CN106526590B - A kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method - Google Patents

A kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method Download PDF

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CN106526590B
CN106526590B CN201610961794.7A CN201610961794A CN106526590B CN 106526590 B CN106526590 B CN 106526590B CN 201610961794 A CN201610961794 A CN 201610961794A CN 106526590 B CN106526590 B CN 106526590B
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deformation
data
radar
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deformation data
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CN106526590A (en
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王志伟
于胜文
陶秋香
刘国林
高腾飞
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Shandong University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S13/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified
    • G01S13/88Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S13/89Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • G01S13/90Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging using synthetic aperture techniques, e.g. synthetic aperture radar [SAR] techniques
    • G01S13/9021SAR image post-processing techniques
    • G01S13/9023SAR image post-processing techniques combined with interferometric techniques

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation methods.This method is based on different track SAR image datas before and after deformation, the deformation data upward with Offset tracking technical limit spacing difference radar satellite sights by merging D InSAR technologies respectively, merge MAI technologies and the deformation data in Offset tracking technical limit spacing difference radar satellite orientations, on this basis, consider sight to different with orientation deformation data monitoring accuracy, weight is determined by the way of Helmert variance components estimates, it establishes three-dimensional Ground Deformation transformation model and resolves, obtain industrial and mining area three-dimensional shaped variable field.The present invention can solve the problems, such as to be easy when InSAR technical monitoring industrial and mining area Ground Deformations it is dry by dephasing, the factors such as deformation gradient is small can be monitored limited;Secondly, the true deformation situation of earth's surface is more comprehensively detected by multi-source SAR images.

Description

A kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation methods.
Background technology
Industrial and mining area Ground Deformation seriously endangers landing ground building facilities and natural environment, affect the mankind living environment, The security of the lives and property and local economic development.To mining area surface deformation carry out comprehensive monitoring, further investigation deformation formation mechenism with Changing rule, to reasonable recovery of subterranean mineral resources, control industrial and mining area sustainable development is of great significance.
What traditional geodetic level(l)ing, GPS monitoring mining area surface deformation obtained is all the deformation data of a point, with survey The development of means and further expanding for Ground Subsidence Monitoring application range are painted, disadvantage is also more and more prominent.
Spaceborne InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, InSAR) technology is earth observation from space new technology developed in recent years, principle be based on deformation before and after two scape SAR The differential interferometry phase of image obtains Ground Deformation information, such as D-InSAR, MAI technology.In the application of mining area surface deformation monitoring Several successful cases are obtained inside and outside China, monitoring accuracy has reached grade.But by SAR images wavelength, incidence angle, ground distributor The influence of the parameters such as resolution, InSAR technologies only have monitoring capability to the deformation within the scope of certain deformation gradient.Due to industrial and mining area Earth's surface is likely to be breached meter level with the Ground Deformation for carrying out occurring different degrees of of exploitation in the short time, seriously have exceeded with difference The monitoring capability for dividing the conventional InSAR technologies based on interferometric phase information causes SAR to influence dephasing dry.Secondly, InSAR skills Art can only obtain one-dimensional or two-dimentional earth's surface deformation data, rather than reflect the three-dimensional deformation of Ground Deformation feature directly, comprehensively .
Offset tracking technique (Offset-Tracking) is based on amplitude information by two width SAR images Precision registration is carried out, offset calculates deformation between obtaining registration point, need not carry out phase unwrapping, to the phase of SAR image Dryness is insensitive, and can making up above-mentioned routine, to be based on interferometric phase information technology dry and can to monitor deformation gradient small etc. by dephasing The deficiency of factor limitation.In addition to this, the in-orbit SAR satellites of more and more different platforms can provide multi-direction for areal Deformation monitoring result so that be easier to realize based on the monitoring of multi-source SAR image three-dimensional Ground Deformations.At the same time different tracks SAR images are monitored areal, can obtain more fully Ground Deformation information.
