CN106451508B - Distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration and charging and discharging method and device - Google Patents

Distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration and charging and discharging method and device Download PDF

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CN106451508B
CN106451508B CN201610893391.3A CN201610893391A CN106451508B CN 106451508 B CN106451508 B CN 106451508B CN 201610893391 A CN201610893391 A CN 201610893391A CN 106451508 B CN106451508 B CN 106451508B
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power
super capacitor
lithium battery
energy
bat
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CN106451508A (en
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高素萍
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Shenzhen Polytechnic
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Shenzhen Polytechnic
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/345Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering using capacitors as storage or buffering devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2203/00Indexing scheme relating to details of circuit arrangements for AC mains or AC distribution networks
    • H02J2203/20Simulating, e g planning, reliability check, modelling or computer assisted design [CAD]

Abstract

A distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration method, a charging and discharging method and a device are provided, wherein the distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration method comprises the following steps: acquiring power consumption information required by a load in unit time; acquiring power generation information of a power generation system in unit time; respectively acquiring electric information provided by a lithium battery and a super capacitor in unit time; establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the acquired required power utilization information and power generation information and the power information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time based on an optimization objective; and obtaining the optimized capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model. Therefore, the configuration of the distributed hybrid energy storage system is optimized, the economic benefit is improved, and the economic cost is saved.

Description

Distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration and charging and discharging method and device
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of energy storage, in particular to a distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration and charging and discharging method and device.
Background
The energy storage technology is more and more widely applied to the fields of new energy, smart power grids, energy-saving technology, electric vehicles and the like, plays an important role in large-scale renewable energy grid connection and distributed power generation and upgrading and transformation of traditional power grids, and is the most effective technical means for solving the problems of high grid connection difficulty and low power grid acceptance caused by intermittence and randomness existing in photovoltaic and wind power generation and adjusting the quality of electric energy.
The energy storage technology is applied to the fields of new energy, smart power grids, electric vehicles and the like, and mainly utilizes an energy storage carrier to temporarily store electric energy and release the electric energy at required time. Because the battery energy storage and super capacitor energy storage technologies are both widely applied and relatively mature energy storage carriers at present, in the application, the energy storage system mainly aims at meeting the energy requirement, but the single energy storage system is limited by the performance of the energy storage element when in use, for example, a lithium battery is limited by the number of charging cycles and the provided power, and a great deal of cost is generated when the technical requirement is met; the super capacitor can be regarded as a permanent device due to the characteristics of the super capacitor, but the capacity of the super capacitor is too small to meet the system requirement. Therefore, the configuration method of the energy storage system is one of the key technologies for solving the application of the energy storage technology, and is the key factor for determining the cost and the economy of the energy storage system.
Lithium batteries are widely used in energy storage systems due to their advantages of high energy density, high charging and discharging efficiency, and the like. In the lithium battery capacity calculation process, consumption of the battery in other aspects except for providing load support in the working process needs to be considered, the capacity of the required battery needs to be accurately calculated in order to analyze the consumption conveniently, modeling needs to be carried out according to the lithium battery composition principle, and an equivalent circuit model mainly comprises an internal resistance model, a resistance-capacitance model, a davinin model and the like. Lithium batteries have high energy density and high charge-discharge efficiency, but are limited by the number of charge cycles and the power supplied. The energy storage system needs to continuously absorb energy or release energy in the process of stabilizing power fluctuation of new energy power generation or other power utilization systems. The energy storage unit inevitably needs to be charged and discharged continuously, and the current for charging and discharging in a short time is relatively large.
Under the frequent working condition of the energy storage system, how to prolong the service life of the lithium battery and avoid frequent charging and discharging becomes the problem to be solved urgently, and in addition, how to optimize the configuration of the distributed hybrid energy storage system also becomes the problem to be solved urgently.
Disclosure of Invention
The first technical problem to be solved by the invention is how to optimize the configuration of the distributed hybrid energy storage system.
In addition, the second technical problem to be solved by the present invention is how to prolong the service life of the lithium battery to avoid frequent charging and discharging.
To solve the first technical problem, according to a first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention discloses a method for configuring a distributed hybrid energy storage system, including:
acquiring power consumption information required by a load in unit time; acquiring power generation information of a power generation system in unit time; respectively acquiring electric information provided by a lithium battery and a super capacitor in unit time; establishing a multi-objective optimization model based on the acquired electricity information and electricity generation information required by the optimization objective pair and the electricity information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time; and obtaining the optimized capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model.
