CN106253663B - The control method and control system of load current - Google Patents

The control method and control system of load current Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106253663B
CN106253663B CN201610811741.7A CN201610811741A CN106253663B CN 106253663 B CN106253663 B CN 106253663B CN 201610811741 A CN201610811741 A CN 201610811741A CN 106253663 B CN106253663 B CN 106253663B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
adapter
current
load
cut
output voltage
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CN201610811741.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106253663A (en
Inventor
林利瑜
徐爱民
黄必亮
任远程
周逊伟
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杰华特微电子(杭州)有限公司
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Publication of CN106253663A publication Critical patent/CN106253663A/en
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Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of control method of load current and control systems, wherein method includes:The fully loaded quiescent potential for obtaining adapter reduces the cut-off current for the load being connect with adapter, adapter is made to be operated in constant voltage mode when the output voltage of adapter is less than or equal to the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.The control method and control system of the load current of the present invention, change the cut-off current of adjustment load in real time according to adapter output voltage, when adapter output voltage is reduced to the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, loading cut-off current by reduction makes adapter output voltage go up, it is operated in pressure constant state, it avoids adapter to be worked long hours due to the variation of load current in constant current mode, ensure that the safety and reliability of system.

Description

The control method and control system of load current

Technical field

The present invention relates to electronic circuit technology field, more particularly to the control method and control system of a kind of load current.

Background technology

Power supply adaptor (hereinafter referred to as adapter) is as a kind of power supply of common small portable consumer electronics Conversion equipment is matched in extensively in the equipment such as mobile phone, laptop, mobile power, walkman, game machine.Different adaptations Device, nominal voltage and electric current are different, thus fan-out capability is also not quite similar.For example, when the full-load current energy of an adapter When power is designed as 2A, practical current limliting may usually be designed as 2.2A.

When the current capacity of adapter is more than the current needs of load equipment connected to it (hereinafter referred to as loading), fit Orchestration is operated in constant voltage mode, and output voltage is constant, as shown in Figure 1.Under constant voltage mode, adapter is from its peak power output There is certain distance, it is ensured that adapter works reliable and securely.When the output current ability of adapter is less than the electric current of load When demand, adapter exits constant voltage mode, and output voltage reduces, into constant current mode, as shown in Figure 2.Under constant current mode, fit Circuit devcie in orchestration reaches its maximum operating currenbt, and device current stress is larger, is usually not intended to adapter long-term work In constant current mode.After some adapters exit constant voltage mode, guard mode can be entered, be stopped, as shown in Figure 3.

So if load current changes, it is existing when the current capacity of adapter is less than the current needs of load Some adapters can exit constant voltage mode, and output voltage reduces, and into constant current mode, device reaches its maximum operating currenbt, device Part current stress is big, or even after exiting constant voltage mode there are part adapter, into guard mode, the situation being stopped, by This can produce bigger effect the reliability of system and safety.

Invention content

Based on the above issues, the present invention provides a kind of control method of load current and control systems so that different When load is connected with different adapters, no matter whether load current demand changes, and load and adapter can work In ideal operating point, to ensure reliability and the safety of system operation.

The control method of load current provided by the invention, includes the following steps:

Obtain the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter;

The output voltage for detecting the adapter in real time is less than or equal to the adaptation in the output voltage of the adapter When the fully loaded quiescent potential of device, the cut-off current for the load being connect with the adapter is reduced, the adapter is made to be operated in perseverance Die pressing type.

As a kind of embodiment, the fully loaded quiescent potential for obtaining adapter includes the following steps:

The cut-off current of load is set, and obtains the underloading quiescent potential of the adapter;

Judge whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load;

If current load current has reached the cut-off current of load, increase loaded cut-off current;

After increasing loaded cut-off current, when the output voltage of the adapter is electric from the underloading operating point of the adapter After low first preset value of pressure drop, the output voltage of the adapter is obtained, obtains the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter.