Invention content
It is an object of the invention to propose a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and resolving side Method, to overcome conventional InSAR technology to be done by big gradient deformation, dephasing and single direction Ground Deformation information can only be provided and limited System, conducive to the deformation characteristics of industrial and mining area Deformation Field are really reflected comprehensively.
To achieve the goals above, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method, include the following steps:
A obtains the coherence map of multi-source SAR images interference pair;
B is smoothed coherence map;
C combines above-mentioned coherence map and merges D-InSAR technologies and Offset-tracking technical limit spacings radar line of sight to shape Become information;
D combines above-mentioned coherence map and merges MAI technologies and Offset-tracking technical limit spacings radar bearing to be believed to deformation Breath;
The radar line of sight that e is obtained using step c and step d is used to deformation data and radar bearing to deformation data Helmert variance components estimates are established three-dimensional earth's surface deformation model and are resolved.
Preferably, the step a is specially:
Covering research area's multi-source SAR images of collection are imaged, after multiple look processing, are carried out based on Precise Orbit data Thick configuration processing, calculates initial offset;The method for registering based on related coefficient is used again, fits offset multinomial, It calculates to handle by resampling after multinomial coefficient under criterion of least squares and completes precision registration;After each self registration SAR images carry out conjugate multiplication respectively, and the coherence map of SAR images is calculated while obtaining respective differential interferometry phase diagram.
Preferably, the step c is specially:
C.1 according to InSAR technologies, maximum can monitor deformation gradient theory in practical applications, determine that D-InSAR can be monitored Coherence's threshold value;
C.2 the coherence map in the coherence's threshold value and step b that are c.1 obtained using step is more than coherent value in research area Step c.1 in the region of threshold value Ground Deformation monitoring carried out using D-InSAR technologies obtain radar line of sight to deformation data;
C.3 the region of threshold value is using at Offset-tracking technologies in being less than c.1 for coherent value in research area Reason obtains distance to being further converted into radar line of sight to deformation data after deformation data;
C.4 by step c.2 with step c.3 in the radar line of sight that obtains respectively melt to deformation data according to pixel position It closes, to obtain entire research area's radar line of sight to Ground Deformation information;
C.5 c.4 the c.1- step that repeats the above steps, to be respectively processed to different track SAR image datas, is realized Monitoring of the different radar line of sight to deformation data.
Preferably, the step determination process that c.1 middle D-InSAR can monitor coherence's threshold value is as follows:
The calculation formula that largest deformation gradient former can theoretically be monitored is as follows:
Wherein, dmaxLargest deformation gradient, λ are wavelength, and u is Pixel size;
Largest deformation gradient and the relationship of coherence can actually be monitored:Dmax=dmax+0.002(γ-1);
Wherein, DmaxCan actually to monitor largest deformation gradient, γ is coherent value;
Found out by formula, with the reduction of coherent value, there are a smaller coherent values to make DmaxBecome 0, i.e., prison does not measure Deformation data;The critical coherent value of largest deformation gradient can be monitored as threshold value by calculating each sensor based on this actually.
Preferably, the step d is specially:
D.1 according to the relationship of MAI technologies and Offset-tracking technical monitorings precision and coherence, two kinds of skills are chosen Critical coherent value is as coherence's threshold value when art monitoring accuracy height variation;
D.2 the coherence map in the coherence's threshold value and step b d.1 determined according to step is big to coherent value in research area The region of threshold value carries out earth's surface orientation deformation monitoring using MAI technologies and obtains radar bearing to deformation data in d.1;
D.3 the region of threshold value is using at Offset-tracking technologies in being less than d.1 for coherent value in research area Reason obtains in research area remaining area radar bearing to deformation data;
D.4 the radar bearing that d.3 d.2 step obtain respectively with step is merged to deformation data, it is whole to obtain A research area's radar bearing is to Ground Deformation information;
D.5 d.4 the d.1- step that repeats the above steps, to handle different track SAR image datas, is realized different Monitoring of the radar bearing to deformation data.
Preferably, the step d.1 in the size of coherence threshold value be 0.8.
