CN106642138B - waste gasification melting furnace - Google Patents

waste gasification melting furnace Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106642138B
CN106642138B CN201611252449.2A CN201611252449A CN106642138B CN 106642138 B CN106642138 B CN 106642138B CN 201611252449 A CN201611252449 A CN 201611252449A CN 106642138 B CN106642138 B CN 106642138B
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gasification
waste
melting
furnace
water
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CN106642138A (en
Inventor
李长江
肖大志
刘德绍
林顺洪
徐�明
杨鲁
季炫宇
田野
阳小燕
李玉
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Chongqing University of Science and Technology
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Chongqing University of Science and Technology
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/002Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor characterised by their grates
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • F23G5/16Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion in a separate combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/46Recuperation of heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/10Drying by heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/40Gasification
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/10Waste heat recuperation reintroducing the heat in the same process, e.g. for predrying

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of waste gasification melting furnaces, handle rubbish using the present invention, rubbish conveying capacity is stronger, garbage treatment quantity is bigger, thermal losses can be reduced and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, the recovery efficiency of heat is higher, and can efficiently reduce pollutant discharge amount.Including grate, and feed hopper, gasification furnace and the melting and solidification processing system set gradually on grate along feedstock direction, melting and solidification processing system includes the melting burner hearth set gradually along feedstock direction, laminar flow channel, water cooling crushing system and water seal slag removing system, melting burner hearth side wall is provided with high-temperature burner, gasification agent inlet, water cooling crushing system includes water-cooling system, waterway and vitreum pulverizer, and the discharge end of water seal slag removing system connects vitreum slag outlet.

Description

Waste gasification melting furnace
Technical field
The invention belongs to Waste Disposal Technology field more particularly to a kind of waste gasification melting furnaces.
Background technique
Existing Waste Disposal Technology mainly has burning, sanitary landfills, compost, waste recovery etc..In offal treatment In routine techniques, burning disposal has reduced training obvious, and innoxious thorough, land occupation amount is small, and waste heat energy is utilized, secondary dirt The advantages that dye is few, meets the strategic requirement of China's sustainable development.But with both at home and abroad to the continuous improvement of environmental requirement, how Enhance particularly important to the control of secondary pollution.Therefore, pyrolysis of waste gasification burning technology is gradually shifted onto industrial applications Road on, especially for domestic various wastes primarily now using all kinds of incineration technologies, gasification burning and gasification Fusion technology, which widely industrializes, will bring the technological innovation of domestic offal treatment industry to regenerate.
For many years, China to biomass, house refuse, medical waste, the Changjiang river floating material, domestic sludge, oily sludge and The scientific research of the gasification&melting technologies such as electronic product is in progress a lot of, and there are many basic research in laboratory, also there is application study, Such as:Rotary kiln type, vertical and fluidized bed type destructive gasifying or temperature gasification and high fusion technology etc..But Technique Popularizing using it is upper still There are certain restrictions, raw material type, offal treatment amount, secondary pollution control and economic benefit etc. are principal elements.
In existing burning process and equipment, fire grate type incinerator is various informative, and application accounts for the whole world and burns market 80% or more of total amount also has use wherein mainly using mechanical backstepping fire grate, forwards fire grate or combined fire grate in furnace body The fire grates such as chain-plate type and drum-type.The domestic rapid development Jing Guo last decade, the popularization and application of fire grate type incinerator have obtained state The attention of family and various circles of society, burning market at home has absolute predominance.
In conclusion typical incinerator and melting furnace, respectively have its own advantage, but in China's practical application Middle problem to be solved and deficiency:
1. the technology of moving hearth uses, to rubbish for characteristics such as China's house refuse water content height, complicated components Conveying capacity needs emphasis to consider.
2. pile up like a mountain with being increasing for waste yield, treating capacity must be effectively improved, Cai Nengshi In response to the market demand.
3. secondary pollution control is the key problem for technically needing to solve in face of stringent pollutant emission requirement.
4. in heat treatment process, the recovery efficiency of heat needs to improve in order to effectively increase economic efficiency.It is existing useless Gurry heat treatment technics generallys use burning release heat, and boiler conversion generates steam and shifts steam turbine power generation, entire transition heat onto Efficiency losses are larger, handle identical quantity of refuse, and opposite reduction thermal losses and raising heat exchanger effectiveness can improve the thermal efficiency.
Existing incinerator such as following two patent of invention:Multiple row sectional drive combined type domestic garbage incinerator (ZL200710092508.9) an open question and in two-stage garbage incinerator (ZL201010268376.2):Castoff heat Tupe is relatively backward, only dry-burns-burns, and solid combustion discharges the process of heat;Thermal chemical reaction is in furnace with oxygen Change based on reaction, reduction reaction auxiliary is also easy to produce secondary pollution;When waste burns in furnace, oxygen quotient excessively is big, once Wind, Secondary Air infeed amount are big, and dust content is higher in flue gas, are affected to heat reclaiming system and smoke processing system, hold Easy dust stratification, exhaust gas volumn is larger, reduces thermal conversion efficiency;The gasification furnace and incinerator not being separately provided, can only be handled by several times Rubbish, cannot achieve large-scale waste continuous gasification burning disposal, and garbage treatment quantity is smaller.
