece 40 and the horizontal fixing head 7, and the function of the lateral pulley block 20 is to enable the test piece 40 to slide freely in the vertical direction.
The horizontal actuator 3, the horizontal loading head 4, the horizontal fixing head 7 and the center of the test piece 40 are positioned in the same horizontal plane; the vertical actuator 22 is located in the same vertical plane as the center of the test piece 40.
The horizontal fixing head 7 is supported through the supporting rod 8 and the supporting plate 9, the supporting plate 9 is arranged on the triangular support frame 2, the supporting rod 8 is arranged on the supporting plate 9, and the horizontal fixing head 7 is guaranteed to be unchanged in horizontal position when the horizontal fixing head position is adjusted, so that the horizontal loading head 4 and the center of the horizontal fixing head 7 are always on the same horizontal plane.
The triangular support frame 2 is provided with two triangular support frames, the two triangular support frames are formed by welding channel steel respectively, the size of the channel steel is not too small, so that the triangular support frame 2 is guaranteed to have enough rigidity, the triangular support frame 2 comprises a vertical support 14, an inclined support 12 and a horizontal support 13, the vertical support 14 is arranged on the horizontal support 13, two ends of the inclined support 12 are respectively connected with the vertical support 14 and the horizontal support 13, one end of the horizontal support 13 extends out of the vertical support 14 for a certain length, a support frame pressing beam 15 is respectively placed on the horizontal supports 13 on the front side and the rear side of the vertical support 14, the support frame pressing beam 15 is fixed with a trench 35 through an anchor screw 16, the triangular support frame 2 is prevented from tilting under a large bending moment, concrete is poured between the other end of the horizontal support 13 and the fixed wall 34, the horizontal support 13 is enabled to be completely propped against the fixed wall 34, and horizontal sliding of the triangular support frame 2 is prevented.
The manufacturing modes of the horizontal loading head 4 and the horizontal fixing head 7 are the same and are formed by welding steel plates, the thickness and the size of the steel plates can be designed according to the size of a test piece 40, the horizontal loading head 4 and the horizontal fixing head 7 respectively comprise a front steel plate 38, a rear steel plate 36, a connecting rib plate 37 and a stiffening rib plate 39, the length and the height of the front steel plate 38 are respectively larger than those of grouting materials or concrete 43 in the test piece 40, the test piece 40 is guaranteed to be in a complete constraint state in the loading process, additional bending moment is avoided, the two stiffening rib plates 39 are vertically welded on the connecting rib plate 37, the two ends of the connecting rib plate 37 and the stiffening rib plate 39 are respectively welded with the front steel plate 38 and the rear steel plate 36, the rear steel plate 36 of the horizontal loading head 4 is connected with the horizontal actuator 3 through high-strength screws, and the rear steel plate 36 of the horizontal fixing head 7 is connected with the triangular support frame 2 through the adjusting screw 11 and the adjusting nut 10.
The loading head fixing mechanism 5 comprises a stand column 24, a connecting plate 25, a sliding plate 29 and a connecting rod 28; the two upright posts 24 are made of I-steel and are welded with the first fixed pressing beam 6 to achieve the functions of connection and support, the sliding plate 29 is welded on the two upright posts 24, the side baffles 26 are welded on two sides of the sliding plate 29 respectively, the bearings 30 are respectively arranged at two ends of the two connecting rods 28, the connecting plates 25 are welded on the two connecting rods 28, the bearings 30 and the connecting plates 25 are connected together to form a trolley structure, the height of the side baffles 26 is larger than the diameter of the bearings 30, the bearings 30 at two ends of the connecting rods 28 are respectively arranged in grooves formed by connecting the side baffles 26 and the sliding plate 29, the bearings 30 can slide on the sliding plate 29, the trolley only slides on the sliding plate 29, the upper ends of the connecting plates 25 are welded with the horizontal loading heads 4, the limiting plates 27 are welded at two ends of the side baffles 26 respectively to prevent the trolley from sliding out of the sliding plate, and simultaneously, the loading head fixing mechanism 5 provides larger vertical force for the side baffles 26, and the horizontal loading heads 4 can only move in the horizontal direction.