Preferably, the step e is specially:
After multi-source SAR images radar line of sight is obtained to deformation data and radar bearing to deformation data, by different resolution Monitoring result is resampled to equal resolution;Processing is iterated by pixel using the method for Helmert variance components estimates, is counted The weight of each pixel is calculated, three-dimensional Ground Deformation is established and resolves model and resolved.
Preferably, three-dimensional Ground Deformation resolving model is established in the step e and the process resolved is as follows:
Three-dimensional Ground Deformation resolves model and is expressed as:R=Bd;
Wherein, d=(du,de,dn)TIndicate three-dimensional earth's surface deformation data, duIndicate vertical direction deformation data, deIndicate east West is to deformation data, dnIndicate North and South direction deformation data;Indicate different in radar fix system Direction deformation data,1 sight of track is indicated to deformation data,2 sight of track is indicated to deformation data,Indicate track 1 orientation deformation data,Indicate 2 orientation deformation data of track;B is three-dimensional deformation model coefficient matrix;
It is expressed as according to SAR satellite earth observation principle schematics:
Wherein, α1Indicate 1 radar bearing angle of track, α2Indicate 2 radar bearing angle of track, θ1Indicate that 1 radar of track is incident Angle, θ2Indicate 2 radar incidence angle of track;
According to the principle of least square, earth's surface three-dimensional deformation information is calculated:D=(BTPB)-1 BTPR;
Wherein, P be two different track sights to the power battle array corresponding to orientation deformation quantity;According to Helmert variances Relational expression between component of variance and observation residual error is expressed as by component estimation formulas:S θ=Wθ
In formula,Indicate error in the weight unit of two class observed quantities;And WθIt is respectively with S:
In formula,Ni=Bi TPiBi, i=1,2;P1And P2The power battle array of two class observed quantities is indicated respectively;tr Representing matrix asks mark operation;V1And V2The correction of two class observed quantities is indicated respectively;
It is given initially to weigh battle array P, θ is estimated according to Helmert Variance Components Estimations after first time adjustment, then Weight is recalculated according to the following formula:
Wherein,WithThe valuation of two class observed quantities power battle array is indicated respectively;It enablesIt is iterated meter again It calculates, untilAgain it weighs surely, and then calculates three-dimensional deformation information.
The invention has the advantages that:
The method of the present invention is monitored industrial and mining area Ground Deformation based on multi-source SAR image data, can be more comprehensively true Ground obtains the space-time characterisation of industrial and mining area Ground Deformation.It, can by merging a variety of InSAR technologies for industrial and mining area Ground Deformation feature Effectively to solve the limitation for the factors such as dephasing is dry, deformation gradient is big, InSAR technologies have been widened in industrial and mining area large scale Ground Deformation The application prospect of monitoring reduces the cost and technology restriction for becoming monitoring.On this basis, mould is resolved by establishing three-dimensional deformation Type more comprehensively can effectively obtain industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation data, more directly understand and grasp research area's earth's surface shape Become situation, effective pre- Geological disaster prevention measure.It is also provided more to carry out the research of Ground Deformation mechanism and Deformation Law simultaneously Direct basic data, this is of great significance to mining area suitable development.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of stream merging multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method in the present invention Cheng Tu;
Fig. 2 is using the rail lift ALOS PALSAR data sights after D-InSAR technical finesses in the present invention to deformation monitoring Result schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is that the rail lift ALOS after D-InSAR technologies and Offseet-tracking technical finesses is merged in the present invention PALSAR data sight is to deformation monitoring result schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is to be supervised to deformation using the drop rail ENVISAT ASAR data sights after D-InSAR technical finesses in the present invention Survey result schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is that the drop rail ENVISAT after D-InSAR technologies and Offseet-tracking technical finesses is merged in the present invention ASAR data sight is to deformation monitoring result schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 is in the present invention using the rail lift ALOS PALSAR data orientation deformation monitoring results after MAI technical finesses Schematic diagram;
Fig. 7 is that the rail lift ALOS PALSAR after MAI technologies and Offseet-tracking technical finesses are merged in the present invention Data orientation deformation monitoring result schematic diagram;
Fig. 8 is in the present invention using the drop rail ENVISAT ASAR data orientation deformation monitoring knots after MAI technical finesses Fruit schematic diagram;
Fig. 9 is that rail ENVISAT drops in the result after merging MAI technologies and Offseet-tracking technical finesses in the present invention ASAR data orientation deformation monitoring result schematic diagrams;
Figure 10 is the vertical direction result schematic diagram of three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitoring in the present invention;
Figure 11 is the east-west direction result schematic diagram of three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitoring in the present invention;
Figure 12 is the North and South direction result schematic diagram of three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitoring in the present invention;
Figure 13 is SAR satellite earth observation principle schematics in the present invention.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention basic principle be:
It is handled by using a variety of InSAR technologies covering multi-source SAR images in same research area, it will be a variety of InSAR technologies carry out fusion and obtain the multi-direction Ground Deformation information in the region, and it is three-dimensional further to merge the resolving of multi-source monitoring result Ground Deformation.
