CN106759126B - A kind of construction method of slope retaining drainage ditch - Google Patents

A kind of construction method of slope retaining drainage ditch Download PDF

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CN106759126B
CN106759126B CN201710104142.6A CN201710104142A CN106759126B CN 106759126 B CN106759126 B CN 106759126B CN 201710104142 A CN201710104142 A CN 201710104142A CN 106759126 B CN106759126 B CN 106759126B
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construction
concrete
shaped
slope
clay
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CN106759126A (en
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周峰
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CHEMICAL INDUSTRY GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING Co Ltd
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CHEMICAL INDUSTRY GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B5/00Artificial water canals, e.g. irrigation canals
    • E02B5/02Making or lining canals
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B11/00Drainage of soil, e.g. for agricultural purposes
    • E02B11/005Drainage conduits

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of slope retaining drainage ditch construction methods, this method is drained by pouring U-shaped canal in high and cold the Northwest's collapsible loess high gradient slope slope foot, and by carrying out lime-soil cushion to foundation trench, adding blotter and U-shaped clay model bottom laying composite geo-membrane at canal bottom, improve the inhomogeneities of channel dilatancy distribution, mitigate frost heave, it reduces crack and the substrate earth fall to trap out existing faulting of slab ends phenomenon, can effectively prevent frost-heaving deformation and prevent from leaking at construction joint.

Description

A kind of construction method of slope retaining drainage ditch
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of constructions of the gutter of side slope slope foot, and in particular to one kind being used for northwest extremely frigid zones collapsibility The drainage ditch construction method of loess high gradient slope.
Background technology
High and cold the Northwest's collapsible loess high gradient slope, due to being washed away, being corroded by short-term rainwater and accumulated snow melt water easily Coombe is formed, even soil body oxygen blast cyanidation avalanche destroys, there are severe compromises for Slope Stability.How effectively to solve high and cold The anti-anti-freeze expansion problem that blends of area drain ditch is always slope project Drainage Design and the critical issue of construction.
Existing side slope slope foot drain routine using reinforced concrete rectangular gutter, is grouted in building stones abundance region Slabstone gutter or clay brick masonry gutter, although antiseepage and the anti-freeze expansion performance in gutter can be improved partly, it is equal because Its speed of application is slow, and cost is high, fails to find broad application and promote.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is to solve defect existing in the prior art, provide that a kind of construction technology is simple, cost It is low, and the slope retaining drainage ditch construction method of antiseepage and anti-freeze expansion performance can be effectively improved.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a kind of construction methods of slope retaining drainage ditch, including following step Suddenly:
(1)Positioning measurement:At side slope slope foot, positioning measurement, measuring drainage ditch center line;
(2)Foundation trench excavates:Foundation trench excavation is carried out using mini-excavator;
(3)Lime-soil cushion:Grey earthen backfill is carried out in foundation trench;
(4)It is laid with composite earthwork cloth:Longitudinal extend to both sides along drainage ditch center line is laid with composite earthwork cloth;
(5)It is laid with blotter:It is laid with blotter above foundation trench bottom, composite earthwork cloth;
(6)Clay model is constructed:Clay model construction is carried out in foundation trench, forms U-shaped clay model;
(7)U-shaped canal construction:Using coffering machine, concrete construction is carried out, in foundation trench, the U-shaped canal of lining cutting above U-shaped clay model, Maintenance;
(8)Modify U-shaped trench side:Maturing pours, maintenance;
(9)Construction joint is constructed.
Wherein, step(2)The depth that middle foundation trench excavates is 700-750mm;When mean annual precipitation is 180~350mm, slope Face area is 12000-20000m2When, the step(6)Middle clay model specification is:Bottom arc radius is 350-400mm, radian It is 145-152 °, top width 900-950mm;When mean annual precipitation is less than 180mm, slope surface area is 8000-12000m2 When, the step(6)Middle clay model specification is:Bottom arc radius is 300-350mm, and radian is 135-145 °, and top width is 850-900mm;Step(6)In soil for being backfilling and compacted clay model should be preferential using the foundation soil excavated out, soil should be uniform, does not have There are the sundries such as rubble, grass roots, native water content should control between 16~20, if backfill is relatively dry, should use watering Method adjust the water content of backfill and draining, drying, the methods of soil removal and replacement should be used, by water content control if water content is larger In allowed limits;Step(7)In the bottom of U-shaped canal be semicircle or arc, upper end both sides are along bottom semicircular or arc The straightway that shape both ends tangential direction extends, the angle of wherein straightway and vertical direction is 0-16 °, and preferably angle is 10- 14°;The wall thickness of U-shaped canal is 100mm.
