CN106756509B - A kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel and its Technology for Heating Processing - Google Patents

A kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel and its Technology for Heating Processing Download PDF

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CN106756509B
CN106756509B CN201611265306.5A CN201611265306A CN106756509B CN 106756509 B CN106756509 B CN 106756509B CN 201611265306 A CN201611265306 A CN 201611265306A CN 106756509 B CN106756509 B CN 106756509B
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steel
temperature
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40crni3mov
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CN106756509A (en
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时捷
王毛球
徐乐
李晓源
闫永明
孙挺
何肖飞
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Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/02Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/18Hardening; Quenching with or without subsequent tempering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/26Methods of annealing
    • C21D1/28Normalising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D8/00Modifying the physical properties by deformation combined with, or followed by, heat treatment
    • C21D8/06Modifying the physical properties by deformation combined with, or followed by, heat treatment during manufacturing of rods or wires
    • C21D8/065Modifying the physical properties by deformation combined with, or followed by, heat treatment during manufacturing of rods or wires of ferrous alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/001Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing N
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/005Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing rare earths, i.e. Sc, Y, Lanthanides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/04Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing manganese
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/18Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium
    • C22C38/40Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • C22C38/44Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel with molybdenum or tungsten
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/18Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium
    • C22C38/40Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • C22C38/46Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel with vanadium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/18Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium
    • C22C38/40Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • C22C38/48Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel with niobium or tantalum

Abstract

A kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel and its Technology for Heating Processing, belong to technical field of alloy steel.Structural steel chemical component weight % is:C:0.23~0.27%, Si:≤ 0.20%, Mn:≤ 0.20%, P:≤ 0.008%, S:≤ 0.003%, Cr:2.85~3.05%, Mo:2.85~3.05%, Ni:0.80~1.0%, Nb:0.09~0.11%, V:≤ 0.20%, [O]:≤ 0.0020%, [N]:≤ 0.0080%, RE:0.0015~0.0035%, surplus Fe.Technique includes:Smelt:Using electric furnace+external refining+electric slag refusion and smelting;Forging/rolling;Annealing;Normalizing;Annealing;Quenching;Tempering.Advantage is that the 40CrNi3MoV medium carbon structural alloy steels that the elevated temperature strength of the steel is more common increase, and its fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue property can increase substantially the life-span also superior to 40CrNi3MoV steel;Cyclic stress effect, high temperature wear resistant and long life high-voltage container are born in suitable making.