Alternatively,linearly weighting and aggregating a plurality of sub-objective functions into a single objective function, introducing constraint conditions to establish the following multi-objective optimization model:x=[Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]Twherein f (x) is the final objective function after aggregation; f. of1(x) A cost sub-targeting function; f. of2(x) A sub-target function for power supply reliability and energy surplus; f. of3(x) A supply and demand balancing sub-objective function; x is a configuration variable, including lithium battery energy, super capacitor energy, lithium battery power and super capacitor power; wbatEnergy of the lithium battery; wucIs the super capacitor energy; pbatThe power of the lithium battery; pucIs the super capacitor power; x is a constraint condition of variable X, including the state of charge S of the lithium batteryOCConstraint condition, super capacitor terminal voltage VOCConstraint conditions and maximum power constraint conditions; lambda [ alpha ]1、λ2、λ3Respectively, the weights of the sub-targeting functions.
Optionally, the optimized capacities for representing the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model are obtained by adopting a particle swarm algorithm and iterating for K times to obtain an optimal configuration variable, wherein K is a positive integer.
According to a second aspect, an embodiment of the present invention discloses a distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration device, including:
the first acquisition module is used for acquiring the power consumption information required by the load in unit time; the second acquisition module is used for acquiring the power generation information of the power generation system in unit time; the third acquisition module is used for respectively acquiring the electric information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time; a modeling module for modeling the model of the model,
the system comprises a multi-objective optimization model, a multi-objective optimization model and a control module, wherein the multi-objective optimization model is used for establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the acquired required power utilization information and power generation information and the power information provided by a lithium battery and a super capacitor in unit time based on an optimization objective; and the optimization module is used for obtaining optimized capacities for representing the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model.
Optionally, buildingThe model module linearly weights and aggregates a plurality of sub-objective functions into a single objective function, introduces constraint conditions and establishes the following multi-objective optimization model:x=[Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]Twherein f (x) is the final objective function after aggregation; f. of1(x) A cost sub-targeting function; f. of2(x) A sub-target function for power supply reliability and energy surplus; f. of3(x) A supply and demand balancing sub-objective function; x is a configuration variable, including lithium battery energy, super capacitor energy, lithium battery power and super capacitor power; wbatEnergy of the lithium battery; wucIs the super capacitor energy; pbatThe power of the lithium battery; pucIs the super capacitor power; x is a constraint condition of variable X, including the state of charge S of the lithium batteryOCConstraint condition, super capacitor terminal voltage VOCConstraint conditions and maximum power constraint conditions; lambda [ alpha ]1、λ2、λ3Respectively, the weights of the sub-targeting functions.
To solve the second technical problem, according to a third aspect, an embodiment of the present invention discloses a charging and discharging method for a distributed hybrid energy storage system, including:
acquiring the sending power of a distributed hybrid energy storage system, the load power of a load and the percentage of the residual electric quantity of a super capacitor; and determining the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system according to the sending power, the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity.
Optionally, when the sending power is greater than the load power and the percentage of the remaining power is less than a first preset value, the super capacitor independently charges the power; when the sending power is greater than the load power and the percentage of the remaining electric quantity is greater than a first preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together; when the sending power is smaller than the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity is larger than a second preset value, the super capacitor independently discharges electricity; and when the sending power is smaller than the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity is smaller than a second preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together.
Optionally, when the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together, the super capacitor absorbs the high-frequency power component, and the lithium battery absorbs the low-frequency power component; when the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together, the lithium battery compensates low-frequency power fluctuation, and the super capacitor compensates high-frequency power fluctuation.
According to a fourth aspect, an embodiment of the present invention discloses a charging and discharging device for a distributed hybrid energy storage system, including:
the system parameter acquisition module is used for acquiring the sending power of the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the load power of a load and the percentage of the residual electric quantity of the super capacitor; and the state determination module is used for determining the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system according to the output power, the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity.
Optionally, the state determination module is configured to: when the sending power is greater than the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity is less than a first preset value, independently charging by the super capacitor; when the sending power is greater than the load power and the percentage of the remaining electric quantity is greater than a first preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together; when the sending power is smaller than the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity is larger than a second preset value, the super capacitor independently discharges electricity; and when the sending power is smaller than the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity is smaller than a second preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together.
The technical scheme of the invention has the following advantages:
according to the configuration method and the configuration device for the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the multi-objective optimization model is established based on the optimization objective according to the required electricity utilization information, the electricity generation information and the electricity information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time, and the capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor corresponding to the multi-objective optimization model are obtained, so that the configuration of the distributed hybrid energy storage system is optimized, the economic benefit is improved, and the economic cost is saved.
According to the charging and discharging method and device for the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system is determined according to the sending power, the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity, so that the service life of a lithium battery is prolonged under the condition that the energy storage system works frequently, and frequent charging and discharging are avoided.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without creative efforts.