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and specific implementation mode invention is further described in detail:
In conjunction with shown in Fig. 1, a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method, including The following steps:
A obtains the coherence map of multi-source SAR images interference pair.Specifically acquisition methods are:
Covering research area's multi-source SAR images of collection are imaged, after multiple look processing, are carried out based on Precise Orbit data Thick configuration processing, calculates initial offset;The method for registering based on related coefficient is used again, fits offset multinomial, It calculates to handle by resampling after multinomial coefficient under criterion of least squares and completes precision registration;After each self registration SAR images carry out conjugate multiplication respectively, and the coherence map of SAR images is calculated while obtaining respective differential interferometry phase diagram.
Wherein, coherence map refers to the foundation for evaluating two width SAR image similarity degrees, is generated in differential interferometry processing.
B is smoothed coherence map.
Coherence map is the basis of follow-up data processing, but since the influence of the factors such as various noises is led in actual process Each pixel coherent value spatial continuity is poor in the coherence map that cause obtains, i.e., coherent value changes greatly between adjacent picture elements, can not The accessible successive range of difference InSAR technologies in subsequent processes is determined based on this.Therefore, subsequently located First the coherence map of coherent value spatial spreading is smoothed before reason.
In order to ensure Kriging regression may be used in the authenticity of coherence map method as far as possible in processing procedure.
C merges D-InSAR technologies and Offset-tracking technical limit spacings radar line of sight to deformation data.
To obtain industrial and mining area high-precision earth's surface deformation monitoring as a result, being susceptible to what dephasing was done for industrial and mining area Ground Deformation Phenomenon realizes that full basin Ground Deformation monitors by merging D-InSAR technologies and Offset-tracking technical approach.
Step c is specially:
C.1 largest deformation gradient theory can be monitored according to InSAR technologies in practical applications, determines that D-InSAR can be monitored Coherence's threshold value.
Industrial and mining area Ground Deformation has the characteristics that coverage is small, deformation magnitude is big, big gradient deformation is susceptible to, in difference Divide in interference pattern and show as contrast of fringes comparatively dense, solution is caused to twine mistake and then is unable to get reliable deformation data;And deformation Gradient is excessive to be easy to cause deformation area dephasing occur dry, and the precision of monitoring result is reduced.
It is to be proposed by Massonnett and Feigl, and give that InSAR technologies maximum, which can monitor deformation gradient theory earliest, Theoretical model is gone out.On this basis, Baran et al. has found that InSAR is most in practical application in view of the influence of the factors such as coherence It is smaller than theoretical value that deformation gradient value can be monitored greatly, and giving InSAR technologies, maximum can monitor deformation gradient in practical applications Model.
The step of the present invention determination process that c.1 middle D-InSAR can monitor coherence's threshold value is as follows:
Massonnett and Feigl can monitor the calculation formula of largest deformation gradient former such as on advancing a theory in 1998 Under:
Wherein, dmaxLargest deformation gradient, λ are wavelength, and u is Pixel size.