Description

A kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel and its Technology for Heating Processing
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of alloy steel, in particular, provides a kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel and its heat treatment work Skill, it is suitable for high-temperature alloy structural steel.
Background technology
The high-pressure bottle of high temperature wear is born frequently with middle carbon Cr-Ni-Mo-V systems structural alloy steel, due to such high pressure-volume Device requires high reliability and long-life, middle carbon Cr-Ni-Mo-V systems structural alloy steel often because of high temperature hardness and fatigue behaviour not Cause initial failure enough.At present, conventional middle carbon Cr-Ni-Mo-V systems structural alloy steel Cr contents are generally below 2%, Mo and contained Amount generally below 1%.Research is found, by improving the content of the alloying elements such as Mo, Cr and V, M can be separated out through high tempering2C Type carbide produce post-curing, so as to can effectively improve the high-temperature behavior of steel (Nie Changshen, kind gram end, Han Lihua, etc. .28Cr2Mo1VA the Carbide Phases analysis Arms Material scientific and engineerings of steel, 1992,15 (7):41~57.).Therefore, improve The content of Cr and Mo elements in steel, it is one of effective way for improving its high-temperature behavior and service life.Inventor's early-stage Study It was found that by the way that Cr, Mo content are brought up into 3%, and using Nb microalloyings, it is ensured that the crystallite dimension of structural alloy steel is not Significantly grow up, while improve post-curing performance and (Wang Maoqiu, Dong Han, Wang Qi, wait austenitizings hard to 3Cr-3Mo-Nb bis- times Change the influence Arms Material scientific and engineerings of the microstructure and mechanical property of steel, 2002,25 (5):9-13.).
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel and its Technology for Heating Processing, is in previous work base On plinth, further consider to carry out inclusion size control by reducing [O], [N] gas content, and by RE.With conventional middle carbon The difference of Cr-Ni-Mo-V systems structural alloy steel is:Cr and Mo content is improved to 3% or so, further enhanced secondary Hardening effect, so as to improve high temperature hardness and intensity;Using Nb as main micro alloying element, it can be at a higher temperature Austenite Grain Growth is prevented to act on;By improving cleanliness factor and the appropriate toughness for reducing carbon content in matrix, improving steel;Pass through [O], [N] gas content are reduced, and inclusion size control is carried out by RE, improves the fatigue behaviour of steel.
In addition, the present invention is also designed by rational alloy and Technology for Heating Processing, a kind of novel fire resistant alloy knot is developed Structure steel and its supporting Technology for Heating Processing.The 40CrNi3MoV medium carbon structural alloy steels that the elevated temperature strength of the steel is more common have carried Height, its fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue property can increase substantially the life-span also superior to 40CrNi3MoV steel.
Steel of the present invention and Technology for Heating Processing are applied to high-temperature alloy structural steel pressure vessel, are particularly suitable for making and bear week Phase stress, high temperature wear resistant and long life high-voltage container.
The chemical composition ranges (weight %) of high-temperature alloy structural steel of the present invention are as follows:C:0.23~0.27%, Si:≤ 0.20%, Mn:≤ 0.20%, P:≤ 0.008%, S:≤ 0.003%, Cr:2.85~3.05%, Mo:2.85~3.05%, Ni:0.80~1.0%, Nb:0.09~0.11%, V:≤ 0.20%, [O]:≤ 0.0020%, [N]:≤ 0.0080%, RE: 0.0015~0.0035%, surplus Fe.
Each alloys producing and content design principle are as follows:
C:Form carbide and solid solution in the base, be optimal with 0.25%, enough carbon is difficult to ensure that less than 0.20% Compound separates out and elevated temperature strength, toughness can be caused to reduce higher than 0.30%;
Si and Mn:Fragility can be reduced by reducing content, so as to improve toughness, to be optimal less than 0.20%;
S:Harmful element, seriously reduce toughness.By multiple means, content is reduced as far as possible, to control below 0.003% It is advisable.
P:Harmful element, seriously reduce toughness.By multiple means, content is reduced as far as possible, to control below 0.008% It is advisable.
Cr:Carbide Precipitation can be played to strengthen, improve high-temperature oxidation resistance and solution strengthening effect, with 3% for most It is good, it is not notable less than 2.5% effect, higher than 3.5% increase difficulty of processing;
Mo:Carbide precipitate post-curing, solution strengthening, grain-boundary strength is improved, be optimal with 3%, less than 2.5% effect It is insufficient, dramatically increase difficulty of processing higher than 3.5%;
Ni:Solution strengthening, toughness is improved, be optimal with 0.9%, toughness effect unobvious are improved less than 0.5%, are higher than 1% causes cost to increase, and machines difficulty increase;
Nb:Because the carbide formers such as Cr and Mo are higher, hardening heat is higher, and Nb (C, N) particle, resistance are formed using Nb Only Austenite Grain Growth during high temperature, it is optimal with 0.10%, precipitated phase is difficult to ensure that with enough crystalline substances during less than 0.05% The big inhibition of grain length, it is thick that carbide is easily caused during higher than 0.15%;
V:Post-curing element, post-curing peak temperature is raised, while also had to Austenite Grain Growth certain Inhibition;
RE:Deoxidation and desulfurization, and make inclusion modification, so as to improve the toughness of steel, ensure fatigue strength.It is less than Unobvious are acted on more than when 0.0015%, its beneficial effect increase unobvious, reach saturation during higher than 0.035%.Therefore, RE contains Amount should be controlled in 0.0015-0.0035%.
[N]:Combine to form compound with Nb, V etc., so as to crystal grain thinning, but also can segregation crystal boundary and reduce grain-boundary strength. Detrimental effect is obvious when content is higher than 0.0100%.Therefore, [N] content should be controlled and is advisable below 0.0080%.
[O]:Pernicious gas, fatigue behaviour is seriously reduced, influence the life-span.[O] content should be controlled by multiple means Less than 0.0020% is advisable.
The technological process of production of steel of the present invention is as follows:
(1) smelt:Using electric furnace+external refining+electroslag remelting (protective atmosphere) smelting process;
(2) forging/rolling:Required according to size, can forge or be rolled into the bar below Φ 150mm;Heating-up temperature exists Between 1180~1200 DEG C, for starting forging temperature at 1160~1180 DEG C, final forging temperature is not less than 880 DEG C;
(3) anneal:According to practical condition, more than 8h is incubated in the annealing furnace that temperature is between 670~750 DEG C, Then less than 500 DEG C are cooled to the cooling rate not higher than 40 DEG C/h, take out air cooling;
(4) normalizing:After 1125 ± 25 DEG C are incubated 1-10h, air cooling is taken out;
(5) anneal:After 675 ± 25 DEG C are incubated 2-20h, air cooling is taken out;
(6) quench:After 900 ± 20 DEG C are incubated 1-3h, water quenching or oil quenching are taken out;