Fig. 1 is a flowchart of a method for configuring a distributed hybrid energy storage system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a flowchart illustrating a process for solving the target model according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic block diagram of a distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 4 is a flowchart of a charging and discharging method for a distributed hybrid energy storage system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions of the present invention will be described clearly and completely with reference to the accompanying drawings, and it should be understood that the described embodiments are some, but not all embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the terms "center", "upper", "lower", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "inner", "outer", etc., indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, and are only for convenience of description and simplicity of description, but do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention. Furthermore, the terms "first," "second," and "third" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise explicitly specified or limited, the terms "mounted," "connected," and "connected" are to be construed broadly, e.g., as meaning either a fixed connection, a removable connection, or an integral connection; can be mechanically or electrically connected; the two elements may be directly connected or indirectly connected through an intermediate medium, or may be communicated with each other inside the two elements, or may be wirelessly connected or wired connected. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art.
In addition, the technical features involved in the different embodiments of the present invention described below may be combined with each other as long as they do not conflict with each other.
To optimize the configuration of the distributed hybrid energy storage system, referring to fig. 1, a flowchart of the configuration method is shown, where the configuration method includes the following steps:
and step S100, acquiring the electricity consumption information required by the load in unit time. In a specific embodiment, the power consumption information required by the load per unit time may include energy required by the load and power required by the load. In particular, the load daily load usage data, i.e. the load daily profile, may be included in a unit time of day.
Step S200, acquiring the power generation information of the power generation system per unit time. Specifically, the time unit of day may include new energy (e.g., photovoltaic power generation) information and other power generation information, i.e., photovoltaic power generation daily curves and other power generation daily curves.
And step S300, respectively acquiring the electric information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time. In a specific embodiment, the electrical information of the lithium battery includes energy and power provided by the lithium battery; the electrical information of the super capacitor includes the energy and power provided by the super capacitor. Specifically, the unit time of day may include energy and power of a lithium battery and energy and power of a super capacitor.
And S400, establishing a multi-objective optimization model based on the acquired required power utilization information, the acquired power generation information and the acquired power information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time. In this embodiment, the optimization objectives may be the lowest economic cost, power supply reliability and energy surplus, optimal supply and demand matching, and the like. Specifically, a target optimization model is established, for example, with an economic target and energy and power constraints.
And S500, obtaining the optimized capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model. After the target optimization model is established, the capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor can be obtained by solving the multi-target optimization model, so that the capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor are optimally configured.
In an alternative embodiment, in the step S500, a particle swarm algorithm may be used to obtain the optimized parameters.
In an alternative embodiment, in performing step S400, the target optimization model may be established using the following formula:
x=[Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]T
wherein f (x) is the final objective function after aggregation; f. of1(x) A cost sub-targeting function; f. of2(x) A sub-target function for power supply reliability and energy surplus; f. of3(x) A supply and demand balancing sub-objective function; x is a configuration variable, including lithium battery energy, super capacitor energy, lithium battery power and super capacitor power; wbatEnergy of the lithium battery; wucIs the super capacitor energy; pbatThe power of the lithium battery; pucIs the super capacitor power; x is a constraint condition of variable X, including the state of charge S of the lithium batteryOCConstraint condition, super capacitor terminal voltage VOCConstraint conditions and maximum power constraint conditions; lambda [ alpha ]1、λ2、λ3Respectively, the weights of the sub-targeting functions.
To better model, in alternative embodiments, typical photovoltaic power generation curves, load curves and other new energy power generation curves per unit time (e.g., day) may be divided into N parts, each of which is formed into an array { P }PV(1),PPV(2),...,PPV(N)}、{PL(1),PL(2),...,PL(N)}、{PWG(1),PWG(2),...,PWG(N) are respectively a load instantaneous power array, a fan instantaneous power array and a photovoltaic instantaneous power array. It is assumed that the high frequency part of the required power is distributed to the super capacitor and the low frequency part to the lithium battery by using a low pass filter by the control strategy. In a specific embodiment:
wherein, Pbat(i)、Puc(i) Respectively giving instantaneous output power for the lithium battery and the super capacitor at the ith moment; t isrIs the low pass filter time constant; pL(i) For instantaneous power consumption of the load at moment i, PPV(i) For photovoltaic instantaneous power generation at moment i, PWG(i) And the instantaneous generated power of other new energy at the ith moment.