Existing melting furnace such as following two technology:
First, gasification and melting focuses on technology.Such as a kind of plasma asistance heating melting gasification reactor (CN201410744643.7), waste gasification melting furnace (CN201280068994.X), domestic waste oxygen top blown are straight Fusion and gasification, and combustion and its generation technology (CN01107088.9) and other pot type gasification and melting centralized processing technologies are connect, wherein not It solves the problems, such as:Castoff heat tupe is more advanced, but mainly continues the thinking of fixed bed or fluidized bed, is done Dry-pyrolysis-gasification-burning (can also without burning)-melting, heat treatment process continuity is bad, and each phase process rhythm is difficult to Match, and the recycling link of heat considers that not enough economy is poor, cannot achieve large-scale waste continuous gasification melting Processing, treating capacity is smaller, and it is imperfect to melt Slag treatment.
Second, gasification+melting separating treatment technology.Such as a kind of gasification of rotary kiln, the house refuse classification of plasma melting The method that gasification system (CN201520578876.4), a kind of rotary kiln to melt gasification house refuse produce combustible gas (CN200910218227.2), refuse gasification and flying dust high-temperature fusion processing unit and method (CN200710144924.9) and its Its pot type separating treatment technology, wherein an open question:Castoff heat tupe is more advanced, but mainly continues and fix The thinking of bed or fluidized bed is dried-pyrolysis-and gasifies-burn (can also without burning)-melting, main gasification and melting rank Section is separated in different equipment and carries out, and heat treatment process continuity is preferable, but the rhythm between separation phase is still difficult to Match, and the recycling link of heat considers that not enough economy is poor, cannot achieve large-scale waste continuous gasification melting Processing, treating capacity is smaller, and it is imperfect to melt Slag treatment.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art and provide a kind of waste gasification melting furnaces, use this hair Rubbish is managed in daylight, and rubbish conveying capacity is stronger, and garbage treatment quantity is bigger, can reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, heat The recovery efficiency of amount is higher, and can efficiently reduce pollutant discharge amount.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
A kind of waste gasification melting furnace, the waste gasification melting furnace includes grate, and along charging on grate Feed hopper, gasification furnace and the melting and solidification processing system that direction is set gradually, the melting and solidification processing system are located at gasification furnace The lower section of discharge end, the melting and solidification processing system include melting burner hearth, laminar flow channel, the water set gradually along feedstock direction Cold crushing system and water seal slag removing system, the melting burner hearth side wall are provided with high-temperature burner, gasification agent inlet, for make from Gasification furnace enters the castoff fusing of melting burner hearth, and the laminar flow channel is located at below melting burner hearth discharge end, laminar flow channel bottom Portion is that laminar flow tilts siege, and the water cooling crushing system includes water-cooling system, waterway and vitreum pulverizer, the water cooling Chamber is located at laminar flow channel front lower place, and setting spray assemblies and steam (vapor) outlet, the water-cooling system will be used for water cooling at the top of waterway Water input spray assemblies, the steam that steam (vapor) outlet output water cooling generates, the vitreum pulverizer is arranged in waterway Middle part, for crushing the vitreum slag formed after liquid slag water cooling, the water seal slag removing system is set to the lower section of waterway, water seal The discharge end of slag removing system connects vitreum slag outlet, and the water seal slag removing system prevents cigarette for sealing waterway lower end Gas evolution, further cools down vitreum slag, and export vitreum slag.
In order to realize large-scale waste gasification melt process, it may be preferable that the melting burner hearth roof is equipped with water conservancy diversion Rear arch and baffle pier, make flue gas horizontally enter into gasification hearth, increase the radiating surface of waste and the flue gas disturbance of gasification hearth.
In order to control the discharging speed of laminar flow channel, various operating conditions are successfully managed, it may be preferable that the laminar flow inclination siege goes out Expect that liquid slag height controller is arranged in end, the height controller includes baffle and the driving for driving baffle flexible Part.
In order to guarantee that the temperature in laminar flow channel controls, it is preferable that the laminar flow channel side wall setting calandria carries out auxiliary Help heating and heat preservation.
Preferably, the grate is equipped with waste and promotes mainly glassware, and the waste is promoted mainly glassware and is located under feed hopper Side, for being equipped with windrow seal section, institute between the feed hopper, gasification furnace in the waste push-in gasification furnace in feed hopper State setting base material material inlet on the roof of windrow seal section, the base material material inlet connection base material feed dress It sets, base material is pushed into windrow seal section through base material material inlet by the base material feeder, is used for waste The element portions such as sulphur, copper, iron during gasification and melting are converted into stable compound, and fluxing to liquid slag.