However largest deformation gradient theory can be monitored since factors are influenced by dephasing is dry etc. in by actual application Model is smaller than theoretic.In view of the factors such as coherence influence, maximum can monitor deformation gradient than theoretical value in practice Small, Baran et al. gave in 2005 can actually monitor largest deformation gradient and the relationship of coherence:
Dmax=dmax+0.002(γ-1);Wherein, DmaxCan actually to monitor largest deformation gradient, γ is coherent value.
Found out by formula, with the reduction of coherent value, there are a smaller coherent values to make DmaxBecome 0, i.e., prison does not measure Deformation data;The critical coherent value of largest deformation gradient can be monitored as threshold value by calculating each sensor based on this actually.
Wherein, coherent value may be used D-InSAR technologies more than the region of threshold value and carry out Ground Deformation monitoring, and coherent value is small Offset-tracking technologies may be used in the region of threshold value and carry out Ground Deformation monitoring.
C.2 the coherence map in the coherence's threshold value and step b that are c.1 obtained using step is more than coherent value in research area Step c.1 in the region of threshold value Ground Deformation monitoring carried out using D-InSAR technologies obtain radar line of sight to deformation data.
C.3 the region of threshold value is using at Offset-tracking technologies in being less than c.1 for coherent value in research area Reason obtains distance to being further converted into radar line of sight to deformation data after deformation data.
Offset_tracking technologies are to calculate registration offset based on two scape image amplitude informations, will further be matched Quasi- offset is converted to deformation data, calculates orientation deformation on this basis.
The technology maximum feature is insensitive to coherence, and deformation data, Ke Yiyou can be obtained by not needing phase unwrapping Effect overcomes D-InSAR technologies application limitation, and dephasing can be caused to close serious area to large deformation gradient and provide deformation details.
Fig. 2 and Fig. 4 indicate respectively two groups of difference SAR images of ALOS and ASAR using D-InSAR technical limit spacings sight to Deformation monitoring is as a result, white space is to lose coherent area movement in figure.The region is used, coherence is not required Offset-tracking technologies are handled, and Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 are monitoring results final after merging two kinds of technologies, pass through comparison diagram 2 and Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 can be found that effect is obvious, realizes the monitoring of Low coherence area Ground Deformation.In addition to this, It can be found that different track SAR images are with different view observed earth's surface by Fig. 2 to Fig. 5, obtains and be included in deformation The different monitoring result of range, deformation distribution etc., can obtain more fully Ground Deformation information.
C.4 by step c.2 with step c.3 in the radar line of sight that obtains respectively melt to deformation data according to pixel position It closes, to obtain entire research area's radar line of sight to Ground Deformation information;
C.5 in order to obtain research area's three-dimensional earth's surface deformation data, at least three different directions deformation datas are needed.In repetition Stating step, c.1- c.4 step, to be respectively processed to different track SAR image datas, realizes different radar line of sight to shape The monitoring for becoming information, can obtain more comprehensively real surface deformation data.
D merges MAI technologies and Offset-tracking technical limit spacings radar bearing to deformation data.
MAI technologies are to be based on interferometric phase information earth observation technology, the difference with InSAR technologies, which, which uses, divides The InSAR Processing Algorithms for splitting wave beam obtain the orientation deformation quantity of degree of precision:
Two pairs of principal and subordinate's images are regarded first with the division generation of two width haplopia plural number images (SLC) is forward and backward, master is regarded by forward and backward Interference is carried out respectively from image to handle to obtain forward sight and backsight interference pattern, it is then forward and backward regarding interference pattern conjugate multiplication by this two Generate the multiple aperture differential interferometry figure that a width includes orientation deformation data, filtered, phase unwrapping and etc. processing after Obtain the deformation quantity of orientation.Similar with the conventional InSAR monitorings mechanism of deformation, the coherence of SAR images is to restrict the skill The quality of the principal element of art application, coherence directly affects the precision that MAI measures orientation deformation.Relative to based on amplitude The Offset-tracking technologies of information, high coherent area movement its monitoring accuracy is high, and its monitoring accuracy of Low coherence area compared with It is low.