In particular embodiments, the objective optimization model may include a plurality of sub-objective functions:
1) cost sub-targeting function
The hybrid energy storage cost comprises initial construction cost and later maintenance cost, and the energy and power of the lithium battery and the super capacitor are comprehensively considered, and the following formula is shown:
Wuc、Wbatsupercapacitors and supercapacitors respectively configured for system needsEnergy of a lithium battery; puc、PbatPower of super capacitor and lithium battery respectively required to be configured η1、η2The efficiencies of energy conversion of the super capacitor and the lithium battery are respectively; c. Ce1、ce2Respectively the unit energy prices of the super capacitor and the lithium battery; c. Cm1、cm2The maintenance cost of the unit power of the super capacitor and the lithium battery is respectively;
2) power supply reliability and energy surplus sub-target function
The electric energy in the micro-grid is not connected to the grid, so that if the generating power is greater than the load power plus the stored energy absorption power, power waste is caused, and if the generating power plus the stored energy discharge power is less than the load power, the system is unreliable. The supply reliability and energy surplus sub-targets are thus represented by the sum of the squares of the configured lithium battery power and the power difference allocated by the actual control strategy, as shown in the following equation.
Pbat(i) Lithium battery instantaneous power P distributed for ith moment control strategyuc(i) Super capacitor instantaneous power, P, allocated for the ith time control strategyN,batRated power, P, for lithium battery configurationsN,ucRated power configured for the super capacitor.
3) Supply and demand balance sub-target function
The hybrid energy storage system needs to ensure that the power variation provided or absorbed by the lithium battery and the super capacitor is as small as possible to ensure the stability of the system, so that the power variance provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor is taken as a target:
PN,bat、PN,ucrespectively configuring rated power for the lithium battery and the super capacitor; pbat(i)、Puc(i) Respectively controlling the power of the lithium battery and the power of the super capacitor distributed by the strategy at the moment i; delta Pavg,bat、ΔPavg,ucThe average power deviation of the lithium battery and the average power deviation of the super capacitor are respectively.
In a specific embodiment, when there are multiple sub-goal functions, the weights of the goal functions need to be configured, and the importance of the sub-goal functions is weighed. In particular, a dispersion ranking method may be used to determine the weight of each sub-targeting function. The difference between the different capacity configurations and the optimal configuration is called dispersion, as shown in the following formula.
m is the target number; f. ofi j=fi(xj) And measuring the objective function value for different values of the energy storage capacity. The larger the dispersion, the larger the difference of the energy storage configuration from the optimal solution.
The steps of determining the weight of each sub-targeting function by the dispersion sorting method are as follows:
1) m sub-targets are set, and each sub-target f is respectively solvedi(x) Is recorded as xi
2) Substituting the optimal solution obtained by each objective function into different sub-objective functions to obtain corresponding objective function value fi j
3) Calculating different optimal solutions xiWhen, the dispersion of each sub-target function is recordedAs shown in equation (7). Since the target value is compared with the single-target optimal solution target value, the dispersion is not negative.
4) Calculating the average dispersion of the ith sub-target:
due to the fact thatTherefore, the mean deviation is obtained as m-1.
5) Calculating a weight coefficient:
6) since the dispersion is all non-negative, the weight coefficients calculated through the above process are all positive, and then the weight coefficients are normalized
Wherein n is the number of sub-target functions, lambdaiIs a weight coefficient of a sub-objective function, andand reconstructing the objective function by the sub-targets in a weighted average sum mode.
In an alternative embodiment, the constraints may be established as follows:
1) state of charge S of lithium batteryOCConstraint conditions
Limiting the lithium battery S in order to prevent damage to the life of the lithium battery and the life of the supercapacitorOCUpper and lower limits.
SOC,min≤SOC,i≤SOC,max(11)
Wherein S isOC,minThe lower limit of the charge state of the lithium battery is generally 20-30 percent; sOC,maxThe upper limit of the state of charge of the lithium battery is generally 80-100%.
2) Terminal voltage V of super capacitorOCConstraint conditions
To prevent the lifetime of the supercapacitor from being reduced, the terminal voltage V of the supercapacitor is limitedOCUpper and lower limits.
VOC,min≤VOC,i≤VOC,max(12)
Wherein, VOC,minGenerally 10% -20% of VOC,maxGenerally 90-100 percent.
3) Maximum power requirement constraint condition
There may be important loads in the system that need to be guaranteed not to be powered down, and therefore there is a minimum power requirement, while at the same time ensuring that the maximum power does not exceed the maximum power limit of the respective converter
Wherein, PN,bat、PN,ucRated power of the lithium battery and the super capacitor respectively; pminIs the minimum power requirement; pbat,max、Puc,maxThe maximum power limits of the lithium battery and the super capacitor are respectively.