As a kind of embodiment, the output voltage of the real-time test adaptor, when the output electricity of the adapter When pressure is less than or equal to the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter, the cut-off current for the load being connect with the adapter is reduced, So that the adapter is operated in constant voltage mode, includes the following steps:

Detect the output voltage of the adapter;

Judge described in the underloading quiescent potential reduction of the whether more described adapter of the output voltage of presently described adapter First preset value;

If being judged as YES, the cut-off current of the load is reduced, until detecting that the output voltage of the adapter gos up Second preset value;Second preset value is that the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter and the adapter are operated in constant pressure mould The pressure difference between output voltage when formula.

As a kind of embodiment, the control method of load current provided by the invention is further comprising the steps of:Judge Whether the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter has been obtained;

If being judged as NO, when load current reaches the cut-off current of load, increase loaded cut-off current, to obtain adaptation The fully loaded quiescent potential of device.

Correspondingly, the present invention also provides a kind of control systems of load current, including acquisition module and adjustment module;

The acquisition module, the fully loaded quiescent potential for obtaining adapter;

The adjustment module, the output voltage for detecting the adapter in real time, in the output voltage of the adapter Less than or equal to the adapter fully loaded quiescent potential when, reduce the cut-off current of load being connect with the adapter, make The adapter is operated in constant voltage mode.

As a kind of embodiment, the acquisition module includes first voltage detection unit, judging unit, the first adjustment Unit and second voltage detection unit;

The first voltage detection unit, the cut-off current for load to be arranged, and obtain the underloading work of the adapter Point voltage;

The judging unit, for judging whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load;

The first adjustment unit increases load if having reached the cut-off current of load for current load current Cut-off current;

The second voltage detection unit is used for after increasing loaded cut-off current, when the output voltage of the adapter After the underloading quiescent potential of the adapter reduces the first preset value, the output voltage of the adapter is obtained, institute is obtained State the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.

As a kind of embodiment, the adjustment module includes tertiary voltage detection unit, judging unit and second Adjustment unit;

The tertiary voltage detection unit, the output voltage for detecting the adapter;

The judging unit, the underloading work for judging the whether more described adapter of the output voltage of presently described adapter Making point voltage reduces by first preset value;

The second adjustment unit, the output voltage for judging presently described adapter in the judging unit are relatively described After the underloading quiescent potential of adapter reduces by first preset value, then the cut-off current of the load is reduced, until detecting Output voltage the second preset value of rise of the adapter;Second preset value is the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter The pressure difference between output voltage when being operated in constant voltage mode with the adapter.

As a kind of embodiment, the control system of load current of the invention further includes judgment module;

The judgment module is for judging whether the second voltage detection unit has obtained the fully loaded work of adapter Point voltage by the first adjustment unit when load current reaches the cut-off current of load, increases load if being judged as NO Cut-off current, to obtain the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.

The advantageous effect of the present invention compared with the prior art is:

The control method and control system of load current provided by the invention, by the fully loaded operating point electricity for obtaining adapter Pressure, when the output voltage of adapter is less than or equal to the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, reduction is connect negative with adapter The cut-off current of load, makes adapter be operated in constant voltage mode.The present invention changes the limit of adjustment load in real time according to adapter output voltage Flow valuve, when adapter output voltage is reduced to the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, loading cut-off current by reduction makes adaptation Device output voltage go up, be operated in pressure constant state (health status), avoid adapter it is long due to the variation of load current when Between be operated in constant current mode, ensure that the safety and reliability of system.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is operated in output voltage schematic diagram when constant voltage mode for the adapter in background technology;

Fig. 2 is operated in output voltage schematic diagram when constant current mode for the adapter in background technology;

Fig. 3 is operated in another output voltage schematic diagram when constant current mode for the adapter in background technology;

Fig. 4 is the flow diagram of the control method for the load current that the embodiment of the present invention one provides;

Fig. 5 is the output voltage schematic diagram of the adapter in one embodiment of the invention, and the underloading of adapter is shown Quiescent potential V0;

Fig. 6 is another output voltage schematic diagram of the adapter in one embodiment of the invention, and it is default to be shown first It is worth Δ V1;

Fig. 7 is the another output voltage schematic diagram of the adapter in one embodiment of the invention, and it is default to be shown second It is worth Δ V2;

Fig. 8 is the flow diagram of the control method for the load current that one embodiment of the invention provides;

Fig. 9 is the concrete operations flow diagram of the control method for the load current that another embodiment of the present invention provides;

Figure 10 is the concrete operations flow diagram of the control method for the load current that further embodiment of this invention provides;

Figure 11 is the structural schematic diagram of the control system for the load current that one embodiment of the invention provides.

