CN102094153B - Preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts - Google Patents

Preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts Download PDF

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CN102094153B
CN102094153B CN2011100496982A CN201110049698A CN102094153B CN 102094153 B CN102094153 B CN 102094153B CN 2011100496982 A CN2011100496982 A CN 2011100496982A CN 201110049698 A CN201110049698 A CN 201110049698A CN 102094153 B CN102094153 B CN 102094153B
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steel
forging
bolts
percent
strength
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CN2011100496982A
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CN102094153A (en
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李培耀
于治水
李霞
钱俊
潘再兵
徐金星
施永涛
纪楗煜
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上海工程技术大学
上海凯士比泵有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention relates to high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts, which comprises the following alloy elements in percentage by mass: 0.15 to 0.23 percent of C, 0.10 to 0.35 percent of Si, 0.20 to 0.45 percent of Mn, less than or equal to 0.03 percent of P, less than or equal to 0.025 percent of S, 1.10 to 1.45 percent of Cr, 3.30 to 3.90 percent of Ni, 0.20 to 0.45 percent of Mo, less than or equal to 0.05 percent of Cu, less than or equal to 0.03 percent of Al, and the balance of Fe and impurity elements. Various mechanical property indexes of the steel are superior or equal to those of Germany 1.6772 steel; and the steel can completely meet the requirements of mechanical properties of CHTC main stud bolts and HG through bolts, and can equally or equivalently replace the Germany 1.6772 steel to be used for producing the CHTC main stud bolts and HG through bolts.

Description

A kind of preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts, relate in particular to a kind of preparation method of the steel alloy for the high-intensity high-tenacity bolt on the high pressure water feeding pump for boiler.
Background technology
(its operating pressure is respectively 420bar and 280bar for the CHT of the German KSB company that Shanghai KSB Pumps Co., Ltd. introduce to produce and the key equipment that HG series high voltage boiler feedpump is the supercritical generating unit, working temperature reaches 230 ℃), CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt then are the vital parts of water pump packing and pressure-bearing, and its quality, Performance And Reliability play vital effect to the safe and reliable operation of unit.CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt material are original design to be German 1.6772 trade mark steel, and its mechanical property requirements is listed in table 1 (seeing lower).
German 1.6772 trade mark steel mechanics performance indexs of table 1
This material relies on German import always fully, and not only cost high (a HG rod bolt cost is 10,000 yuan), and supply of material progress can not guarantee often, and the demonstration of existing data there are indications that German supplier may stop the supply of this material at any time.This not only has a strong impact on water pump production and schedule of deliveries, and may have influence on the energy security of China.
Therefore, in the urgent need to researching and developing a kind of being equal to or the production domesticization material of equivalent substitution Germany 1.6772 trade mark steel, break external blockade on new techniques, technical monopoly, so that producing, this type equipment of China steps up a large step, and significantly reduce cost, be the energy security of China condition that provides safeguard.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention, a kind of preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts is provided for the problems referred to above exactly, the steel alloy interalloy constituent content of the method preparation requires lower, particularly the content of more rare important strategic material Ni, Mo is also all lower, but this steel alloy can satisfy CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt mechanical property requirements fully.
The present invention in order to reach the goal used technical scheme is:
The preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts of the present invention, wherein, high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts comprises following alloying element according to mass percent:
0.15~0.23C; 0.10~0.35Si; 0.20~0.45Mn; P≤0.03; S≤0.025; 1.10~1.45Cr; 3.30~3.90Ni; 0.20~0.45Mo; Cu≤0.05; Al≤0.03, all the other are Fe and impurity element.
Above-mentioned high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts comprises following alloying element according to mass percent:
0.19~0.21C; 0.20~0.32Si; 0.32~0.40Mn; P≤0.025; S≤0.015; 1.25~1.40Cr; 3.50~3.85Ni; 0.30~0.40Mo; Cu≤0.03; Al≤0.02, all the other are Fe and impurity element.
The preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts of the present invention may further comprise the steps:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: according to chemical composition require batching, after furnace charge all melts clearly, at 1540~1560 ℃ of refining 40min, take a sample behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, adjusting component, fusing 5~10min, the casting electrode rod, tapping temperature is 1560~1580 ℃;
2) esr: with the electrode bar remelting in the step 1, teeming;
3) forge: the steel ingot in the step 2 is forged, open forging temperature 〉=1050 ℃, final forging temperature 〉=850 ℃, forging deformation amount 〉=30%, Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2~3h again after forging to room temperature;
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging in the step 3 is heat-treated 800~890 ℃ of quenching temperatures, 420~550 ℃ of tempering temperatures, tempering time 40~190min.
The chemical composition design foundation of the high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts of the inventive method preparation and the reasons are as follows of restriction content range:
C is the element that strongly improves material hardening capacity, improves simultaneously intensity and the hardness of material.But, can greatly reduce the material toughness plasticity with the increase of C content, make material that brittle rupture easily occur.When C content is low, can form preferably material of toughness plasticity, but its hardening capacity and insufficient strength.Deficiency on the strength of materials can be by alloying element solution strengthening and precipitation strength etc. remedy, but be not easy to improve for the deficiency of toughness.Consider, the C content of material should be controlled at low carbon levels, and the intensity that increases the low-carbon (LC) toughness material is main technological route of the present invention.
The avidity of Si and oxygen is only second to Al and Ti, and is better than Mn, Cr and V.Si does not form carbide in steel, but is present among α (ferrite) or the γ (austenite) with the form of sosoloid.It is extremely strong that Si improves the effect of sosoloid intensity in the steel, but also reduce to a certain extent the toughness plasticity of steel simultaneously.Si is one of element of sealing γ phase region, improves the critical transition temperature A of steel 1And A 3Si is medium on the hardening capacity impact of steel, but temper resistance and the oxidation-resistance that improves steel had very large benefit.The steel that Si content is higher, also easily decarburization of surface during annealing.
Mn is good reductor and sweetening agent, can eliminate or weaken because of S caused red brittleness, thereby improves the hot workability of steel.Mn and Fe form sosoloid, hardness and the intensity of α and γ in the raising steel.Mn is again carbide forming element, enters to replace a part of Fe atom in the cementite.Mn when improving alloy strength, on its ductility but almost without any impact.Mn enlarges the γ phase region, steel is formed and the ability of stablizing the γ tissue is only second to Ni, and Mn also increases the hardening capacity of steel strongly.The unfavorable one side of Mn is the superheated susceptivity that increases steel, and crystal grain is easily thick, and easily increases temper brittleness, and the improper steel that makes easily of cooling produces white point behind smelting casting and the forging rolling.
S, P are relict elements harmful in the steel, and S in the domestic raw materials, P content are relatively high, so consider from the Performance and Cost Modeling of steel, should suitably limit the content of S, P.
Cr can significantly improve the antioxidant property of steel, increases the resistance to corrosion of steel.Cr and Fe form continuous solid solution, form multiple carbide with C, and the avidity of Cr and C greater than Fe and Mn, and is lower than W, Mo etc. in the various element of formation carbide.Cr can replace a part of Fe and form compound cementite (Fe, Cr) 3C.The complicated carbide (Cr, Fe) of Cr 7C 3, (Cr, Fe) 23C 6Performance for steel has significant impact.Cr can significantly increase the hardening capacity of steel, but also increases the temper brittleness tendency of steel.When Cr and C form complicated carbide, and in steel, during disperse educt, can play dispersion-strengthened action.But Cr also makes plasticity decrease when playing strengthening effect in steel, and increases temper brittleness.Therefore need according to the requirement to obdurability, determine suitable Cr content.