In order to improve capacity usage ratio and reduce water resources consumption, it is preferable that the moving hearth of the gasification furnace along into Material direction is divided into dryer section, gasification section, and dryer section, the gasification section of the gasification furnace are respectively arranged below at least one and are independently arranged An air compartment, wherein an air compartment below dryer section is air-supplied, and an air compartment below gasification section feeds mixing gasifying Agent, the gasification furnace in arching upward shape, be respectively set on the face arch of the gasification furnace, rear arch it is secondary for air port, the gasification furnace The first exhanst gas outlet is arranged in vault;
Further include steam exhaust fan, for blower, gasifying agent mixer, the arrival end of the steam exhaust fan by pipeline with Steam (vapor) outlet at the top of waterway connects, and the steam generated in the waterway, which injects the gasifying agent by steam exhaust fan, to be mixed One air inlet of clutch, the air inlet for blower are communicated with the atmosphere, and the gas outlet for blower connects a manifold General pipeline, the branch pipe of the manifold respectively with below gasifying agent mixer another air inlet, gasification furnace dryer section an air compartment, The secondary of gasification furnace is connected to for air port, and the gasifying agent mixer is used for the steam of mixed vapour exhaust fan extraction and mentions for blower The air of confession forms hybrid gasification agent, and the hybrid gasification agent feeds melting burner hearth from gasification agent inlet, and hybrid gasification agent is also made An air compartment below gasification furnace gasification section is fed for gasification furnace First air.
In order to improve capacity usage ratio, residue discharge amount is reduced, it is preferable that one for melting burner hearth and connecting with gasification furnace End is the waste main-inlet of melting burner hearth, and waste sub-inlet is arranged in the melting burner hearth side wall again, and the waste pair enters Mouth connection waste pair material-pulling device, waste pair material-pulling device, which is used to for the residue of an air compartment each below gasification furnace being pushed into, to be melted Melt in burner hearth.
In order to reduce water resources consumption amount, it is preferable that the condensed water that the hybrid gasification agent mixed process generates passes through pipe Road inputs water-cooling system, and the extra cooling water of the water seal slag removing system is recycled using back water pump injection water-cooling system.
By adopting the above-described technical solution, the present invention has the advantages that:
The present invention is carried out in same equipment using stoker fired grate, refuse gasification and melt stage, and heat treatment process is continuous Property preferable, the rhythm matching between each stage, the recycling link of heat fully considers, better economy, can be realized big The rubbish continuous gasification melt process of scale, garbage treatment quantity is larger, and liquid slag carries out harmless treatment.
Present inventive concept is novel, and garbage treatment quantity is big, and the rubbish bed of material undergoes dry, gasification and melting rank on stoker fired grate Section adapts to the characteristics such as China's house refuse water content height, complicated component, improves the energy conversion efficiency in garbage processing procedure With pollutant discharge amount in reduction flue gas, it is effectively prevent secondary pollution, and can be realized large-scale rubbish continuous gasification melting Processing guarantees refuse gasification melting effect and lime-ash clinker ignition loss, opposite to reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, improves The thermal efficiency.
From the pressure change of the-the first exhanst gas outlet of melting furnace-gasification furnace, gasification furnace disturbance effect, baffle pier shape are enhanced At split channel increase high-temperature flue gas radiating surface.
The present invention effectively carries out secondary pollutant control, realizes minimizing, Harmless and Comprehensive Disposal, specific method is such as Under:
1 inhibits to reduce the secondary pollutions such as SOx, NOx from melting furnace source by base material (lime can be used) The catalyst members such as Fe, Cu that generation and secondary pollution synthesize again are converted to stable compound;
2 high-temperature fusions decompose, solidifys toxicant in bottom ash and flying dust, and realization garbage incinerating power plant is without dangerous waste bottom ash Discharge is laid a good foundation for directly landfill or resource utilization.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of melting and solidification processing system;
Fig. 3 is the A-A schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is the structural schematic diagram for moving towards section view in Fig. 2 at B along flue gas;
Fig. 5 is the C-C schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is the D-D schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 2;
Fig. 7 is the structural schematic diagram of boiler system in Fig. 1;
Fig. 8 is cyclone combustion chamber structural schematic diagram in Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is the schematic top plan view of Fig. 8.