The preferred specification of U-shaped canal is:152 ° of bottom circular arc radian, arc radius 300mm, width 718mm suitable for reading, wetted perimeter 1.357。
Step(3)Middle dirt proportioning is 2:8.
Step(5)The thickness of medium stone bed course be 100mm, the macadam gradating used for:Grain size does not surpass less than 31.5mm's 90% is crossed, grain size is no more than 15% less than 16mm's, and grain size is no more than 5% less than 10mm's.
Step(7)And step(8)The concrete of middle use is prepared by the raw material of following weight proportion:42.5 grade is compound Portland cement:Sand:Particle size is the cobble of 0.5-2cm:Particle size is the cobble of 2-4cm:Water=1:1.81:1.32: 1.62:0.46。
Step(9)Middle construction joint work progress is:In step(7)And step(8)With batten in coagulation when casting concrete Construction joint is separated out on soil, or in step(7)And step(8)Unified cutting is carried out during maintenance after concrete construction;Then exist Pitch or filling flax pitch are poured in construction joint.
The present invention has the following advantages compared with prior art:
1, the present invention is constructed by the way that side slope sough is designed as U-shaped canal, compared with trapezoidal or rectangular cross section irrigation canals and ditches, U-shaped canal has velocity flow profile uniform, and near optimal hydraulic fracture, flow velocity is very fast, and there is certain antiarch effect at canal bottom, improves The inhomogeneities of channel dilatancy distribution, mitigates frost heave, reduces crack and faulting of slab ends phenomenon.
2, by carrying out lime-soil cushion to foundation trench, adding blotter and clay model bottom laying composite geo-membrane at canal bottom, to U Type canal entirety stress and deformation have larger improvement, can effectively prevent frost-heaving deformation and prevent from leaking at construction joint, can be normal Advise the wall thickness that U-shaped canal is suitably reduced on the basis of U-shaped canal.
3, the construction of U-shaped canal is carried out by coffering machine, can be adopted according to the unduation grade of different side slope shelving and landform With different coffering machine molds, reduces the usage amount of armored concrete water channel template, lower the usage amount of timber significantly, simultaneously Using cast-in-place U-shaped canal construction technology, mechanical execution, one-pass molding, construction noise is small, and occupancy construction site is small, and speed of application is fast, High efficiency.And without a large amount of rubble, clay brick in work progress, the mine to nonrenewable resources and clay resource are avoided Using consumption, reach environmental protection, the requirement of green construction.
4, the construction technology of side slope supporting drainage ditch of the present invention is simple, while requiring construction equipment also relatively simple It is single, easy for installation, unfailing performance is high, construction safety, short time limit, economic benefit is fairly obvious.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the construction process figure of slope retaining drainage ditch of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the U-shaped canal structural section after the completion of present invention construction.
In figure, 1- substrate element soil, 2- cushion limes, 3- composite earthwork cloths, 4-U type canals.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
As shown in Figure 1, the construction method of slope retaining drainage ditch of the present invention includes the following steps:
1, positioning measurement
2 control points of horizontal control point and bench mark pilot measurement provided according to scene and 2 datum marks are as construction stake position The testing foundation of center and absolute altitude, the U-shaped canal center line of measuring.
2, foundation trench excavates
After surveying setting-out, clears up smooth U-shaped canal surface and carried out according to center line with mini-excavator or special ditcher Foundation trench excavates, and cutting depth is subject to U-shaped canal canal bottom absolute altitude, and mechanical excavation depth is preferably 700-750mm, cannot be backbreak, bottom Portion is aided with the clear soil of artificial progress.Survey crew's elevation control at any time is excavated during foundation trench simultaneously, is ensured that canal bottom absolute altitude has and is reached To the ratio of slope of design requirement.