(7) it is tempered:After 620 ± 20 DEG C are incubated 2-5h, air cooling is taken out;After alignment again after 640 ± 20 DEG C are incubated 2-5h, Take out water cooling;
(8) part processing and other concerned process steps:Carried out according to particular requirement.
The determination principle of process above is as follows:
Smelt:High temperature wear resistant pressure vessel typically uses electric furnace+electric slag refusion and smelting method with structural alloy steel, obtains While higher metallurgical quality is with proof strength, there is enough toughness.The applicable steel grade of the present invention is the alloys such as Cr, Mo member The higher structural alloy steel of cellulose content, it is necessary to improve metallurgical quality and just can guarantee that toughness, therefore progress stove is needed after electric furnace smelting Outer refining, electroslag furnace under protective Ar gas refusion and smelting is then carried out again.
Forging/rolling and annealing:The alloying element content of the steel grade is higher, and quenching degree is good, thus can be used for manufacture compared with Heavy in section bar, but it also is adapted for the smaller specification bar of manufacture.Because the relatively other medium carbon structural alloy steels of carbon content are relatively low, high temperature Plasticity is preferable, and forging and rolling temperature section are slightly higher.The Ac of the steel3Point temperature is at 860 DEG C or so, therefore final forging temperature can not be low In 880 DEG C.Meanwhile the Ac of the steel1Point temperature has overcooling austenite stable region at 700 DEG C or so between 450~600 DEG C Between, therefore the annealing temperature used should be close to 700 DEG C.
Normalizing and annealing temperature:The purpose of normalizing is that and carbide fully dissolves in order to obtain homogenizing tissue.Consider Into steel of the present invention containing the carbide former such as more Cr, Mo, carbide could significantly dissolve at 1100 DEG C.Therefore, Normalizing temperature is optimal with 1125 ± 25 DEG C.The purpose of normalizing after annealing is to control Carbide Precipitation, with 650-700 DEG C for most It is good.
Hardening heat:The Ac of the applicable structural alloy steel of the present invention3Point temperature quenches at 860 DEG C or so by usually requiring that Temperature is in Ac3+ 30~50 DEG C of calculating, the hardening heat of the steel should be at 890~910 DEG C or so.Therefore, hardening heat with 900 ± 20 DEG C are optimal.
Temperature:Tempering purpose is to reduce hardness to be straightened for the first time, and the purpose of second of tempering is adjustment Final performance.The characteristics of secondary hardened steel is:When temperature is near post-curing peak temperature, intensity and hardness compared with Height, but toughness is relatively low;When being tempered a little higher than post-curing peak temperature, hardness and intensity reduce rapidly, and toughness rises rapidly It is high.The post-curing peak temperature of the applicable structural alloy steel of the present invention is at 580 DEG C or so, therefore the final temperature selected For 640 ± 20 DEG C.The too high then intensity decreases of temperature are too many, and temperature is too low, and toughness not yet reaches optimal.
Mechanical property meets after heat treatment:Normal temperature hardness is HRC28~38,600 DEG C of nominal-ultimate strength (σ0.2) be not less than 550MPa, -40 DEG C of Low temperature impact toughness (keyhole) are not less than 25J/cm2, Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness is not less than 150MPa m1/2
The present invention by select it is suitable smelt and Technology for Heating Processing, excellent high temperatures of the structural alloy steel can be played Energy and low cycle fatigue property.Compared with existing 40CrNi3MoV steel and its production technology, there is advantages below:
1. elevated temperature strength significantly improves.
The general temperature of 40CrNi3MoV steel is at 600 DEG C or so, and the temperature of steel heat treatment process of the present invention exists More than 620 DEG C, illustrate that the anti-temper softening ability of steel of the present invention is stronger, thus its high-temperature behavior is also higher.Carbon in steel of the present invention Compound is with M2Based on C, and carbide of the 40CrNi3MoV steel in use state is with M3Based on C, M2The High-Temperature Strengthening of C carbide Effect is significantly better than M3C carbide, thus the elevated temperature strength of steel of the present invention is higher.Especially because employ 1100-1150 DEG C + 650-700 DEG C of annealing of high temperature normalizing, substantial amounts of carbide is separated out, then still there is the thicker carbide in part to protect through 900 DEG C or so Stay, be advantageous to improve high temperature hardness and wearability.
2. low cycle fatigue property improves.
The yield tensile ratio of the body tube steel such as 40CrNi3MoV is higher (typically more than 0.9), is followed in the presence of cyclic loading Ring softening tendency is serious.After steel of the present invention and Technology for Heating Processing processing, its yield tensile ratio is slightly lower (typically 0.85 or so), although Also cyclic softening occurs in the presence of cyclic loading, but it softens tendency and can not show a candle to 40CrNi3MoV steel.In addition, steel tool of the present invention There is higher fatigue ductility index, and the tired transition life-span is also higher.
3. fracture toughness is high
The Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness of 40CrNi3MoV steel is typically in 100-120MPa m1/2, because carbon content is low in matrix, this Invention steel Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness is in 150MPa m1/2More than.
Embodiment
Using 30 tons of electric furnace+external refinings+electroslag furnace under protective Ar gas remelting method smelting process, the examination of steel of the present invention has been carried out System, embodiment composition are shown in Table 1.Billet diameter after electroslag remelting is 480mm, the heated circle for being forged into a diameter of 40-90mm Rod, then through 700 DEG C anneal 8h after, carried out different heat treatment system processing, be designated as respectively according to heat treating regime embodiment 1~ 6.Carry out every mechanical property such as hardness, fracture toughness, low-temperature impact, drawing by high temperature and low-cycle fatigue respectively by national standard Test, and its mechanical property and 40CrNi3MoV steel are contrasted.The chemical composition of test specimen is listed in table 1, heat treatment system Degree is listed in table 2, hardness, intensity, impact toughness and fracture toughness etc. and is listed in table 3, and low cycle fatigue property is listed in table 4.Embodiment 40CrNi3MoV steel of the comprehensive mechanical property apparently higher than contrast.
The chemical composition (wt%) of the embodiment steel of table 1 and compared steel 40CrNi3MoV
Element Embodiment steel 40CrNi3MoV
C 0.25 0.40
Si 0.15 0.25
Mn 0.20 0.40
P 0.005 0.012
S 0.001 0.001
Cr 3.00 1.28
Mo 2.95 0.38
Ni 0.95 3.16
Nb 0.10 -
V - 0.20
RE 0.0025 -
[O] 0.0018 0.0025
[N] 0.0075 0.0092
Fe It is remaining It is remaining
The Technology for Heating Processing of the embodiment steel of table 2 and compared steel 40CrNi3MoV
The conventional mechanical property of the embodiment steel of table 3 and compared steel 40CrNi3MoV
The low cycle fatigue property of the embodiment steel of table 4 and compared steel 40CrNi3MoV