Appended drawing reference
1 is incinerator, and 101 be grate, and 102 be feed hopper, and 103 be gasification furnace, and 105 be siege, and 106 be waste Featured glassware, 107 be an air compartment, and 108 be windrow seal section, and 112 be the first exhanst gas outlet, and 115 be secondary for air port;
201 be steam exhaust fan, and 202 is, for blower, 203 are gasifying agent mixer, and 204 be manifold, and 205 add again for air Hot device;
3 be cyclone combustion chamber, and 301 be combustion chamber ignition combustion-supporting hole, and 302 be cone cell slag notch, and 303 be smoke inlet, 304 It is combustion air for air port for third exhanst gas outlet, 305;
4 be boiler body, and 402 be furnace chamber a, and 404 be furnace chamber c, and 405 be water-cooling wall, and 406 be superheater, and 407 be evaporation Device, 408 be drum, and 409 be the first down-comer, and 410 be the second down-comer, and 411 be steam output device, and 412 input for water supply System, 418 be economizer, and 419 be flue gas purification system, and 420 be aeration tower, and 421 be bag filter, and 422 be air-introduced machine, 423 be chimney, and 424 be air preheater, and 425 be fine purifiation deduster, and 426 be depickling drug jetting device, and 427 spray into for active carbon Device;
5 be melting and solidification processing system, and 51 be melting burner hearth, and 52 be laminar flow channel, and 53 be water-cooling system, and 54 remove for water seal Slag system, 55 be high-temperature burner, and 56 be gasification agent inlet, and 57 tilt siege for laminar flow, and 58 be waterway, and 59 be vitreum powder Broken machine, 510 be spray assemblies, and 511 be steam (vapor) outlet, and 512 be water conservancy diversion rear arch, and 513 be baffle pier, and 514 be height controller, 515 be calandria, and 516 be vitreum slag outlet, and 517 be base material feeder, and 518 be waste main-inlet, and 519 are Waste sub-inlet, 520 be waste pair material-pulling device, and 521 inorganic waste entrances, 522 be inorganic waste material-pulling device, 523 be back water pump, and 524 be rewinding clinohedral, and 525 be maintenance door, and 526 be slag remover, and 527 be denitrfying agent jetting device, and 528 are Gasification furnace side wall, 529 be shunting flue.
Specific embodiment
It is a kind of preferred embodiment of waste gasification melting furnace referring to Fig. 1 to Fig. 9.The present embodiment also adds pot Furnace system, the waste gasification melting furnace includes grate, and the feed hopper, the gas that set gradually on grate along feedstock direction Change furnace and melting and solidification processing system, the discharge end of melting and solidification processing system is vitreum slag outlet.
The grate is equipped with waste and promotes mainly glassware, and the waste is promoted mainly the lower section that glassware is located at feed hopper, is used for By in the waste push-in gasification furnace in feed hopper, windrow seal section is equipped between the feed hopper, gasification furnace, the windrow is close It seals and base material material inlet is set on the roof of section, the base material material inlet connects base material feeder, the alkali Base material (during gasification and melting, is formed stable compound with the Partial Elements in waste, subtracted by base material feeder Of low pollution object enters in flue gas;The melting temperature of part residue can be suitably reduced simultaneously) windrow is pushed into through base material material inlet Seal section.
The moving hearth of the gasification furnace is divided into dryer section, gasification section, the dryer section of the gasification furnace, gas along feedstock direction To change section and is respectively arranged below at least one air compartment being independently arranged, wherein an air compartment below dryer section is air-supplied, An air compartment below gasification section feeds hybrid gasification agent, and the gasification furnace is in the shape that arches upward, on the face arch of the gasification furnace, rear arch It is respectively set secondary for air port, vault the first exhanst gas outlet of setting of the gasification furnace.
The discharge end of the gasification furnace is the slag mouth of gasification furnace, and melting and solidification processing system is located at gasification furnace slag mouth Front lower place, the melting and solidification processing system include melting burner hearth, laminar flow channel, water cooling crushing system and water seal slag removing system, Water cooling crushing system and water seal slag removing system are equipped with water charging system, be equipped at the top of the melting and solidification processing system water conservancy diversion rear arch and Baffle pier, the water conservancy diversion rear arch of the melting roof of the furnace setting are that arc (can be arc-shaped, involute arc, realize flue gas Smooth deflecting), melt that the flue gas in burner hearth is vertically moving to be entered on the inside of water conservancy diversion rear arch, cigarette after arc rear arch water conservancy diversion The gas histogram that flattens (makes flue gas horizontally enter into gasification hearth with certain speed, increases the radiating surface and gasification furnace of waste to movement The flue gas of thorax disturbs);The baffle pier extends in the middle part of gasification furnace rear arch from water conservancy diversion rear arch flat segments, and is arranged multiple points Flow pier, corresponding grate surface quantity formed multiple shuntings flues (be multiple (2 or more) grate surfaces for fire grate, melt burner hearth compared with It is small, so that flue gas is radiated each grate surface, increase the radiating surface of waste and the flue gas disturbance of gasification hearth), the gasification Furnace slag mouth is multiple rewinding clinohedrals composition of corresponding grate surface quantity.