3, lime-soil cushion
Foundation trench, which excavates, to be completed, and lime-soil cushion construction is carried out, and dust foundation is intended to increase anti-permeability performance, and in collapsible loess Eliminate substrate collapsibility in area.
(1)Slot bottom rubbish is cleaned out before grey earthen backfill, and rammer pressure should be filled out through experiment paving, determines every layer of virtual resurfacing thickness, The every layer of virtual resurfacing thickness finally determined is 30mm.
(2)Former material quality is identified by design or corresponding code requirement, strictly presses 2:8 match ratio mixing dirt(I.e. Dry clay and lime), mixed and stirred using machinery, it is desirable that and reach uniform, solid colour, and contain by compaction test report is required Water rate controls water content, and scene is agglomerating to hold, and two refer to gently to pinch to dissipate and are advisable, if overly moist, should dry, if overdrying, should sprinkle water, Until keeping optimum moisture content.Dirt will with mix with.
(3)It should be tamped by determining virtual resurfacing thickness compaction in layers and used ramming machine when grey earthen backfill, ram pressure, corner repeatedly Place is closely knit with vertical ramming machine benefit rammer, through cutting ring sample detection after compacting(Every 100 ㎡ selective examination is no less than a point), meet the requirements (Dry density is not less than 1.6g/cm3 , compacting factor is not less than 0.93)It afterwards, can subsequent construction.
(4)Cushion lime 2 is constructed preferably with whole section, if when section construction, bilevel seam distance cannot be less than 50 ㎝, seam crossing, which should be made, marks time raft or slope raft and rams densification reality.
(5)Dirt should spread and fill out compacting day, must not the next day pound.Dirt surface after compacting should cover temporarily, avoid Expose to the sun and rain, when rainy season construction, rain-proof or drainage measure should be taken, must not be impregnated by water in 30h.It should will be loose if drenching with rain or impregnating Weak soil, which is excavated, to be reformed.
4, composite earthwork cloth, granular cushion are laid with
(1)After the completion of lime-soil cushion, carries out composite earthwork cloth 3 and be laid with.Composite earthwork cloth is laid with using artificial, and selection is answered It closes geotextiles and requires presentation quality:No-sundries, without repairing point, mass area ratio >=300Kg, fracture strength >=3.0KN/M, CBR bursting strengths >=1.0KN, tearing brute force >=0.32.It is selected when laying in the calm or smaller wind-force time.First by composite earth Work cloth is placed in as longitudinal on the central axes of canal, is unfolded to both sides since one end, and composite earthwork cloth extends to U-shaped canal both sides Width is no less than 500mm.
(2)For high and cold freezing and defrosting area after the completion of composite earthwork cloth is laid with, about 100mm thickness graded broken stones are laid at canal bottom Bed course, the behave are to prevent in high and cold freezing and defrosting area since frost heave causes canal to crack.Blotter clay content is no more than 3%, rubble Maximum particle diameter is not greater than the 2/3 of cushion thickness, and is not preferably greater than 50mm, and priority, which is matched, is:Grain size does not surpass less than 31.5mm's 90% is crossed, grain size is no more than 15% less than 16mm's, and grain size is no more than 5% less than 10mm's.