Ni and C do not form carbide, and Ni is the main alloy element of formation and stable γ.Ni and Fe with the form of dissolving each other be present in α phase in the steel and γ mutually in, make it to strengthen, and the crystal grain by refinement α phase, improve the low-temperature performance, particularly toughness of steel.Ni is owing to the velocity of diffusion that reduces each element in critical transition temperature and the steel, thereby the hardening capacity of raising steel.And Ni is also not obvious on the toughness plasticity impact of steel in solution strengthening steel intensity.Because Ni worldwide is a kind of more rare element, also is a kind of important strategic material.Therefore as a kind of alloying element of steel, must be noted that rationally and the principle of saving.
Mo belongs to the element that dwindles the γ phase region, and it is present in steel in solid solution phase and the carbide.In carbide, when Mo content is low, form compound cementite with Fe and C; When content is higher, then form its oneself alloy carbide.Mo can significantly improve the hardening capacity of steel, can also improve the recrystallization temperature of steel simultaneously, strengthens temper resistance, can obtain the compact grained sorbite after the modifier treatment, and the obdurability of steel is improved.When forming the carbide of Mo in the steel, can play the effect of disperse or precipitation strength, when Mo content is less (<0.3%), mainly take solution strengthening, raising hardening capacity and temper resistance as main.With the increase of Mo content, the obdurability of steel is improved.The effect of Mo in steel can be summarized as and improve hardening capacity, improve heat resistance, prevent temper brittleness, improve the corrosion stability in some medium and prevent spot corrosion tendency etc.But Mo is a kind of important strategic material, and other has epochmaking purposes, therefore uses in steel, must be noted that rationally and few as much as possible usefulness.
Cu also is the relict element in the steel, although Cu is useful and harmless to the mechanical property of steel, it is unfavorable that the forge hot of steel is rolled with hot workabilitys such as thermal treatments, is the main element that causes hot tearing.Moreover Cu content is relatively high in the domestic raw materials, need to be controlled.
Al is the element that strongly dwindles the γ phase region, with O, N very large avidity is arranged.The effect of Al in steel is that the nitrogen agent is decided in the deoxidation during as steel-making, and crystal grain thinning, the timeliness of preventing soft steel can alleviate steel to the susceptibility of breach, and improves the impelling strength of steel, reduce the brittle transition temperature of steel, but lax unfavorable with creep-resistant property to resisting of steel.And in the steel during deoxidation Al consumption too much, will make steel produce abnormal structure, and promote the greying tendency of steel.In ferrite and perlitic steel, when containing Al amount when higher, its intensity and toughness are lower, and give and smelt and difficulty is brought in the aspects such as casting.Although the essential crystal grain of Al refinement steel improves the temperature of crystalline grain of steel alligatoring, when the residual Al in the steel (solid solution metallic aluminium) content during above certain value, the alligatoring of easily growing up all the better of the austenite crystal of steel.Therefore need the residual quantity of control Al in steel.
The alloying element content of the high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts of the inventive method preparation requires lower, particularly the content of more rare important strategic material Ni, Mo is also all lower, and every mechanical performance index all is better than or equals the mechanical performance index (asking for an interview table 2) of German 1.6772 trade mark steel, has reached international most advanced level.
The high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts mechanical performance index of table 2 the inventive method preparation:
The high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts of the inventive method preparation can satisfy CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt mechanical property requirements fully, can be equal to or equivalent substitution Germany 1.6772 trade mark steel for the production of CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt, thereby break external blockade on new techniques, technical monopoly, this type equipment of China is produced stepped up a large step, and significantly reduce cost, be the energy security of China condition that provides safeguard.
Embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with embodiment:
Embodiment 1
Present embodiment chemical ingredients (wt%) as shown in the table:
Element C Si Mn P S Cr
Content 0.19 0.24 0.39 0.006 0.0016 1.34
Element Ni Mo Cu Al ? ?
Content 3.65 0.34 0.01 0.018 ? ?