The melting burner hearth side wall is provided with high-temperature burner, gasification agent inlet and waste sub-inlet (waste major-minor It feeds organic and inorganic, need to it be gasified and be melted);It is described melting burner hearth side wall setting high-temperature burner be etc. Plasma generator or heavy oil burner or pure oxygen combustor (can maintain the burner of 1400-1600 DEG C of high temperature of melting zone equal Can), diagonally downward, 30-60 ° of angle with horizontal plane (utilizes melting furnace diameter, mounting height, flame to high-temperature burner entrance The boundaries condition design such as length, number of burners and size, discarded species, treating capacity), (supplement is molten for the gasification agent inlet Melt O2, H2O and CO2 needed for chemically reacting in burner hearth etc.) be set to below waste sub-inlet, and in castoff fusing slag it On, diagonally downward, 10-30 ° of angle with horizontal plane (utilizes melting furnace diameter, mounting height, gasifying agent to the gasification agent inlet Entry number and the boundaries condition design such as size, discarded species, treating capacity), the hybrid gasification agent is entered by adjusting The air themperature of gasifying agent mixer stablizes hybrid gasification agent temperature at 400-500 DEG C.
The laminar flow channel bottom is that laminar flow tilts siege, and laminar flow tilts siege end setting liquid slag height and controls dress It sets, calandria (auxiliary heating and heat preservation) is arranged in side wall, and setting inorganic waste in top (only melts) entrance to it;It is described The laminar flow inclination siege of laminar flow channel bottom is set as along liquid slag flow direction diagonally downward, and angle with horizontal plane is 5-15 ° (the boundaries condition design such as discarded species, the mobility of liquid slag, viscosity, treating capacity, residence time), the liquid slag height Control device and laminar flow inclination siege are vertically arranged (the scalable control liquid slag height of device);Along liquid slag flow direction two sides Wall is respectively provided with calandria, and the calandria is that high energy electric heater or plasma generator (assist heating and heat preservation, can maintain 1400-1600 DEG C of high temperature of melting zone);The inorganic waste entrance inclined direction of the top setting is along liquid slag flowing side To angle with horizontal plane is the 60-80 ° of (boundaries such as discarded species, the mobility of liquid slag, viscosity, treating capacity, residence time Condition design, inorganic waste pressure squeeze into melting zone, can effectively decompose the pollutants such as bioxin, realize containing heavy metal The melt process of bottom ash, flying dust etc.).
Maintenance door is arranged in setting spray assemblies and steam (vapor) outlet at the top of the waterway of the water cooling crushing system, side wall, in Vitreum pulverizer is arranged in portion, and water seal slag removing system is arranged in bottom.The spray assemblies of the water cooling crushing system are set to melting Slag outlet top, vertical direction face liquid slag outlet (can just water cooling to liquid slag ontology, curing heavy metal), spray assemblies In the both walls setting spray inlet (strengthening boundary water cooling, prevent boundary cooling insufficient) of waterway, angle with horizontal plane is 30-60 ° (utilizes the perimeter strips such as water cooling chamber size, mounting height, spray length, quantity and size, discarded species, treating capacity Part design), the steam (vapor) outlet is set to far from liquid slag outlet outside top (a large amount of high-temperature steams can exclude).It is described to set The vitreum pulverizer being placed in the middle part of waterway is located at liquid slag outlet lower section, and vitreum pulverizer is embedded in laminar flow uphill furnace bed Lower section, be embedded in having a size of two crushing wheel installation dimensions arranged side by side 1/4-3/4 (realize vitreum slag enter two crushing wheels it Between), two crushing wheel energy positive and negative rotations work (preventing from getting stuck).
The steam utilization steam exhaust fan injection gasifying agent mixer generated in the waterway, the gasifying agent mixer Hybrid gasification agent is formed for mixing high temperature air and steam, the hybrid gasification agent feeds melting burner hearth from gasification agent inlet, The condensed water that mixed process generates returns to water-cooling system.The extra cooling water of the water seal slag removing system injects water using back water pump Cooling system is recycled.