5, clay model is constructed
After the completion of blotter construction, clay model construction is carried out, by dragging prefabricated steel mold, the earthwork is carried out to both sides Vibration compacting is backfilled, U-shaped clay model is formed, Qu Ding, bottom absolute altitude, canal both sides soil compactness is strictly controlled in clay model construction(Plain soil pressure Real coefficient is not less than 0.93)Reach the requirement of design(Soil for being backfilling and compacted clay model should be preferential using the ground excavated out Soil, soil should be uniform, and without sundries such as rubble, grass roots, native water content should control between 16~20, and backfill is relatively dry, The method that watering should be used adjusts the water content of backfill, if water content is larger, should use the methods of draining, drying, soil removal and replacement, will Water content control is in allowed limits).The The concrete specification of clay model is:When under the high and cold weather conditions in northwest(Such as annual Precipitation is within the scope of 180~350mm, and slope surface area is in 12000-20000m2In range)When, clay model bottom arc radius is 350-400mm, radian are 145-152 °, and top width is within the scope of 900-950mm;When the weather conditions high and cold in northwest(Such as Mean annual precipitation is less than 180mm, and slope surface area is in 8000-12000m2In range)When, clay model bottom arc radius is 300-350mm, radian are 135-145 °, and top width is in 850-900mm ranges.Through management acceptance(check) after clay model construction completion After can carry out next step construction.
6, U-shaped canal lining concrete construction
4 lining concrete of U-shaped canal uses stirs mode certainly.Confirmation need to be audited to material and mixing ratio.
6.1, raw material select
(1)Cement:The selection of cement is selected according to its use environment, usually using P.O.42.5 normal silicate water Mud.
(2)Sand:High-quality medium coarse sand should be selected.
(3)Stone:High-quality grain size 1-2cm stones should be selected.
(4)Water:Its water quality of ready-mixed concrete water preferably reaches drinking water standard.
6.2, the determination of concrete mix
U-shaped canal 4 is C30 using concrete grade, and concrete needs, from mixing, after used cement, sand, stone are marched into the arena, to send Laboratory carries out above-mentioned concrete mix proportion experiment, is used after obtaining match ratio.It is required that water-binder ratio:0.36, sand coarse aggregate ratio: 38%.Preferred weight matches:42.5 grade composite silicate cement:Sand:Cobble(0.5-2cm):Cobble(2-4cm):Drinking water= 1:1.81:1.32:1.62:0.46。
6.3, concrete stirs
(1)Concrete stirs the measurement error that feeds intake and should meet the following requirements:The coarse aggregates error such as sandstone is not more than 3%;Cement And the error of water is not more than 2%.
(2)The shortest time of ready-mixed concrete is no less than 120s, and strictly controls the ratio of mud, and when each ready-mixed concrete must The moisture content that sand must be measured, calculates each dosage of blender, accurately feeds intake.
(3)When the concrete discharging being stirred, its slump should be measured, observes its cohesiveness, workability, the property such as aqueous of satisfying Shape, to meet the requirement of concreting.
6.4, concrete construction and maintenance
(1)Concrete construction is carried out using coffering machine:When U-shaped canal concrete construction, manually concrete is sent to sending Material mouth, coffering machine is by vibrator vibratory compaction concrete, by driving steel wire rope rotation from draft gear, to drive lining cutting Machine is moved forward along U-shaped canal center line.
(2)It is 1.5-1.58KN/m in natural density3General collapsible loess in, concrete slump control is preferably 12-14cm, U-shaped trench wall camber angle control is 10-14 °(The bottom of U-shaped canal is semicircle or arc, and upper end both sides are edge The angle of the straightway that bottom semicircular or arc both ends tangential direction extend, straightway and vertical direction is camber angle).
(3)The mechanically-propelled speed of front end draft gear should be set when construction, ensure that concrete vibrating is closely knit, in U-shaped canal 4 Surface
Plastering press polish, ensures irrigation canals and ditches inner wall smooth.
(4)After the completion of U-shaped canal lining construction, timely plastic covering film is protected, and excessive water is avoided to evaporate.Construction It completes to carry out water seasoning in 8-12 hours, the later stage persistently conserves 14 days.
7, prepare before hardening and hardening template is installed
After U-shaped canal lining concrete reaches some strength, maturing preparative work before construction is carried out:Extension Top covers 100mm thickness 2:8 dirt, compacting factor are not less than 0.93.Then according to the hardening sideline of release, with 150 × 150mm Flitch supporting and retaining system, as the side mould of hardening, flitch supporting and retaining system is secured, and outside should support, and prevent flitch from shifting, and ensures hardening Size meets design requirement.