In the embodiment, the optimized capacities for representing the lithium battery and the super capacitor are obtained according to the multi-objective optimization model, and the optimal configuration variable is obtained after K iterations by adopting a particle swarm algorithm, wherein K is a positive integer. Specifically, the objective function is solved by using a particle swarm optimization PSO, please refer to fig. 2, which is a flowchart for solving the objective function in this embodiment, and first, a vector in a model is explicitly optimized, where x is [ W ═ Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]T. The optimization process of the hybrid energy storage capacity comprises the following steps:
in step S10, a capacity configuration is initialized. Capacity configuration initialization is performed first. N groups of capacity configuration x by randomly generating lithium batteries and super capacitorsi=[Wbat,i,Wuc,i,Pbat,i,Puc,i]T,i=1,2,...,N。
In step S20, the N-group capacity allocation is evaluated. The method comprises the following steps that N groups of lithium batteries and super capacitors are configured, typical wind power and load data are compensated under control strategy formulas (2) and (3), if all described constraints cannot be met in real-time control, the configuration is invalid, and the configuration needs to be regenerated and evaluated; if the described constraints can be met, then the respective objective function values for the N sets of capacity configurations are calculated.
And step S30, updating the respective historical optimal configuration and the total optimal configuration of the N groups. After the N groups of configurations are evaluated, the N groups of configurations are compared, and the N groups of capacity configurations are found out and are compared with respective historical values to obtain optimal values; and simultaneously finding the optimal value in the N groups of capacity configurations and comparing the optimal value with the historical total optimal value. And finally obtaining N groups of respective historical optimal solutions and a total optimal solution.
Step S40, the next set of capacity configurations is updated. And updating the next group of capacity configurations according to a position formula and a speed formula in the particle swarm algorithm.
xi(t)=xi(t-1)+vi(t-1),t=1,2,...,K (2-1)
vi(t)=wxi(t-1)+c1r1(xpbest-xi)+c2r2(xgbest-xi),t=1,2,...,K (2-2)
Wherein t represents the number of iterations and also represents the capacity configuration updated for t times; x is the number ofi(t) the configuration results of the lithium battery and the super capacitor after the t-th updating;
vi(t) is the difference between the solution at the t-th time and the previous solution. x is the number ofpbestUntil the t iteration, the current individual optimal solution is obtained; vxgbestUntil the t iteration, the current overall optimal solution is obtained; w is the inertia weight, c1And c2As an acceleration factor, r1And r2Is a random number between 0 and 1.
Step S50, determine whether the number of iterations reaches K. And finally judging whether the iteration frequency reaches a value K, wherein K is the iteration frequency determined after the precision and the calculation complexity of the final solution are balanced.
If not, go back to step S30 to continue execution; and if the K is reached, stopping searching, and outputting the optimal solution of the optimal configuration of the lithium battery and the super capacitor.
xop=[Wbat,op,Wuc,op,Pbat,op,Puc,op]T(2-3)
Wherein x isopFor an optimal solution after K iterations, Wbat,opThe energy optimal value of the lithium battery in the optimal solution is obtained; wuc,opThe energy optimal value of the super capacitor in the optimal solution is obtained; pbat,opOptimally configuring the power of the lithium battery in the optimal solution; puc,opAnd the power of the super capacitor in the optimal solution is optimally configured.
The embodiment also discloses a distributed hybrid energy storage system configuration device, please refer to fig. 3, the configuration device includes: a first acquisition module 100, a second acquisition module 200, a third acquisition module 300, a modeling module 400, and an optimization module 500, wherein:
the first obtaining module 100 is configured to obtain power consumption information required by a load in unit time; the second obtaining module 200 is configured to obtain power generation information of the power generation system per unit time; the third obtaining module 300 is configured to obtain electrical information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time respectively; the modeling module 400 is used for establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the acquired required power utilization information, power generation information and power information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time based on an optimization objective; the optimization module 500 is configured to obtain optimized capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model.
In an optional embodiment, the modeling module linearly weights and aggregates a plurality of sub-objective functions into a single objective function, introduces a constraint condition and establishes the following multi-objective optimization model:
x=[Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]T
wherein f (x) is the final objective function after aggregation; f. of1(x) A cost sub-targeting function; f. of2(x) A sub-target function for power supply reliability and energy surplus; f. of3(x) A supply and demand balancing sub-objective function; x is a configuration variable, including lithium battery energy, super capacitor energy, lithium battery power and super capacitor power; wbatEnergy of the lithium battery; wucIs the super capacitor energy; pbatThe power of the lithium battery; pucIs the super capacitor power; x is a constraint condition of variable X, including the state of charge S of the lithium batteryOCConstraint condition, super capacitor terminal voltage VOCConstraint conditions and maximum power constraint conditions; lambda [ alpha ]1、λ2、λ3Respectively, the weights of the sub-targeting functions.