Specific implementation mode

Below in conjunction with attached drawing, the technical characteristic and advantage above-mentioned and other to the present invention are clearly and completely described, Obviously, described embodiment is only the section Example of the present invention, rather than whole embodiments.

Referring to Fig. 4, one embodiment of the invention provides a kind of control method of load current, includes the following steps:

S100, the fully loaded quiescent potential for obtaining adapter;

The output voltage of S200, real-time test adaptor, in output voltage the expiring less than or equal to adapter of adapter When carrying quiescent potential, the cut-off current for the load being connect with adapter is reduced, adapter is made to be operated in constant voltage mode.

Wherein, the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter refers to the output that adapter is entered by constant voltage mode after constant current mode Voltage.When the current needs of load, that is, the maximum cut-off current loaded can then obtain suitable when being more than the current capacity of adapter The fully loaded quiescent potential of orchestration, loaded work piece at this time is in the cut-off current of load, maximum of the load cut-off current less than load Cut-off current;When the electric current maximum cut-off current of load is less than the current capacity of adapter, then the fully loaded work of adapter can not be obtained Make point voltage, loaded work piece is operated in constant voltage mode in its maximum cut-off current, adapter.

The present embodiment obtains the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, is less than or equal to adapter in the output voltage of adapter Fully loaded quiescent potential when, reduce the cut-off current of load being connect with adapter, adapter made to be operated in constant voltage mode.The party Method changes the cut-off current of adjustment load in real time according to adapter output voltage, when adapter output voltage is reduced to the fully loaded of adapter When quiescent potential, loading cut-off current by reduction makes adapter output voltage go up, and is operated in pressure constant state (health status), It avoids adapter to be worked long hours due to the variation of load current in constant current mode, ensure that the safety of system and reliable Property.The control method of load current provided in this embodiment is suitable for the adapter of various output voltages and various current capacities.

Specifically, in step S100, the acquisition of the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter can be realized by the following method:

The cut-off current that S110, setting load, and obtain the underloading quiescent potential of adapter.

S120, judge whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load.

If S130, current load current have reached the cut-off current of load, increase loaded cut-off current.

If current load current does not reach the cut-off current of load, loaded cut-off current is not increased.

S140, after increasing loaded cut-off current, when the output voltage of adapter is from the underloading quiescent potential of adapter After reducing the first preset value, the output voltage of adapter is obtained, obtains the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.

In general, when adapter is with load initial connection, load current is very small, and adapter is in light condition, work Pattern is constant voltage mode.When load current increases to certain value, the output voltage of adapter can be reduced quickly, and adapter enters The output voltage of constant current mode, adapter at this time is the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.

Referring to Fig. 5 to Fig. 7, during entering constant current mode by constant voltage mode due to adapter, output voltage be by It gradually reduces, there are one stringent diacritical points.So the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter can be according to the need of actual circuit It asks to choose.In above-described embodiment, the underloading quiescent potential of adapter reduces the voltage value as adaptation after the first preset value The fully loaded quiescent potential of device.

As shown in Figures 5 to 7, the starting voltage that adapter is found in smaller value is arranged in the initial cut-off current of load, That is the underloading quiescent potential V0 of adapter.When load current increases, the output voltage of load input voltage, that is, adapter is small In the underloading quiescent potential V0 of adapter.When initial, load cut-off current is defaulted as minimum cut-off current.

You need to add is that when actually detected voltage, analog to digital conversion circuit (ADC) can be utilized, by the underloading of adapter Quiescent potential V0 (analog voltage) is converted into digital value and is stored.