8, maturing is poured and is conserved
8.1, maturing pours
(1)In maturing(Using U-shaped canal construction concrete in step 6)Mortar before formal pumping for moistening pipe It must not concentrate heap at one, should uniformly spread out in substrate.
(2)Concrete pump will be spread out with spade in time when being sent to construction surface, and thickness is slightly above levelling thickness, immediately with insertion The cooperation of formula vibrator is vibrated, maturing thinner thickness, parallel in the concrete shakeout with poker vibrator Ying Yi to drag It is dynamic, it moves line by line, sequence carries out, and must not omit, accomplish vibration compacting.
(3)The concrete surface height that the feed opening distance of concrete is poured must not exceed 2m, and using pumping, commodity are mixed Solidifying soil slump control is in 14-16cm.
(4)Subregion apart from feed opening farther out when can do horizontal transport with small handcart.
(5)It is 12cm that concrete is substantially paved to thickness with grafter according to level control stake.
(6)Vibration compacting after spreading concrete is struck off with 2m long darbys, after the surface place of collapsing is paved, then with long darby scrapes one It is secondary, it is then rubbed with the hands with wooden float flat.
(7)Magma, which is carried out, with plasterer's trowel receives light.
8.2, the maintenance of maturing
(1)People can be gone up when the intensity of concrete reaches 1.2Mpa and carries out next process operation, controlled in Specific construction Be made as after concreting 8-12 hours, concrete, which has solidified, to be hardened, after upper people without trace subject to.
(2)Water seasoning is carried out after 12 hours in concreting, to be carried out maintenance at any time later and be kept at concrete In moisture state.Until 14 days after concreting.
8.3, construction joint is constructed
(1)Construction joint construction can be separated out construction joint with batten in casting concrete on concrete(Construction joint spacing For 3-5m), batten is removed after concrete initial set.
(2)Construction joint can also carry out unified cutting during concrete curing with cutting machine.
(3)Pitch or plug flax pitch are poured in construction joint.
9, the indwelling and experiment of concrete test block
(1)It often pours and is once sampled once with match ratio concrete, leave and take standard curing in 28 days, cured under same condition resistance to compression test block Each one group.
(2)It often pours primary according to specification and design requirement concrete and is no more than 100m3With match ratio concrete sampling one It is secondary, leave and take one group of compression strength test block in 28 days.
(3)To conserving overdue various test blocks, laboratory test should be sent in time by age and take out test report on time and returned Enter archives.
(4)It is as follows through testing obtained concrete performance parameter:Intensity C30, slump 14-16cm, water-cement ratio are not less than 0.36. sand coarse aggregate ratio is not less than 38%.
10, finished product protection
(1)Concreting is complete, when concrete does not solidify completely, upper people is forbidden to carry out other processes construction.
(2)Just without other working procedures after constructing because of maturing, it should be noted that other live heavy vehicles roll.
Slope retaining drainage ditch is carried out in Yining area in April, 2012 in September, 2013 using the method for the present invention Construction, builds U-shaped drainage ditch D60(Specifically specification is:152 ° of bottom circular arc radian, arc radius 300mm, width suitable for reading 718mm, wetted perimeter 1.357)
It is calculated by the Chezy formula that specification is recommended according to the flow section of cast-in-place U-shaped channel:
Q=υA (1)
(2)
In formula, Q is the drain discharge of ditch;υ is mean flow rate in ditch;A is discharge section area;R is hydraulic radius;I is Hydraulic gradient;N is roughness.Under the conditions of identical flow section and hydraulic gradient, if overflowing end face is 0.27m2, hydraulic gradient 0.01, all kinds of drainage ditch flows are shown in Table 1.
1 all types of drainage ditch flow summary sheets of table
By upper table it can be seen that cast-in-place U-shaped canal is under the identical cross-section of river and hydraulic gradient, discharge capacity is maximum.Root It is calculated according to project cost, various irrigation canals and ditches economic benefits comparisons such as table 2.