According to the configuration method and the configuration device for the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the target optimization model is established based on the preset configuration target according to the required power utilization information, the power generation information and the provided power information, and the optimization parameters corresponding to the target optimization model and used for representing the capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor are obtained, so that the configuration of the distributed hybrid energy storage system is optimized, the economic benefit is improved, and the economic cost is saved.
In order to prolong the service life of a lithium battery and avoid frequent charging and discharging, the embodiment discloses a charging and discharging method of a distributed hybrid energy storage system, wherein a distributed hybrid system is configured by adopting the configuration method of the embodiment, and referring to fig. 4, the charging and discharging method includes the following steps:
and step S1, acquiring parameters of the distributed hybrid energy storage system. Specifically, the sending power P of the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the load power P1 of the load and the remaining capacity percentage SOC of the super capacitor are obtained.
And step S2, determining the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system. In this embodiment, the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system is determined according to the output power P, the load power P1 and the percentage SOC of the remaining power. In a specific embodiment:
(1) when the emitted power P is greater than the load power P1 and the remaining capacity percentage SOC is less than a first preset value (e.g., 40%), the super capacitor is independently charged.
(2) When the output power P is greater than the load power P1 and the percentage SOC of the remaining charge is greater than a first preset value (e.g., 40%), the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together.
(3) When the emitted power P is less than the load power P1 and the remaining capacity percentage SOC is greater than a second preset value (e.g., 70%), the super capacitor independently discharges the electricity.
(4) When the output power P is smaller than the load power P1 and the remaining capacity percentage SOC is smaller than a second preset value (for example, 70%), the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together.
In a preferred embodiment, when the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together, the super capacitor absorbs a high-frequency power component and the lithium battery absorbs a low-frequency power component while stabilizing power fluctuation; when the super capacitor and the lithium battery discharge together, the super capacitor and the lithium battery bear power fluctuation together, the lithium battery compensates low-frequency power fluctuation, and the super capacitor compensates high-frequency power fluctuation. It should be noted that lead-acid batteries may also be used as the lithium batteries in the present embodiment.
It should be noted that, in this embodiment, stabilizing fluctuation of the power generation system mainly refers to stabilizing fluctuation of a new energy power generation system, such as a wind power generation system and a photovoltaic power generation system. When the hybrid energy storage system is used for stabilizing the photovoltaic power, the ideal stabilizing effect is that the power generated by the photovoltaic after the hybrid energy storage stabilization is consistent with the power expected to be output, namely, the power difference value between the photovoltaic power and the power expected to be output, namely, the high-frequency fluctuation part and the low-frequency fluctuation part in the total power of the energy storage system are respectively absorbed and stabilized by the lithium battery and the super capacitor. However, in the actual operation process, due to the limited energy storage capacity, the limitation of charge and discharge power and other factors, an ideal stabilizing effect is difficult to realize, and the optimal optimization effect is achieved by determining reasonable energy storage capacity.
This embodiment has still disclosed a distributed hybrid energy storage system charge-discharge device, and wherein, distributed hybrid system adopts the device configuration that the above-mentioned embodiment is disclosed to form, and this charge-discharge device includes: the system comprises a system parameter acquisition module and a state determination module, wherein the system parameter acquisition module is used for acquiring the emitted power P of the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the load power P1 of a load and the residual capacity percentage SOC of a super capacitor; the state determination module is used for determining the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system according to the emitted power P, the load power P1 and the remaining capacity percentage SOC.
In a particular embodiment, the state determination module is to: when the sending power P is greater than the load power P1 and the remaining capacity percentage SOC is less than a first preset value, independently charging by the super capacitor; when the sending power P is greater than the load power P1 and the percentage SOC of the remaining electric quantity is greater than a first preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together; when the sending power P is smaller than the load power P1 and the percentage SOC of the remaining capacity is larger than a second preset value, the super capacitor independently discharges; and when the sending power P is smaller than the load power P1 and the remaining capacity percentage SOC is smaller than a second preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together.
According to the charging and discharging method and device for the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the working state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system is determined according to the sending power, the load power and the percentage of the residual electric quantity, so that the service life of a lithium battery is prolonged under the frequent working condition of the energy storage system, and frequent charging and discharging are avoided.
As will be appreciated by one skilled in the art, embodiments of the present invention may be provided as a method, system, or computer program product. Accordingly, the present invention may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment or an embodiment combining software and hardware aspects. Furthermore, the present invention may take the form of a computer program product embodied on one or more computer-usable storage media (including, but not limited to, disk storage, CD-ROM, optical storage, and the like) having computer-usable program code embodied therein.
The present invention is described with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems), and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each flow and/or block of the flow diagrams and/or block diagrams, and combinations of flows and/or blocks in the flow diagrams and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer program instructions. These computer program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, embedded processor, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions specified in the flowchart flow or flows and/or block diagram block or blocks.