The boiler system includes boiler body, circulation air feed system, and the boiler body has cyclone combustion chamber, furnace chamber A, smoke inlet, the smoke inlet of cyclone combustion chamber and the first flue gas is arranged in the lower end of furnace chamber b, furnace chamber c, the cyclone combustion chamber Denitrfying agent jetting device is arranged on the pipeline that the smoke inlet of cyclone combustion chamber is connect with the first exhanst gas outlet for outlet, uses In carrying out denitration process to flue gas, liquefied ammonia is can be used in denitrfying agent, removes the NOx in flue gas, high temperature denitration;Cyclone combustion chamber upper end For third exhanst gas outlet, the cyclone combustion chamber is equipped with several combustion airs for air port, and several combustion airs are located at for air port Between smoke inlet, third exhanst gas outlet, the third exhanst gas outlet of cyclone combustion chamber upper end is connected to the upper end of furnace chamber a, described The lower end connection of furnace chamber a, furnace chamber b, the upper end of the furnace chamber b are arranged waste gas outlet, in the cyclone firing room circumferentially arranged with Water-cooling wall in a ring is provided with superheater in the furnace chamber a, and evaporator, the top setting of boiler body are provided in furnace chamber b Drum, the cyclone combustion chamber, furnace chamber a, furnace chamber b are respectively positioned below drum, and the drum is equipped with carbonated drink import, are set in drum There is water separator, for separating steam water interface, drum connects the water inlet of water-cooling wall by the first down-comer, for defeated The water that water separator is isolated out, drum connect the water inlet of evaporator by the second down-comer, for exporting carbonated drink point From the water that device is isolated, the water-cooling wall, evaporator venthole respectively by steam pipe connect drum air intake, be used for back High-temperature steam is flowed, the saturated vapor outlet of the drum connects the air intake of superheater, the high temperature for will flow back by pipeline Steam inputs in superheater, and the venthole connection steam output device of the superheater exports superheated steam, steam output device It has utilized the condensed water of steam generation to input to water input system to recycle.
The circulation air feed system includes steam exhaust fan, for blower, gasifying agent mixer, and the steam exhaust fan enters Mouth end is connect by pipeline with the steam (vapor) outlet at the top of waterway, and the steam generated in the waterway is infused by steam exhaust fan Enter an air inlet of the gasifying agent mixer, the air inlet for blower is communicated with the atmosphere, the outlet for blower The air preheater being arranged at mouth connection furnace chamber b waste gas outlet, the air preheater connect the general pipeline of a manifold, the manifold Branch pipe respectively with below gasifying agent mixer another air inlet, gasification furnace dryer section an air compartment, gasification furnace it is secondary It is connected to for the combustion air on air port and the cyclone combustion chamber for air port, in the present embodiment, is equipped with air again in the furnace chamber b Heater, the gasifying agent mixer connect the manifold by pipeline again after connecting air reheater by pipeline.It is described Gasifying agent mixer forms mixing gasifying for the steam of mixed vapour exhaust fan extraction and the high temperature air of boiler system discharge Agent, the hybrid gasification agent feed melting burner hearth from gasification agent inlet, and hybrid gasification agent is also used as gasification furnace First air to feed gas Change an air compartment below furnace gasification section.The condensed water that the hybrid gasification agent mixed process generates inputs water cooling system by pipeline System, the extra cooling water of the water seal slag removing system are recycled using back water pump injection water-cooling system.
One end that the melting burner hearth is connect with gasification furnace is the waste main-inlet for melting burner hearth, the melting burner hearth side Waste sub-inlet is arranged in wall again, and the waste sub-inlet connects waste pair material-pulling device, and waste pair material-pulling device is used In in the residue push-in melting burner hearth by an air compartment each below gasification furnace, inorganic waste is set on the laminar flow channel roof Entrance, the inorganic waste entrance connect inorganic waste material-pulling device, and the inorganic waste material-pulling device is used for pot In the inorganic residues push-in laminar flow channel that furnace system is collected.
The upper end of the furnace chamber c is connected to the waste gas outlet of the upper end furnace chamber b, and Waste gas outlet, institute is arranged in the lower end of furnace chamber c It states and is equipped with economizer in furnace chamber c, the water inlet of the economizer is connected to the water outlet to water input system, the economizer The carbonated drink inlet communication of water outlet and drum.Flue gas purification system is also added in the present embodiment, the Waste gas outlet of furnace chamber c connects Flue gas purification system is connect, the flue gas purification system includes the aeration tower, bag filter, air inducing being sequentially connected in series along discharge directions Depickling drug jetting device is arranged in machine, fine purifiation deduster, chimney, the roof of the aeration tower, and active carbon is arranged in the side wall of aeration tower Jetting device.
Depickling drug (lime white can be used) is sprayed into from aeration tower, removes the sour gas such as SOx, HCl, HF in flue gas, it is low Warm neutralization reaction;Active carbon sprays into the heavy metal, bioxin etc. in absorption flue gas;Bag filter collects the flying dust in flue gas; Fine purifiation deduster, which is quenched, washes flue gas formula pollutant, and collects micronic dust, realizes flue gas pollutant minimum discharge.