Specifically, as shown in figure 8, step S200 can be realized by the following method:

The output voltage of S210, test adaptor.

S220, judge whether the output voltage of current adapter is default compared with the underloading quiescent potential reduction by first of adapter Value.

If S230, being judged as YES, the cut-off current of load is reduced, until detecting the output voltage rise second of adapter Preset value.

Second preset value is operated in output voltage when constant voltage mode for the fully loaded quiescent potential and adapter of adapter Between pressure difference.

Above-mentioned first preset value is between underloading quiescent potential and the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter of adapter Difference judges whether the output voltage of current adapter reduces compared with the underloading quiescent potential of adapter so in step S220 First preset value, that is, judge whether the output voltage of current adapter has drop to the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, i.e., Whether current adapter has come into constant current mode.

With continued reference to Fig. 8, the control method of load current provided by Embodiment 2 of the present invention, in the base of above-described embodiment one It is further comprising the steps of on plinth:

S300, the output voltage for detecting adapter be higher than adapter fully loaded quiescent potential when, further judge Whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load;

If S400, current load current have reached the cut-off current of load, increase loaded cut-off current.

As shown in Figures 5 to 7, its output voltage when adapter is operated in constant voltage mode nor completely it is invariable, As it is aforementioned constant current mode is entered by constant voltage mode due to adapter during, output voltage continuously decreases, not One stringent diacritical point (needing to be set according to circuit requirements).So after reducing the cut-off current of load, the output of adapter Voltage is from the fully loaded quiescent potential bottom out of adapter, and go up the second preset value Δ V2 (not up to the first preset value Δs V1 after), without reaching the underloading quiescent potential V0 of adapter, adapter has just come into constant voltage mode.So second is pre- If being worth Δ V2 is less than or equal to the first preset value Δ V1.

As shown in Figures 5 to 7, judge whether adapter output voltage reduces the first preset value Δ V1, if adapter is defeated Going out voltage does not reduce the first preset value Δ V1, and load current reaches its cut-off current, then increases load cut-off current;If adapter Output voltage does not reduce the first preset value Δ V1, and load current is not up to its cut-off current, then illustrates the current capacity of adapter More than the current needs of load, adapter is operated under constant voltage mode.

As shown in fig. 6, increase load cut-off current, until load detecting to adapter output voltage reduces Δ V1, then table Show that adapter has logged out constant voltage mode, initially enters constant current mode.In order to enable adapter to be operated in constant voltage mode, and it is full Work is carried it is necessary to make the output current of adapter certain value higher than the cut-off current of load.So the cut-off current of load is reduced, Until the output voltage rise Δ V2 of adapter, as shown in Figure 7.The cut-off current adjustment process of the load is as shown in Figure 9.

After Δ V1 can also be reduced detecting adapter output voltage, on the basis of the load cut-off current adjusted On, load cut-off current is reduced into Δ I1 again, to ensure that adapter is operated in constant voltage mode.

The control method of load current provided in this embodiment changes adjustment load in real time according to the output voltage of adapter Cut-off current.In the beginning of adapter electric discharge, increases loaded cut-off current, search out the maximum output current point of adapter (i.e. The fully loaded operating point of adapter), give full play to the discharge capability of adapter;When the output voltage of adapter is reduced to a certain degree Afterwards, by reduce load cut-off current, so that the output voltage of adapter is gone back up to health status, ensure that system safety and Reliability.

The above method by the cut-off current of load be adjusted such that adapter restore constant voltage mode after, just no longer change load Cut-off current.But the current capacity of some adapters may be reduced after a period of operation, if no longer changed The cut-off current of load, then adapter may be operated in constant current mode.

Further, as another embodiment, above-mentioned steps S100 is further comprising the steps of:

S150, judge whether to have obtained the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, if being judged as NO, be reached in load current To load cut-off current when, increase loaded cut-off current, to obtain the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter;If being judged as YES, Loaded cut-off current is not increased.