Image coherence is affected to the precision of MAI technologies, and the general mulch farming object of industrial and mining area earth's surface, coherence compared with Difference, in addition to this, it is dry to have deepened image dephasing for big magnitude Ground Deformation in the short time.It is used to obtain orientation deformation data It merges MAI technologies and Ground Deformation monitoring is carried out to the insensitive Offset-tracking technologies of coherence.
The precision that Offset-tracking technologies calculate offset is that 1/50 pixel is equivalent to for SAR data Precision in orientation can reach 7.5cm and sight to for 14cm.
MAI phase standards difference can be expressed as
With the raising of coherence, calculated phase standard difference is smaller and smaller.It is big to work as coherent value for display in pertinent literature When 0.8, the standard deviation of MAI is better than Offset-tracking technologies.Therefore, the method for the present invention is big to coherent value in research area It is handled using MAI technologies in 0.8 region, Offset- is used to region of the coherent value less than 0.8 in research area Tracking technologies are handled, and finally, two monitoring results are carried out fusion and realize that full basin Ground Deformation monitors.
Step d is specially:
D.1 according to the relationship of MAI technologies and Offset-tracking technical monitorings precision and coherence, two kinds of skills are chosen Critical coherent value is as coherence's threshold value, size 0.8 when art monitoring accuracy height variation.
D.2 the coherence map in the coherence's threshold value and step b d.1 determined according to step is big to coherent value in research area The region of threshold value carries out earth's surface orientation deformation monitoring using MAI technologies and obtains radar bearing to deformation data in d.1.
D.3 the region of threshold value is using at Offset-tracking technologies in being less than d.1 for coherent value in research area Reason obtains in research area remaining area radar bearing to deformation data.
D.4 the radar bearing that d.3 d.2 step obtain respectively with step is merged to deformation data, it is whole to obtain A research area's radar bearing is to Ground Deformation information.
Fig. 6 and Fig. 8 indicates that two groups of difference SAR images of ALOS and ASAR use the orientation deformation of MAI technical limit spacings respectively Monitoring result, white space is to lose coherent area movement in figure.It loses coherent area movement and uses Offset-tracking technical limit spacing deformation Information, Fig. 7 and Fig. 9 are to merge final monitoring result after two kinds of technologies.It can be with by comparison diagram 6 and Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 It was found that effect is obvious, by merge two kinds of technical limit spacings include setting basin center Low coherence zone aspect to deformation Information realizes the monitoring of Low coherence area Ground Deformation.
D.5 d.4 the d.1- step that repeats the above steps, to handle different track SAR image datas, is realized different Monitoring of the radar bearing to deformation data can obtain more comprehensively real surface deformation data.
So far, multi-source SAR images are handled by merging a variety of InSAR technologies, it includes two to obtain industrial and mining area Different sight to two different directions to four different directions deformation datas inside.
E obtain multi-source SAR images (at least two different tracks) sight to after orientation deformation data, by different resolutions Rate monitoring result is resampled to equal resolution.
In view of monitoring result is divided by the difference that different technologies obtain monitoring result precision according to the difference of acquisition modes Two classes are iterated processing by pixel using the method for Helmert variance components estimates, calculate the weight of each pixel, build Vertical three-dimensional Ground Deformation resolves model and is resolved.
Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12 are respectively to study three-dimensional the vertical of earth's surface deformation monitoring, thing and North and South direction result figure.
Wherein, Helmert variance components estimates are estimated using the weighted sum of squares of all kinds of corrections after each adjustment The variance of unit weight of all kinds of observations, and then realize the weight that all kinds of observations are determined according to precision.