These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer-readable memory that can direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer-readable memory produce an article of manufacture including instruction means which implement the function specified in the flowchart flow or flows and/or block diagram block or blocks.
These computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer implemented process such that the instructions which execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide steps for implementing the functions specified in the flowchart flow or flows and/or block diagram block or blocks.
It should be understood that the above examples are only for clarity of illustration and are not intended to limit the embodiments. Other variations and modifications will be apparent to persons skilled in the art in light of the above description. And are neither required nor exhaustive of all embodiments. And obvious variations or modifications therefrom are within the scope of the invention.

Claims (4)

1. A charging and discharging method of a distributed hybrid energy storage system is characterized by comprising the following steps:
configuring the distributed hybrid energy storage system;
acquiring the sending power (P) of the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the load power (P1) of a load and the residual capacity percentage (SOC) of a super capacitor;
determining an operating state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system from the emitted power (P), the load power (P1) and the percentage of charge remaining (SOC);
when the emitted power (P) is greater than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is less than a first preset value, independently charging by the super capacitor;
when the emitted power (P) is greater than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is greater than a first preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together;
when the emitted power (P) is less than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is greater than a second preset value, independently discharging by the super capacitor;
when the emitted power (P) is less than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is less than a second preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together;
the configuring the distributed hybrid energy storage system comprises:
acquiring power consumption information required by a load in unit time;
acquiring power generation information of a power generation system in unit time;
respectively acquiring electric information provided by a lithium battery and a super capacitor in unit time;
establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the acquired required power utilization information, the acquired power generation information and the power information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time based on an optimization objective;
obtaining optimized capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model;
wherein, the multi-objective optimization model is as follows:
x=[Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]T
(x) is the final objective function after aggregation; f. of1(x) A cost sub-targeting function; f. of2(x) A sub-target function for power supply reliability and energy surplus; f. of3(x) A supply and demand balancing sub-objective function; x is a configuration variable, including lithium battery energy, super capacitor energy, lithium battery power and super capacitor power; wbatEnergy of the lithium battery; wucIs the super capacitor energy; pbatThe power of the lithium battery; pucIs the super capacitor power; x is a constraint condition of variable X, including the state of charge S of the lithium batteryOCConstraint condition, super capacitor terminal voltage VOCConstraint conditions and maximum power constraint conditions; lambda [ alpha ]1、λ2、λ3Are sub-target functions respectivelyThe weight of (c);
wherein, 1) the cost sub-targeting function
The hybrid energy storage cost comprises initial construction cost and later maintenance cost, and the energy and power of the lithium battery and the super capacitor are comprehensively considered, and the following formula is shown:
Wuc、Wbatrespectively configuring the energy of a super capacitor and the energy of a lithium battery for the system; puc、PbatPower of super capacitor and lithium battery respectively required to be configured η1、η2The efficiencies of energy conversion of the super capacitor and the lithium battery are respectively; c. Ce1、ce2Respectively the unit energy prices of the super capacitor and the lithium battery; c. Cm1、cm2The maintenance cost of the unit power of the super capacitor and the lithium battery is respectively;
2) power supply reliability and energy surplus sub-target function
The electric energy in the microgrid is not connected to the grid, so that if the generating power is greater than the load power plus the stored energy absorption power, power waste is caused, and if the generating power plus the stored energy discharge power is less than the load power, the system is unreliable, so that the sub-targets of power supply reliability and energy surplus are represented by the square sum of the configured lithium battery power and the power difference distributed by the actual control strategy, as shown in the following formula;
Pbat(i) lithium battery instantaneous power P distributed for ith moment control strategyuc(i) Super capacitor instantaneous power, P, allocated for the ith time control strategyN,batRated power, P, for lithium battery configurationsN,ucRated power configured for the super capacitor;
3) supply and demand balance sub-target function
The hybrid energy storage system needs to ensure that the power variation provided or absorbed by the lithium battery and the super capacitor is as small as possible to ensure the stability of the system, so that the power variance provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor is taken as a target:
PN,bat、PN,ucrespectively configuring rated power for the lithium battery and the super capacitor; pbat(i)、Puc(i) Respectively controlling the power of the lithium battery and the power of the super capacitor distributed by the strategy at the moment i; delta Pavg,bat、ΔPavg,ucThe average power deviation of the lithium battery and the super capacitor is respectively, and N is a typical photovoltaic power generation curve, a load curve and other new energy power generation curve parts in unit time.