The test piece 40 comprises a middle plate 41, a side plate 42 and grouting material or concrete 43, connecting holes 44 are respectively formed in the middle plate 41, the side plate 42, the upper connector 31 and the lower connector 32 are hinged with the middle plate 41 and the side plate 42 of the test piece 40 through pins 33, the diameter difference between the apertures of the connecting holes 44 and the pins 33 is controlled within 0.2mm, the influence of gaps in the axial tension and compression process of the test piece 40 is reduced, the middle plate 41 and the side plate 42 are required to have enough rigidity to reduce the influence of deformation, and the lower connecting plate 18 is welded on the second fixed compression beam.
10. The test method adopting the axial tension-compression test device is carried out according to the following steps:
(1) The horizontal actuator 3 and the vertical actuator 22 are arranged, so that the height of the horizontal actuator 3 is not too high to facilitate observation of test phenomena, and the horizontal actuator 3 is ensured to be horizontal; the vertical actuator 22 and the center of the test piece 40 are positioned in the same vertical plane, and the horizontal actuator 3 and the center of the test piece 40 are positioned in the same horizontal plane;
(2) The upper connecting plate 17, the lower connecting plate 18, the upper connecting head 31 and the lower connecting head 32 are arranged, the upper connecting plate 17 is connected with the vertical actuator 22 through bolts, the second fixed pressing beam 45 and the lower connecting plate 18 are welded, the position of the second fixed pressing beam 45 is determined, and the centers of the upper connecting head 31 and the lower connecting head 32 are ensured to be positioned on the same vertical line; the lengths of the upper connector 31 and the lower connector 32 can be adjusted according to the size of the test piece, so that the center horizontal plane of the test piece 40 coincides with the center horizontal planes of the horizontal loading head 3 and the horizontal fixing head 7 in the loading process;
(3) The position of the triangular support frame 2 is adjusted to enable the central vertical plane to coincide with the central vertical planes of the horizontal actuator 3 and the vertical actuator 22, the distance between the triangular support frame 2 and the test piece 40 is adjusted according to the size of the horizontal fixing head 7, and the triangular support frame is fixed with the trench 35 through the support frame pressing beam 15; then welding a supporting rod 8 and a supporting plate 9 to enable the horizontal fixing head 7 and the horizontal actuator 3 to be positioned on the same horizontal plane, and fixing by using an adjusting bolt 11 and an adjusting nut 10;
(4) Installing a horizontal loading head 4 and a loading head fixing mechanism 5, adjusting the position of the horizontal loading head 4 to enable the horizontal loading head 4 and the center of a horizontal fixing head 7 to be in the same horizontal plane, then placing the manufactured loading head fixing mechanism 5 at the lower part of the horizontal loading head 4, adjusting the position to ensure that the horizontal loading head 4 has enough loading displacement, placing a first fixed pressing beam 6 below the loading head fixing mechanism 5 and carrying out anchoring connection with a trench 35 through an anchoring screw 16, and then respectively welding a connecting plate 25 and an upright post 24 of the loading head fixing mechanism 5 with the horizontal loading head 4 and the first fixed pressing beam 6 to form a whole;
(5) Installing a test piece 40, extending downwards to extend out of the vertical actuator 22, hinging the test piece 40 with the upper connector 31 and the lower connector 32 through the pin 33 respectively, and lifting the vertical actuator 22 to enable the test piece 40 to be in a lower tensile stress state; placing the lateral pulley block 20 and the backing plate 21 between the test piece 40 and the horizontal loading head 4 and between the test piece 40 and the horizontal fixing head 7, and extending out of the horizontal actuator 3 to enable the test piece 40 to reach preset constraint stress;
(6) And (3) carrying out test loading, keeping the displacement of the horizontal actuator 3 unchanged or the bearing capacity unchanged according to test requirements, lifting the vertical actuator 22, and observing the crack generation and development conditions on two sides of the test piece 40 so as to obtain the destructive form of the test piece 40 under the constraint action.