Therefore, can be INC flags to be added in system, whether the cut-off current for recording load adjusts the fully loaded work of adapter Make a little.As shown in Figure 10, when INC=1, load cut-off current does not adjust the fully loaded operating point of adapter;As INC=0, load Cut-off current has arrived the fully loaded operating point of adapter after the adjustment.As INC=0, does not then allow to increase load cut-off current, can only reduce Its cut-off current.

Based on same inventive concept, the embodiment of the present invention additionally provides a kind of control system of load current, the system The step of implementation can refer to the above method is realized, it is no longer redundant later to repeat place.

The control system of load current provided in an embodiment of the present invention, as shown in figure 11, including acquisition module 100 and adjustment Module 200.Wherein, acquisition module 100 is used to obtain the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter;Module 200 is adjusted for examining in real time The output voltage for surveying adapter is reduced when the output voltage of adapter is less than or equal to the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter The cut-off current for the load being connect with adapter, makes adapter be operated in constant voltage mode.

Specifically, acquisition module 100 includes first voltage detection unit, judging unit, the first adjustment unit and second Voltage detection unit.First voltage detection unit is used to be arranged the cut-off current of load, and obtains the underloading operating point electricity of adapter Pressure.Judging unit is for judging whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load.If the first adjustment unit is for current Load current have reached the cut-off current of load, then increase loaded cut-off current.Second voltage detection unit, for increasing After the cut-off current of load, after the output voltage of adapter reduces the first preset value from the underloading quiescent potential of adapter, obtain The output voltage for taking adapter obtains the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.

It includes tertiary voltage detection unit, judging unit and second adjustment unit to adjust module 200.Tertiary voltage detects Unit is used for the output voltage of test adaptor;Whether judging unit is used to judge the output voltage of current adapter compared with adapter Underloading quiescent potential reduce the first preset value;Second adjustment unit is used to judge in judging unit the output of current adapter After voltage reduces the first preset value compared with the underloading quiescent potential of adapter, then the cut-off current of load is reduced, until detecting suitable Output voltage the second preset value of rise of orchestration;Second preset value is that the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter is operated in adapter The pressure difference between output voltage when constant voltage mode.

The control system for the load current that another embodiment of the present invention provides, further includes sentencing on the basis of the above embodiments Disconnected module.Judgment module for judging whether second voltage detection unit has obtained the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter, if It is judged as NO, then loaded cut-off current is increased when load current reaches the cut-off current of load by the first adjustment unit, to obtain Take the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.If being judged as YES, loaded cut-off current is not increased.

The control method and control system of load current provided by the invention, the cut-off current loaded by dynamic modulation, have Safety and the reliability that ensure that effect system, improve load charge efficiency, applied widely, can meet simultaneously a variety of suitable The requirement of orchestration difference current capacity is suitable for the adapter of different output voltages.