2. The charging and discharging method of the distributed hybrid energy storage system according to claim 1,
when the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together, the super capacitor absorbs high-frequency power components, and the lithium battery absorbs low-frequency power components;
when the super capacitor and the lithium battery discharge together, the lithium battery compensates low-frequency power fluctuation, and the super capacitor compensates high-frequency power fluctuation.
3. The method for configuring the distributed hybrid energy storage system according to claim 1, wherein the optimized capacities for representing the lithium battery and the super capacitor obtained according to the multi-objective optimization model are obtained by performing iteration for K times through a particle swarm algorithm, and K is a positive integer.
4. The utility model provides a distributing type mixes energy storage system charge-discharge device which characterized in that, charge-discharge device includes:
the configuration module is used for configuring the distributed hybrid energy storage system;
the system parameter acquisition module is used for acquiring the sending power (P) of the distributed hybrid energy storage system, the load power (P1) of a load and the residual capacity percentage (SOC) of a super capacitor;
a state determination module for determining an operating state of the distributed hybrid energy storage system from the emitted power (P), the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC);
when the emitted power (P) is greater than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is less than a first preset value, independently charging by the super capacitor;
when the emitted power (P) is greater than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is greater than a first preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are charged together;
when the emitted power (P) is less than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is greater than a second preset value, independently discharging by the super capacitor;
when the emitted power (P) is less than the load power (P1) and the percentage of remaining charge (SOC) is less than a second preset value, the super capacitor and the lithium battery are used for discharging together;
the configuration module includes:
the first acquisition module is used for acquiring the power consumption information required by the load in unit time;
the second acquisition module is used for acquiring the power generation information of the power generation system in unit time;
the third acquisition module is used for respectively acquiring the electric information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time;
the modeling module is used for establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the acquired required power utilization information and power generation information and the power information provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor in unit time based on an optimization objective;
the optimization module is used for obtaining optimized capacities of the lithium battery and the super capacitor according to the multi-objective optimization model;
wherein, the multi-objective optimization model is as follows:
x=[Wbat,Wuc,Pbat,Puc]T
(x) is the final objective function after aggregation; f. of1(x) A cost sub-targeting function; f. of2(x) A sub-target function for power supply reliability and energy surplus; f. of3(x) A supply and demand balancing sub-objective function; x is a configuration variable, including lithium battery energy, super capacitor energy, lithium battery power and super capacitor power; wbatEnergy of the lithium battery; wucIs the super capacitor energy; pbatThe power of the lithium battery; pucIs the super capacitor power; x is a constraint condition of variable X, including the state of charge S of the lithium batteryOCConstraint condition, super capacitor terminal voltage VOCConstraint conditions and maximum power constraint conditions; lambda [ alpha ]1、λ2、λ3Weights of the sub-targeting functions are respectively;
wherein, 1) the cost sub-targeting function
The hybrid energy storage cost comprises initial construction cost and later maintenance cost, and the energy and power of the lithium battery and the super capacitor are comprehensively considered, and the following formula is shown:
Wuc、Wbatrespectively configuring the energy of a super capacitor and the energy of a lithium battery for the system; puc、PbatPower of super capacitor and lithium battery respectively required to be configured η1、η2The efficiencies of energy conversion of the super capacitor and the lithium battery are respectively; c. Ce1、ce2Respectively the unit energy prices of the super capacitor and the lithium battery; c. Cm1、cm2The maintenance cost of the unit power of the super capacitor and the lithium battery is respectively;
2) power supply reliability and energy surplus sub-target function
The electric energy in the microgrid is not connected to the grid, so that if the generated power is greater than the load power plus the stored energy absorption power, power waste is caused, and if the generated power plus the stored energy discharge power is less than the load power, the system is unreliable, so that the sub-targets of power supply reliability and energy surplus are represented by the square sum of the configured lithium battery power and the power difference distributed by the actual control strategy, as shown in the following formula:
Pbat(i) lithium battery instantaneous power P distributed for ith moment control strategyuc(i) Super capacitor instantaneous power, P, allocated for the ith time control strategyN,batRated power, P, for lithium battery configurationsN,ucRated power configured for the super capacitor;
3) supply and demand balance sub-target function
The hybrid energy storage system needs to ensure that the power variation provided or absorbed by the lithium battery and the super capacitor is as small as possible to ensure the stability of the system, so that the power variance provided by the lithium battery and the super capacitor is taken as a target:
PN,bat、PN,ucrespectively configuring rated power for the lithium battery and the super capacitor; pbat(i)、Puc(i) Respectively controlling the power of the lithium battery and the power of the super capacitor distributed by the strategy at the moment i; delta Pavg,bat、ΔPavg,ucThe average power deviation of the lithium battery and the super capacitor is respectively, and N is a typical photovoltaic power generation curve, a load curve and other new energy power generation curve parts in unit time.
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