Employing is prepared as follows the metallic substance of explained hereafter:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: by chemical ingredients requirement batching in the upper table, after furnace charge all melted clearly, at 1550 ℃ of refining 40min, sampling was one behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, and adjusting component, fusing 8min casts Electrode bar, tapping temperature are 1570 ℃.
2) esr: with in the above-mentioned steps The electrode bar remelting, casting Steel ingot.
3) forge: the steel ingot in the above-mentioned steps is forged, open 1080 ℃ of temperature, 870 ℃ of final forging temperatures, the forging deformation amount 35% of forging.Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2.5h again after forging to room temperature.
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging is heat-treated, and 860 ℃ of quenching temperatures adopt oil quenching to process, 450 ℃ of tempering temperatures, and tempering time 120min adopts air cooling to process to room temperature.
The mechanical property of present embodiment is as shown in the table:
The present embodiment chemical ingredients is detected according to GB/T20123-2006 and GB/T20125-2006 by quality inspection section of Golconda branch office of Shanghai Baosteel Industry Inspection Corp. and obtains, and its mechanical property is detected according to GB/T 228-2002 by national ferrous materials test center and obtains.
Embodiment 2
Present embodiment chemical ingredients (wt%) as shown in the table:
Element C Si Mn P S Cr
Content 0.21 0.21 0.37 0.0072 0.003 1.36
Element Ni Mo Cu Al ? ?
Content 3.78 0.33 0.001 0.014 ? ?
Employing is prepared as follows the metallic substance of explained hereafter:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: by chemical ingredients requirement batching in the upper table, after furnace charge all melted clearly, at 1550 ℃ of refining 40min, sampling was one behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, and adjusting component, fusing 8min casts Electrode bar, tapping temperature are 1570 ℃.
2) esr: with in the above-mentioned steps The electrode bar remelting, casting Steel ingot.
3) forge: the steel ingot in the above-mentioned steps is forged, open 1080 ℃ of temperature, 870 ℃ of final forging temperatures, the forging deformation amount 31% of forging.The material Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2.5h again after forging to room temperature.
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging is heat-treated, and 850 ℃ of quenching temperatures adopt oil quenching to process, 480 ℃ of tempering temperatures, and tempering time 70min adopts air cooling to process to room temperature.
The mechanical property of present embodiment is as shown in the table:
Embodiment 3
Present embodiment chemical ingredients (wt%) as shown in the table:
Element C Si Mn P S Cr
Content 0.18 0.22 0.35 0.012 0.0045 1.40
Element Ni Mo Cu Al ? ?
Content 3.68 0.35 0.007 0.012 ? ?
Employing is prepared as follows the metallic substance of explained hereafter:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: by chemical ingredients requirement batching in the upper table, after furnace charge all melted clearly, at 1550 ℃ of refining 40min, sampling was one behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, and adjusting component, fusing 8min casts Electrode bar, tapping temperature are 1570 ℃.
2) esr: with in the above-mentioned steps The electrode bar remelting, casting Steel ingot.
3) forge: the steel ingot in the above-mentioned steps is forged, open 1080 ℃ of temperature, 870 ℃ of final forging temperatures, the forging deformation amount 32% of forging.The material Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2.5h again after forging to room temperature.
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging is heat-treated, and 880 ℃ of quenching temperatures adopt oil quenching to process, 500 ℃ of tempering temperatures, and tempering time 45min adopts air cooling to process to room temperature.
The mechanical property of present embodiment is as shown in the table:
Embodiment 4
Present embodiment chemical ingredients (wt%) as shown in the table:
Element C Si Mn P S Cr
Content 0.17 0.29 0.30 0.01 0.007 1.15
Element Ni Mo Cu Al ? ?
Content 3.36 0.22 0.035 0.003 ? ?
Employing is prepared as follows the metallic substance of explained hereafter:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: by chemical ingredients requirement batching in the upper table, after furnace charge all melted clearly, at 1550 ℃ of refining 40min, sampling was one behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, and adjusting component, fusing 8min casts Electrode bar, tapping temperature are 1570 ℃.