Particular embodiments described above has carried out further the purpose of the present invention, technical solution and advantageous effect It is described in detail, it should be understood that the above is only a specific embodiment of the present invention, the protection being not intended to limit the present invention Range.It particularly points out, to those skilled in the art, all within the spirits and principles of the present invention, that is done any repaiies Change, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., should all be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of control method of load current, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
Obtain the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter;
The output voltage for detecting the adapter in real time is less than or equal to the adapter in the output voltage of the adapter When fully loaded quiescent potential, the cut-off current for the load being connect with the adapter is reduced, the adapter is made to be operated in constant pressure mould Formula;
The fully loaded quiescent potential for obtaining adapter, includes the following steps:
The cut-off current of load is set, and obtains the underloading quiescent potential of the adapter;
Judge whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load;
If current load current has reached the cut-off current of load, increase loaded cut-off current;
After increasing loaded cut-off current, when the output voltage of the adapter is dropped from the underloading quiescent potential of the adapter After low first preset value, the output voltage of the adapter is obtained, obtains the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter.
2. the control method of load current according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the real-time test adaptor it is defeated Go out voltage, when the output voltage of the adapter is less than or equal to the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter, reduction and institute The cut-off current for stating the load of adapter connection, makes the adapter be operated in constant voltage mode, includes the following steps:
Detect the output voltage of the adapter;
Judge that the underloading quiescent potential of the whether more described adapter of the output voltage of presently described adapter reduces described first Preset value;
If being judged as YES, the cut-off current of the load is reduced, until detecting the output voltage rise second of the adapter Preset value;When second preset value is operated in constant voltage mode for the fully loaded quiescent potential of the adapter with the adapter Output voltage between pressure difference.
3. the control method of load current according to claim 1, which is characterized in that further comprising the steps of:Judgement is The no fully loaded quiescent potential for having obtained adapter;
If being judged as NO, when load current reaches the cut-off current of load, increase loaded cut-off current, to obtain adapter Fully loaded quiescent potential.
4. a kind of control system of load current, which is characterized in that including acquisition module and adjustment module;
The acquisition module, the fully loaded quiescent potential for obtaining adapter;
The adjustment module, the output voltage for detecting the adapter in real time are less than in the output voltage of the adapter Or equal to the adapter fully loaded quiescent potential when, reduce the cut-off current of load being connect with the adapter, make described in Adapter is operated in constant voltage mode;
The acquisition module includes that first voltage detection unit, judging unit, the first adjustment unit and second voltage detection are single Member;
The first voltage detection unit, the cut-off current for load to be arranged, and obtain the underloading operating point electricity of the adapter Pressure;
The judging unit, for judging whether current load current reaches the cut-off current of load;
The first adjustment unit increases loaded limit if having reached the cut-off current of load for current load current Flow valuve;
The second voltage detection unit, for after increasing loaded cut-off current, when the output voltage of the adapter is from institute After underloading quiescent potential the first preset value of reduction for stating adapter, the output voltage of the adapter is obtained, is obtained described suitable The fully loaded quiescent potential of orchestration.
5. the control system of load current according to claim 4, which is characterized in that the adjustment module includes third electricity Press detection unit, judging unit and second adjustment unit;
The tertiary voltage detection unit, the output voltage for detecting the adapter;
The judging unit, the underloading operating point for judging the whether more described adapter of the output voltage of presently described adapter Voltage reduces by first preset value;
The second adjustment unit, for judging the output voltage of the presently described adapter adaptation in the judging unit After the underloading quiescent potential of device reduces by first preset value, then the cut-off current of the load is reduced, until detecting described Output voltage the second preset value of rise of adapter;Fully loaded quiescent potential and institute of second preset value for the adapter State the pressure difference between output voltage when adapter is operated in constant voltage mode.
6. the control system of load current according to claim 4, which is characterized in that further include judgment module;
The judgment module is used to judge whether the second voltage detection unit to have obtained the fully loaded operating point electricity of adapter Pressure, if being judged as NO, by the first adjustment unit when load current reaches the cut-off current of load, increases loaded limit Flow valuve, to obtain the fully loaded quiescent potential of adapter.
CN201610811741.7A 2016-09-08 2016-09-08 The control method and control system of load current CN106253663B (en)

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US6844705B2 (en) * 2002-12-09 2005-01-18 Intersil Americas Inc. Li-ion/Li-polymer battery charger configured to be DC-powered from multiple types of wall adapters
JP4245571B2 (en) * 2005-02-09 2009-03-25 Necエレクトロニクス株式会社 Charging control circuit and charging device
CN201708977U (en) * 2010-01-20 2011-01-12 黄华南 Risetime phase dimmer with adapter
CN102200826B (en) * 2010-03-25 2014-09-03 联想(北京)有限公司 Power adapter and portable computer
CN103001298A (en) * 2011-04-25 2013-03-27 英特赛尔美国有限公司 Charging system with adaptive power management
CN102983715A (en) * 2012-11-30 2013-03-20 西安智海电力科技有限公司 XC/DC conversion circuit of low-voltage power supply with high robustness
CN103885392B (en) * 2012-12-19 2016-10-26 宏碁股份有限公司 Electric power system, voltage regulating device and control method thereof
CN104281248A (en) * 2013-07-01 2015-01-14 鸿富锦精密工业(深圳)有限公司 Voltage adapter

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