Claims (2)

1. a kind of high-temperature alloy structural steel, it is characterised in that chemical component weight % is as follows:C:0.23~0.27%, Si:≤ 0.20%, Mn:≤ 0.20%, P:≤ 0.008%, S:≤ 0.003%, Cr:2.85~3.05%, Mo:2.85~3.05%, Ni:0.80~1.0%, Nb:0.09~0.11%, V:≤ 0.20%, [O]:≤ 0.0020%, [N]:≤ 0.0080%, RE: 0.0015~0.0035%, surplus Fe.
2. the high-temperature alloy structure steel heat treatment process described in a kind of claim 1, it is characterised in that technological process and control Technical parameter it is as follows:
(1) smelt:Using electric furnace+external refining+electric slag refusion and smelting;
(2) forging/rolling:Forge or be rolled into the bar below Φ 150mm;Heating-up temperature is opened between 1180~1200 DEG C Temperature is forged at 1160~1180 DEG C, final forging temperature is not less than 880 DEG C;
(3) anneal:More than 8h is incubated in the annealing furnace that temperature is between 670~750 DEG C, then with cold not higher than 40 DEG C/h Speed is cooled to less than 500 DEG C, takes out air cooling;
(4) normalizing:After 1125 ± 25 DEG C are incubated 1-10h, air cooling is taken out;
(5) anneal:After 675 ± 25 DEG C are incubated 2-20h, air cooling is taken out;
(6) quench:After 900 ± 20 DEG C are incubated 1-3h, water quenching or oil quenching are taken out;
(7) it is tempered:After 620 ± 20 DEG C are protected 2-5h, air cooling is taken out;After alignment again after 640 ± 20 DEG C are incubated 2-5h, water is taken out It is cold.
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CN108486349A (en) * 2018-05-09 2018-09-04 合肥汇之新机械科技有限公司 A kind of heat treatment process of twist bit alloy tool steel bit
CN109038402A (en) * 2018-08-16 2018-12-18 镇江朝阳机电科技有限公司 A kind of tray type cable bridge and preparation method thereof
CN111534762A (en) * 2020-06-12 2020-08-14 铁科(北京)轨道装备技术有限公司 Wear-resistant steel and heat treatment process and preparation method thereof
CN111676428B (en) * 2020-07-27 2021-11-02 中国兵器工业第五九研究所 High-temperature-resistant medium-low carbon medium-low alloy steel and preparation method thereof
CN113462951B (en) * 2021-06-29 2022-06-14 钢铁研究总院 Preparation method of ultrahigh-strength and high-toughness alloy steel

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