2) esr: with in the above-mentioned steps The electrode bar remelting, casting Steel ingot.
3) forge: the steel ingot in the above-mentioned steps is forged, open 1080 ℃ of temperature, 870 ℃ of final forging temperatures, the forging deformation amount 30% of forging.The material Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2.5h again after forging to room temperature.
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging is heat-treated, and 820 ℃ of quenching temperatures adopt oil quenching to process, 470 ℃ of tempering temperatures, and tempering time 100min adopts air cooling to process to room temperature.
The mechanical property of present embodiment is as shown in the table:
Embodiment 5
Present embodiment chemical ingredients (wt%) as shown in the table:
Element C Si Mn P S Cr
Content 0.20 0.21 0.38 0.008 0.0062 1.29
Element Ni Mo Cu Al ? ?
Content 3.81 0.24 0.04 0.006 ? ?
Employing is prepared as follows the metallic substance of explained hereafter:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: by chemical ingredients requirement batching in the upper table, after furnace charge all melted clearly, at 1550 ℃ of refining 40min, sampling was one behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, and adjusting component, fusing 8min casts Electrode bar, tapping temperature are 1570 ℃.
2) esr: with in the above-mentioned steps The electrode bar remelting, casting Steel ingot.
3) forge: the steel ingot in the above-mentioned steps is forged, open 1080 ℃ of temperature, 870 ℃ of final forging temperatures, the forging deformation amount 34% of forging.The material Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2.5h again after forging to room temperature.
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging is heat-treated, and 840 ℃ of quenching temperatures adopt oil quenching to process, 460 ℃ of tempering temperatures, and tempering time 90min adopts air cooling to process to room temperature.
The mechanical property of present embodiment is as shown in the table:
This shows, the every mechanical performance index of the present invention all is better than or equals the mechanical performance index of German 1.6772 trade mark steel, can satisfy CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt mechanical property requirements fully, can be equal to or equivalent substitution Germany 1.6772 trade mark steel for the production of CHTC master's threaded stud and HG rod bolt.
Above embodiment is only for explanation the present invention's, but not limitation of the present invention, person skilled in the relevant technique, in the situation that does not break away from the spirit and scope of the present invention, can also make various conversion or modification, therefore all technical schemes that are equal to also should belong to category of the present invention, should be limited by each claim.

Claims (1)

1. the preparation method of a high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts, described steel alloy comprises following alloying element: 0.19~0.21C according to mass percent; 0.20~0.32Si; 0.32~0.40Mn; P≤0.025; S≤0.015; 1.29~1.40Cr; 3.50~3.85Ni; 0.30~0.40Mo; Cu≤0.03; Al≤0.02, all the other are Fe and impurity element, described preparation method may further comprise the steps:
1) vacuum induction furnace smelting: according to chemical composition require batching, after furnace charge all melts clearly, at 1540~1560 ℃ of refining 40min, take a sample behind the insulation 20min, after the analysis ingredient, adjusting component, fusing 5~10min, the casting electrode rod, tapping temperature is 1560~1580 ℃;
2) esr: with the electrode bar remelting in the step 1, teeming;
3) forge: the steel ingot in the step 2 is forged, open forging temperature 〉=1050 ℃, final forging temperature 〉=850 ℃, forging deformation amount 〉=30%, Slow cooling is annealed 680 ℃ of annealing temperatures, soaking time 2~3h again after forging to room temperature;
4) thermal treatment: the material after forging in the step 3 is heat-treated 800~890 ℃ of quenching temperatures, 420~550 ℃ of tempering temperatures, tempering time 40~190min.
CN2011100496982A 2011-03-02 2011-03-02 Preparation method of high-strength high-toughness alloy steel for bolts CN102094153B (en)

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CN105937015A (en) * 2016-06-07 2016-09-14 江苏百德特种合金有限公司 High-strength bolt and preparation method thereof
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