A kind of waste gasification melting furnace processing method, this method carry out according to the following steps:
Step A, furnace lifting, baker;
The gate of waste gasification melting furnace and atmospheric vent is closed, waste gasification melting furnace is started, by waste original The waste materials fallen from feed hopper are pushed into feed hopper, gas by material investment feed hopper, waste pusher pusher back and forth Change the windrow seal section between furnace, windrow seal section is made to form windrow sealing state, extra waste falls into the shifting of gasification furnace Dynamic siege, the moving hearth work of gasification furnace, until waste is accumulated to required thickness 800- in the moving hearth of gasification furnace 1000mm stops feeding intake to feed hopper, and the moving hearth of waste pusher and gasification furnace stops working, and starts high-temperature burner With the side wall calandria baking melting burner hearth and laminar flow channel of laminar flow channel, furnace lifting, baker are carried out to waste gasification melting furnace, Waste gasification melting furnace burner hearth is set to reach 600-700 DEG C of predetermined temperature;
Step B, make waste pyrolytic gasification in gasification furnace, residue enters melting in melting burner hearth;
Waste gasification melting furnace fire box temperature is gradually risen using high-temperature burner and calandria, restores to throw to feed hopper The moving hearth of material, waste pusher and gasification furnace is started to work, and gasifying agent is fed, and enters gasifying agent mixer by adjusting Air themperature, make hybrid gasification agent temperature stablize at 400-500 DEG C, adjust each technological parameter of gasification furnace, waste made to exist Pyrolytic gasification in gasification furnace, gasification furnace atmosphere temperature are stablized at 800-900 DEG C, gasification furnace slag mouth blanking, to pyrolysis of waste Residue after gasifying is accumulated to required thickness, the i.e. 3/4-1 of laminar flow channel height on laminar flow inclination siege, utilizes high-temperature burner Waste gasification melting furnace fire box temperature is gradually risen with calandria, reaches 1000 DEG C of residues and starts to melt, continue to heat up, is continued It feeds intake to feed hopper, persistently carries out pyrolytic gasification process, while the secondary material-pulling device residue of collecting each air compartment is from discarding The charging of object sub-inlet adjusts the gasification agent inlet infeed amount and gasification of melting burner hearth according to the first exhanst gas outlet synthesis gas components Each technological parameter of furnace, temperature are increased to 1400-1600 DEG C, and waste is in molten state;
Step C, melt inorganic waste in laminar flow channel;
When molten state slag progresses into laminar flow channel, the side wall calandria control of laminar flow channel guarantees laminar flow channel temperature dimension It holds at 1400-1600 DEG C, material is pressed into from inorganic waste entrance using inorganic waste material-pulling device, with high-temperature molten-state slag Contact melting;
Step D, liquid slag water cooling is solidified into vitreum slag, and is crushed, deslagging;
Start water-cooling system and vitreum pulverizer, when molten state slag exports outflow laminar flow channel through liquid slag, melting Slag obtains water cooling, forms vitreum slag, falls on vitreum pulverizer and is crushed, then fall into water seal slag removing system, through slag remover Transport discharge, liquid slag water cooling generate steam, inject gasifying agent mixer using steam exhaust fan, steam and high temperature air are formed Hybrid gasification agent feeds melting burner hearth from gasification agent inlet, and hybrid gasification agent is also used as gasification furnace First air to feed gasification hearth; The condensed water that mixed process generates returns to water-cooling system, and liquid slag Cooling Process generates extra cooling water deposit water seal except slag system System is recycled using back water pump injection water-cooling system;
Step E, after rolling to castoff fusing slag row, waste gasification melting furnace is closed.
It need to overhaul or when blowing out, feed hopper, gasification furnace slag mouth, waste sub-inlet and inorganic waste entrance stop Charging adjusts each technological parameter of waste gasification melting furnace, after rolling to castoff fusing stream, closes high-temperature burner and laminar flow The side wall calandria in channel, cleaning circulation air feed system, water cooling crushing system and water seal slag removing system, it is solid to close castoff fusing Change processing system.
Finally, it is stated that preferred embodiment above is only used to illustrate the technical scheme of the present invention and not to limit it, although logical It crosses above preferred embodiment the present invention is described in detail, however, those skilled in the art should understand that, can be Various changes are made to it in form and in details, without departing from claims of the present invention limited range.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of waste gasification melting furnace, it is characterised in that:The waste gasification melting furnace includes grate, and in grate On the feed hopper, gasification furnace and the melting and solidification processing system that are set gradually along feedstock direction, melting and solidification processing system position In the lower section of gasification furnace discharge end, the melting and solidification processing system includes melting burner hearth, the layer set gradually along feedstock direction Circulation road, water cooling crushing system and water seal slag removing system, the melting burner hearth side wall is provided with high-temperature burner, gasifying agent enters Mouthful, the castoff fusing for making to enter melting burner hearth from gasification furnace, the laminar flow channel is located at below melting burner hearth discharge end, Laminar flow channel bottom is that laminar flow tilts siege, and the water cooling crushing system includes that water-cooling system, waterway and vitreum crush Machine, the waterway are located at laminar flow channel front lower place, setting spray assemblies and steam (vapor) outlet at the top of waterway, the water-cooling system The water for being used for water cooling is inputted into spray assemblies, the steam that the steam (vapor) outlet output water cooling generates, the vitreum pulverizer is set It sets in the middle part of waterway, for crushing the vitreum slag formed after liquid slag water cooling, the water seal slag removing system is set to waterway Lower section, the discharge end of water seal slag removing system connects vitreum slag outlet, and the water seal slag removing system is for sealing waterway Lower end further cools down vitreum slag, and exports vitreum slag.
2. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The melting burner hearth roof is equipped with and leads Rear arch and baffle pier are flowed, flue gas is made to horizontally enter into gasification hearth, increases the radiating surface of waste and the flue gas disturbance of gasification hearth.
3. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The laminar flow inclination siege discharge end is set Liquid slag height controller is set, the height controller includes baffle and the actuator for driving baffle flexible.
4. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The laminar flow channel side wall setting heating Body carries out auxiliary heating and heat preservation.
5. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The grate is featured equipped with waste Glassware, the waste promote mainly the lower section that glassware is located at feed hopper, for the waste in feed hopper to be pushed into gasification furnace, institute It states and is equipped with windrow seal section between feed hopper, gasification furnace, base material material inlet, institute are set on the roof of the windrow seal section Base material material inlet connection base material feeder is stated, the base material feeder is by base material through base material Material inlet is pushed into windrow seal section.
6. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 5, it is characterised in that:The moving hearth of the gasification furnace along into Material direction is divided into dryer section, gasification section, and dryer section, the gasification section of the gasification furnace are respectively arranged below at least one and are independently arranged An air compartment, wherein an air compartment below dryer section is air-supplied, and an air compartment below gasification section feeds mixing gasifying Agent, the gasification furnace in arching upward shape, be respectively set on the face arch of the gasification furnace, rear arch it is secondary for air port, the gasification furnace The first exhanst gas outlet is arranged in vault;
It further include steam exhaust fan, for blower, gasifying agent mixer, the arrival end of the steam exhaust fan passes through pipeline and water cooling The steam (vapor) outlet of top of chamber connects, and the steam generated in the waterway injects the gasifying agent mixer by steam exhaust fan An air inlet, the air inlet for blower is communicated with the atmosphere, and the gas outlet for blower connects the general pipeline of a manifold, The branch pipe of the manifold respectively with an air compartment below gasifying agent mixer another air inlet, gasification furnace dryer section, gasification The secondary of furnace is connected to for air port, what the gasifying agent mixer was provided for the steam of mixed vapour exhaust fan extraction and for blower Air forms hybrid gasification agent, and the hybrid gasification agent feeds melting burner hearth from gasification agent inlet, and hybrid gasification agent is also used as gas Change an air compartment below furnace First air infeed gasification furnace gasification section.
7. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:The melting burner hearth is connect with gasification furnace One end be the waste main-inlet for melting burner hearth, waste sub-inlet, the waste is arranged in the melting burner hearth side wall again Sub-inlet connects waste pair material-pulling device, and waste pair material-pulling device is used to push away the residue of an air compartment each below gasification furnace Enter to melt in burner hearth.
8. waste gasification melting furnace according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:The hybrid gasification agent mixed process produces Raw condensed water inputs water-cooling system by pipeline, and the extra cooling water of the water seal slag removing system injects water cooling using back water pump System circulation uses.
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CN108036334A (en) * 2017-11-28 2018-05-15 中广核研究院有限公司 Danger wastes method for innocent treatment and device

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JPH11230517A (en) * 1998-02-18 1999-08-27 Takuma Co Ltd Combustion treatment apparatus for waste
JP2007248007A (en) * 2006-03-17 2007-09-27 Nippon Steel Engineering Co Ltd Waste melting treatment device
CN101705114A (en) * 2009-11-20 2010-05-12 昆明理工大学 Method for preparing combustible gas by using rotary kiln to melt and gasify household garbage
CN105402736A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-03-16 重庆科技学院 Double-layer mechanical grate type garbage gasification and incineration system and treatment method adopting same

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH08303756A (en) * 1995-05-02 1996-11-22 Chubu Electric Power Co Inc Melting and combustion device
JPH11230517A (en) * 1998-02-18 1999-08-27 Takuma Co Ltd Combustion treatment apparatus for waste
JP2007248007A (en) * 2006-03-17 2007-09-27 Nippon Steel Engineering Co Ltd Waste melting treatment device
CN101705114A (en) * 2009-11-20 2010-05-12 昆明理工大学 Method for preparing combustible gas by using rotary kiln to melt and gasify household garbage
CN105402736A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-03-16 重庆科技学院 Double-layer mechanical grate type garbage gasification and incineration system and treatment method adopting same

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