2 all types of gutter economic benefits comparisons of table
Irrigation canals and ditches type Type Comprehensive unit price/(Member/m) Work efficiency/(m/d)
Cast-in-place U-shaped canal It is man-machine About 300 6.0
Reinforced concrete rectangular canal Manually About 750 2.5
The trapezoidal gutter of mortar flag stone Manually About 350 3.5
Compared by analyzing above, under identical artificial input, the U-shaped canal construction efficiency that the present invention uses is about reinforcing bar 2 times of concrete or mortar flag stone gutter;Opposite armored concrete gutter, saves cost nearly 60%.
And it constructs to 2 months 2017 in September, 2013.It has passed through the test in 5 winters, the U-shaped canal in scene is cracking, Phenomena such as deforming, being destroyed without avalanche, no security risk.Construction quality meets design requirement.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of construction method of slope retaining drainage ditch, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1)Positioning measurement:At side slope slope foot, positioning measurement, measuring drainage ditch center line;
(2)Foundation trench excavates:Foundation trench excavation is carried out using mini-excavator;
(3)Lime-soil cushion:Grey earthen backfill is carried out in foundation trench;
(4)It is laid with composite earthwork cloth:Longitudinal extend to both sides along drainage ditch center line is laid with composite earthwork cloth;
(5)It is laid with blotter:It is laid with blotter above the composite earthwork cloth of foundation trench bottom;
(6)Clay model is constructed:Clay model construction is carried out in foundation trench, forms U-shaped clay model;
(7)U-shaped canal construction:Using coffering machine, concrete construction is carried out, in foundation trench, the U-shaped canal of lining cutting above U-shaped clay model, is supported Shield;
(8)Modify U-shaped trench side:Maturing pours, maintenance;
(9)Construction joint is constructed;
The step(2)The depth that middle foundation trench excavates is 700-750mm;When mean annual precipitation is 180~350mm, slope surface face Product is 12000-20000m2When, the step(6)Middle clay model specification is:Bottom arc radius is 350-400mm, and radian is 145-152 °, top width 900-950mm;When mean annual precipitation is less than 180mm, slope surface area is 8000-12000m2 When, the step(6)Middle clay model specification is:Bottom arc radius is 300-350mm, and radian is 135-145 °, and top width is 850-900mm;The step(7)In U-shaped canal bottom be arc, upper end both sides be along bottom arc both ends tangential direction extend Straightway;The straightway and the angle of vertical direction are 0-16 °;The wall thickness of the U-shaped canal is 100mm.
2. construction method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that U-shaped 152 ° of the canal bottom circular arc radian, circular arc half Diameter 300mm, width 718mm suitable for reading, wetted perimeter 1.357.
3. construction method according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that the step(3)Middle dirt proportioning is 2:8.
4. construction method according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that the step(5)The thickness of medium stone bed course is 100mm, the macadam gradating used for:Grain size is no more than 90% less than 31.5mm's, and grain size is no more than 15% less than 16mm's, grain size It is no more than 5% less than 10mm.
5. construction method according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that the step(7)And step(8)Middle use Concrete is prepared by the raw material of following weight proportion:42.5 grade composite silicate cement:Sand:Particle size is 0.5-2cm Cobble:Particle size is the cobble of 2-4cm:Water=1:1.81:1.32:1.62:0.46.
6. construction method according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that the step(9)Middle construction joint work progress For:In step(7)And step(8)Construction joint is separated out on concrete with batten when casting concrete, or in step(7)And step (8)Unified cutting is carried out during maintenance after concrete construction;Then pitch or filling flax pitch are poured in construction joint.
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CN103290911A (en) * 2012-03-02 2013-09-11 上海市政工程设计研究总院(集团)有限公司 Ecological reinforced concrete drainage ditch and construction method thereof
CN102888830A (en) * 2012-09-25 2013-01-23 湖南前元新材料有限公司 Plastic water channel and construction method thereof
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CN104213576A (en) * 2013-06-05 2014-12-17 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Method for manufacturing large storage tank foundation on collapsible loess field
CN103422472A (en) * 2013-08-30 2013-12-04 新疆兵团水利水电工程集团有限公司 U-shaped channel forming device and forming method
CN106192905A (en) * 2016-08-31 2016-12-07 中国水利水电第五工程局有限公司 A kind of lining cutting device for drainage groove

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