The device can provide and maintain the horizontal constraint stress or constraint displacement unchanged, has uniform stress distribution of the horizontal contact surface, has enough rigidity, and performs axial tension and compression test under the constraint action, can be used for loading test on an axial tension and compression test piece needing to exert the horizontal constraint action, can be used for simulating axial tension and compression performance test of the test piece under the constraint action of a steel pipe or an encrypted spiral stirrup and the like, can better simulate the circumferential constraint action of the steel pipe and the like, and has the characteristics of high measurement precision, reasonable stress, strong accuracy and the like, and can accurately simulate the axial tension and compression test under the constraint action.
The foregoing description of the preferred embodiments of the invention is not intended to limit the scope of the claims, but rather to cover all equivalent modifications within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. An axial tension and compression test device under restraint effect, its characterized in that: the device comprises a counter-force wall, an axial pulling and pressing device, a horizontal constraint device and a portal frame fixed on a trench, wherein a test piece is arranged on the axial pulling and pressing device;
the axial tension and compression device comprises a vertical actuator, an upper connecting plate, a lower connecting plate, an upper connector, a lower connector and a fixed compression beam; the vertical actuator is suspended on the portal, the upper connecting plate is fixedly connected with the vertical actuator, the upper connector is vertically arranged on the lower end face of the upper connecting plate, the lower connecting plate is fixedly connected with the fixed pressing beam, the lower connector is vertically arranged on the upper end face of the lower connecting plate, the fixed pressing beam is fixed on a trench, and the upper end and the lower end of the test piece are respectively hinged with the upper connector and the lower connector;
the horizontal restraint device comprises a horizontal actuator, a horizontal loading head, a horizontal fixing head, a triangular support frame and support frame pressing beams, wherein the horizontal actuator is fixedly arranged on a counter-force wall, the horizontal loading head and the horizontal fixing head are respectively arranged on two sides of a test piece, the horizontal loading head is connected with the horizontal actuator through high-strength screws, the horizontal fixing head is connected with the triangular support frame through adjusting screws and adjusting nuts, two adjusting nuts are arranged on each adjusting screw and used for adjusting the positions of the horizontal fixing head, and the triangular support frame is fixed on a trench through the support frame pressing beams.
2. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 1, wherein: the fixed press beams comprise a first fixed press beam, a second fixed press beam and a third fixed press beam, the horizontal loading head is connected with the first fixed press beam through a loading head fixing mechanism, the first fixed press beam is fixed on a trench through an anchoring screw rod, the second fixed press beam and the third fixed press beam are vertically overlapped and fixed on the trench through the anchoring screw rod, and the second fixed press beam is welded with the lower connecting plate.
3. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 1, wherein: a backing plate and a lateral pulley block are respectively arranged between the test piece and the horizontal loading head and between the test piece and the horizontal fixing head.
4. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 1, wherein: the horizontal actuator, the horizontal loading head, the horizontal fixing head and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same horizontal plane; the vertical actuator and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same vertical plane.
5. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 1, wherein: the horizontal fixing head is supported through a supporting rod and a supporting plate, the supporting plate is arranged on the triangular support frame, and the supporting rod is arranged on the supporting plate.
6. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 1, wherein: the triangular support frame comprises a vertical support, an inclined support and a horizontal support, wherein the vertical support is arranged on the horizontal support, two ends of the inclined support are respectively connected with the vertical support and the horizontal support, one end of the horizontal support extends out of the vertical support, a support frame pressing beam is respectively placed on the horizontal supports on the front side and the rear side of the vertical support, the support frame pressing beam is fixed with a trench through a screw, and concrete is poured between the other end of the horizontal support and a fixed wall body.
7. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 1, wherein: the horizontal loading head and the horizontal fixing head respectively comprise a front steel plate, a rear steel plate, a connecting rib plate and a stiffening rib plate, wherein the two stiffening rib plates are vertically welded on the connecting rib plate, the two ends of the connecting rib plate and the stiffening rib plate are respectively welded with the front steel plate and the rear steel plate, the rear steel plate of the horizontal loading head is connected with the horizontal actuator through a high-strength screw rod, and the rear steel plate of the horizontal fixing head is connected with the triangular support frame through an adjusting screw rod and an adjusting nut.
8. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 2, wherein: the loading head fixing mechanism comprises a stand column, a connecting plate, a sliding plate and a connecting rod; the two stand columns are made of I-steel and welded with the first fixed pressing beam, the sliding plate is welded on the two stand columns, the side baffles are welded on the two sides of the sliding plate respectively, the bearings are respectively installed at the two ends of the two connecting rods, the connecting plates are welded on the two connecting rods, the bearings and the connecting plates are connected together to form a trolley structure, the height of the side plates is larger than the diameter of the bearings, the bearings at the two ends of the connecting rods are respectively arranged in grooves formed by the side baffles and the sliding plate, the bearings can slide on the sliding plate, the upper ends of the connecting plates are welded with the horizontal loading heads, and the limiting plates are welded at the two ends of the side baffles respectively.
9. The axial tension and compression test device under the constraint action according to claim 2, wherein: the test piece comprises a middle plate, a side plate and grouting materials or concrete, connecting holes are respectively formed in the middle plate, the side plate, the upper connector and the lower connector are respectively hinged with the middle plate and the side plate of the test piece through bolts, and the lower connecting plate is welded on the second fixed pressing beam.
10. A test method using the axial tension-compression test apparatus under the restraining action according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized by comprising the steps of:
(1) The horizontal actuator and the vertical actuator are arranged, so that the test phenomenon is convenient to observe, the height of the horizontal actuator is not too high, and the horizontal actuator is ensured to be horizontal; the vertical actuator and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same vertical plane, and the horizontal actuator and the center of the test piece are positioned in the same horizontal plane;
(2) The upper connecting plate, the lower connecting plate, the upper connector and the lower connector are installed, the upper connecting plate is connected with the vertical actuator through bolts, the second fixed pressing beam and the lower connecting plate are welded, the position of the second fixed pressing beam is determined, and the centers of the upper connector and the lower connector are ensured to be on the same vertical line; the lengths of the upper connector and the lower connector can be adjusted according to the size of the test piece, so that the center horizontal plane of the test piece coincides with the center horizontal planes of the horizontal loading head and the horizontal fixing head in the loading process;
(3) The position of the triangular support frame is adjusted to enable the central vertical plane of the triangular support frame to coincide with the central vertical planes of the horizontal actuator and the vertical actuator, the distance between the triangular support frame and a test piece is adjusted according to the size of the horizontal fixing head, and the triangular support frame is fixed with a trench through a support frame pressing beam; then welding a supporting rod and a supporting frame to enable the horizontal fixing head and the horizontal actuator to be positioned on the same horizontal plane, and fixing by using an adjusting bolt and an adjusting nut;
(4) Installing a horizontal loading head and a loading head fixing mechanism, adjusting the position of the horizontal loading head to be in the same horizontal plane with the center of the horizontal fixing head, then placing the manufactured loading head fixing mechanism at the lower part of the horizontal loading head, adjusting the position to ensure that the horizontal loading head has enough loading displacement, placing a first fixed pressing beam below the loading head fixing mechanism and carrying out anchoring connection with a trench through an anchoring screw rod, and then respectively welding a connecting plate and a stand column of the loading head fixing mechanism with the horizontal loading head and the first fixed pressing beam to form a whole;
(5) Installing a test piece, extending the vertical actuator downwards, respectively hinging the test piece with the upper connector and the lower connector through pin bolts, and lifting the vertical actuator to enable the test piece to be in a lower tensile stress state; placing a lateral pulley block and a backing plate between the test piece and the horizontal loading head and between the test piece and the horizontal fixing head, and extending out of the horizontal actuator to enable the test piece to reach preset constraint stress;
(6) And (3) test loading, namely keeping the displacement of the horizontal actuator unchanged or the bearing capacity unchanged according to test requirements, lifting the vertical actuator, and observing the crack generation and development conditions at two sides of the test piece, so as to obtain the damage form of the test piece under the constraint action.
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