Step e is specially:Three-dimensional Ground Deformation resolves model and is expressed as:R=Bd;
Wherein, d=(du,de,dn)TIndicate three-dimensional earth's surface deformation data, duIndicate vertical direction deformation data, deIndicate east West is to deformation data, dnIndicate North and South direction deformation data;Indicate different in radar fix system Direction deformation data,1 sight of track is indicated to deformation data,2 sight of track is indicated to deformation data,Indicate track 1 orientation deformation data,Indicate 2 orientation deformation data of track;B is three-dimensional deformation model coefficient matrix;
As shown in figure 13, SAR satellite earth observations principle schematic is represented by:
Wherein, α1Indicate 1 radar bearing angle of track, α2Indicate 2 radar bearing angle of track, θ1Indicate that 1 radar of track is incident Angle, θ2Indicate 2 radar incidence angle of track;
According to the principle of least square, earth's surface three-dimensional deformation information is calculated:D=(BTPB)-1 BTPR;
Wherein, P be two different track sights to the power battle array corresponding to orientation deformation quantity;According to Helmert variances Relational expression between component of variance and observation residual error is expressed as by component estimation formulas:S θ=Wθ
In formula,Indicate error in the weight unit of two class observed quantities;And WθIt is respectively with S:
In formula,Ni=Bi TPiBi, i=1,2;P1And P2The power battle array of two class observed quantities is indicated respectively;tr Representing matrix asks mark operation;V1And V2The correction of two class observed quantities is indicated respectively;
It is given initially to weigh battle array P, θ is estimated according to Helmert Variance Components Estimations after first time adjustment, then Weight is recalculated according to the following formula:
Wherein,WithThe valuation of two class observed quantities power battle array is indicated respectively;It enablesIt is iterated meter again It calculates, untilAgain it weighs surely, and then calculates three-dimensional deformation information.
Certainly, described above is only that presently preferred embodiments of the present invention is answered the present invention is not limited to enumerate above-described embodiment When explanation, any technical person familiar with the field is all equivalent substitutes for being made, bright under the introduction of this specification Aobvious variant, all falls within the essential scope of this specification, ought to be protected by the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings and calculation method, which is characterized in that including as follows Step:
A obtains the coherence map of multi-source SAR images interference pair;
B is smoothed coherence map;
C combines above-mentioned coherence map and merges D-InSAR technologies and Offset-tracking technical limit spacings radar line of sight to be believed to deformation Breath;
D combines above-mentioned coherence map and merges MAI technologies and Offset-tracking technical limit spacings radar bearing to deformation data;
The radar line of sight that e is obtained using step c and step d is to deformation data and radar bearing to deformation data, using Helmert Variance components estimate is established three-dimensional earth's surface deformation model and is resolved;
The step c is specially:
C.1 according to InSAR technologies, maximum can monitor deformation gradient theory in practical applications, and it is relevant to determine that D-InSAR can be monitored Property threshold value;
C.2 the coherence map in the coherence's threshold value and step b that are c.1 obtained using step is more than step to coherent value in research area C.1 the region of middle threshold value carries out Ground Deformation monitoring using D-InSAR technologies and obtains radar line of sight to deformation data;
C.3 the region of threshold value is handled using Offset-tracking technologies in being less than c.1 for coherent value in research area, Distance is obtained to being further converted into radar line of sight to deformation data after deformation data;
C.4 by step c.2 with step c.3 in the radar line of sight that obtains respectively merged to deformation data according to pixel position, To obtain entire research area's radar line of sight to Ground Deformation information;
C.5 c.4 the c.1- step that repeats the above steps, to be respectively processed to different track SAR image datas, is realized different Monitoring of the radar line of sight to deformation data;
The step determination process that c.1 middle D-InSAR can monitor coherence's threshold value is as follows:
The calculation formula that largest deformation gradient former can theoretically be monitored is as follows:
Wherein, dmaxLargest deformation gradient, λ are wavelength, and u is Pixel size;
Largest deformation gradient and the relationship of coherence can actually be monitored:Dmax=dmax+0.002(γ-1);
Wherein, DmaxCan actually to monitor largest deformation gradient, γ is coherent value;
Found out by formula, with the reduction of coherent value, there are a smaller coherent values to make DmaxBecome 0, i.e., prison does not measure deformation Information;The critical coherent value of largest deformation gradient can be monitored as threshold value by calculating each sensor based on this actually.
2. a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings according to claim 1 and calculation method, It is characterized in that, the step a is specially:
Covering research area's multi-source SAR images of collection are imaged, after multiple look processing, are slightly matched based on Precise Orbit data Processing is set, initial offset is calculated;The method for registering based on related coefficient is used again, offset multinomial is fitted, most Small two multiply multinomial coefficient is calculated under criterion after by resampling handle complete precision registration;By the SAR shadows after each self registration As carrying out conjugate multiplication respectively, the coherence map of SAR images is calculated while obtaining respective differential interferometry phase diagram.
3. a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings according to claim 1 and calculation method, It is characterized in that, the step d is specially:
D.1 according to the relationship of MAI technologies and Offset-tracking technical monitorings precision and coherence, two kinds of technology prisons are chosen Critical coherent value is as coherence's threshold value when survey accuracy variation;
D.2 d.1 the coherence map in the coherence's threshold value and step b d.1 determined according to step is more than coherent value in research area The region of middle threshold value carries out earth's surface orientation deformation monitoring using MAI technologies and obtains radar bearing to deformation data;
D.3 the region of threshold value is handled using Offset-tracking technologies in being less than d.1 for coherent value in research area, Remaining area radar bearing is obtained in research area to deformation data;
D.4 the radar bearing that d.3 d.2 step obtain respectively with step is merged to deformation data, is entirely ground to obtain Area's radar bearing is studied carefully to Ground Deformation information;
D.5 d.4 the d.1- step that repeats the above steps, to handle different track SAR image datas, realizes different radars The monitoring of orientation deformation data.
4. a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings according to claim 3 and calculation method, It is characterized in that, the step d.1 in the size of coherence threshold value be 0.8.
5. a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings according to claim 1 and calculation method, It is characterized in that, the step e is specially:
After multi-source SAR images radar line of sight is obtained to deformation data and radar bearing to deformation data, different resolution is monitored As a result it is resampled to equal resolution;Processing is iterated by pixel using the method for Helmert variance components estimates, is calculated The weight of each pixel establishes three-dimensional Ground Deformation and resolves model and resolved.
6. a kind of fusion multi-source SAR image industrial and mining area three-dimensional earth's surface deformation monitorings according to claim 5 and calculation method, It is characterized in that, being established in the step e, three-dimensional Ground Deformation resolves model and the process resolved is as follows:
Three-dimensional Ground Deformation resolves model and is expressed as:R=Bd;
Wherein, d=(du,de,dn)TIndicate three-dimensional earth's surface deformation data, duIndicate vertical direction deformation data, deIndicate between east and west To deformation data, dnIndicate North and South direction deformation data;Indicate different directions in radar fix system Deformation data,1 sight of track is indicated to deformation data,2 sight of track is indicated to deformation data,Indicate 1 side of track Position to deformation data,Indicate 2 orientation deformation data of track;B is three-dimensional deformation model coefficient matrix;
It is expressed as according to SAR satellite earth observation principle schematics:
Wherein, α1Indicate 1 radar bearing angle of track, α2Indicate 2 radar bearing angle of track, θ1Indicate 1 radar incidence angle of track, θ2Table Show 2 radar incidence angle of track;
According to the principle of least square, earth's surface three-dimensional deformation information is calculated:D=(BTPB)-1BTPR;
Wherein, P be two different track sights to the power battle array corresponding to orientation deformation quantity;According to Helmert components of variance Relational expression between component of variance and observation residual error is expressed as by estimation formulas:S θ=Wθ
In formula,Indicate error in the weight unit of two class observed quantities;And WθIt is respectively with S:
In formula,Ni=Bi TPiBi, i=1,2;P1And P2The power battle array of two class observed quantities is indicated respectively;Tr is indicated Matrix Calculating mark operation;V1And V2The correction of two class observed quantities is indicated respectively;
Given initial power battle array P estimates θ according to Helmert Variance Components Estimations after first time adjustment, then according to Following formula recalculates weight:
Wherein,WithThe valuation of two class observed quantities power battle array is indicated respectively;It enablesIt is iterated meter again It calculates, untilAgain it weighs surely, and then calculates three-dimensional deformation information.
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