CN106025409A - Variable constant-current constant-voltage charging method - Google Patents

Variable constant-current constant-voltage charging method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106025409A
CN106025409A CN201610562934.3A CN201610562934A CN106025409A CN 106025409 A CN106025409 A CN 106025409A CN 201610562934 A CN201610562934 A CN 201610562934A CN 106025409 A CN106025409 A CN 106025409A
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China
Prior art keywords
current
constant
charging
voltage
charge
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Application number
CN201610562934.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
邓宝昌
耿攀
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上海学源电子科技有限公司
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Priority to CN201610562934.3A priority Critical patent/CN106025409A/en
Publication of CN106025409A publication Critical patent/CN106025409A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/007Regulation of charging or discharging current or voltage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention discloses a variable constant-current constant-voltage charging method which comprises the following steps: when the voltage of a battery is relatively low, trickle charging is carried out according to information fed back after sampling; when the voltage of the battery rises to a large-current charging set threshold, a large-current constant-current charging mode is adopted, wherein the charging current in the process only can fall gradually, but cannot vary reversely; then, the battery is in a constant-voltage charging stage. The variable constant-current constant-voltage charging method is provided based on analysis of the advantages and the disadvantages of common charging strategies and the charging and discharging characteristics of a lithium titanate battery, integrates the advantages of a constant-current constant-voltage charging method, a pulse charging method, a variable-current intermittent charging method and other charging strategies, and overcomes the defects of the common charging strategies.

Description

A kind of change constant current-constant voltage charging method
Technical field
The present invention relates to charging field, more precisely a kind of change constant current-constant voltage charging method.
Background technology
In general, electrokinetic cell charging, discharge, safeguard the most relative backward, no with technology such as energy managements Suitable charging strategy causes the phenomenons such as damage and the lost of life of battery the most commonplace, and a lot of batteries are not damage But fill bad.The reason causing this phenomenon mainly has two, and first is that the understanding to battery behavior is inadequate, with regard to lithium battery Speech, its discharge and recharge is a sufficiently complex chemical reaction process, by battery manufacture material, discharge and recharge history, environment temperature The impact of the factors such as degree;And battery is the most nonlinear, control degree-of-difficulty factor bigger.Second is that we are to filling The research that battery is affected by method for electrically and various charging method is the most deep enough.Charging strategy currently mainly has constant-current charge method (Constant Current, CC), constant-voltage charge method (Constant Voltage, CV), constant-current constant-voltage charging method (Constant Current/Constant Voltage, CC/CV), three stage charging system method, pulse charging method and time-dependent current intermittent charge method Deng.
1. constant-current charge method is at the charging initial stage, and charging current is much smaller than the acceptable charging current of electrokinetic cell, thus makes Become the early stage charging interval longer;Phase after charging, charging current more than the acceptable charging current of electrokinetic cell, causes battery again Temperature drastically raises, and affects battery life.
2. constant-voltage charge method also has its weak point, is mainly manifested in charging initial stage charging current excessive, it is likely that exceed The acceptable pairs of maximum charging current values of battery, adversely affected the life-span of battery, easily makes battery pole plates bend simultaneously, makes Battery is become to scrap;But in latter stage of charging, make charging current the least due to the rise of cell emf again, easily cause electricity The charge less problem in pond.
3. constant-current constant-voltage charging method avoids that charging initial stage charging current is excessive and charging easily causes and overcharges latter stage Shortcoming, but it does not well improve the problem of charge less, and the initial stage rank charging current value that charges is single, can not realize Safe, fast, efficient charging.
4. the transfer point of three charging processes of three stage charging system method controls difficulty relatively greatly, if too early turned from the last stage To next stage, the charging interval will certainly be extended;But conversion is too late it is possible to the state of overcharging can be entered, and causes battery temperature rise to add The problems such as play, shortening in service life.
5. pulse charging manner has charge efficiency height, charging rate components and parts fast, that use fill relative to Switching Power Supply The feature such as the most less, shortcoming be control that difficulty is very big, cost is high, pulse current amplitude bigger easy damaged battery etc..
6. time-dependent current intermittent charge method hardware controls is sufficiently complex, it is difficult to accurately control output voltage, current value.
Change constant current-constant-voltage charge method improves constant-current charge or constant-voltage charge easily causes and overcharges or the shortcoming of charge less, It is similar with three stage charging system method control strategy that next becomes constant current-constant-voltage charge method, but the control of whole charger and the reality of battery Time state be associated, charging curve is closer to the ideal charging curve of battery.Pulse charging manner compares change constant current-constant-voltage charge Method charging rate more hurry up, but pulse charge controls, and difficulty is bigger, bigger on battery life impact and corresponding cost is higher.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of change constant current-constant voltage charging method, it is integrated with constant current-constant-voltage charge method, arteries and veins The advantage rushing the charging strategy such as mise-a-la-masse method and time-dependent current intermittent charge method, and compensate for the deficiency of common charging strategy.
The present invention is by the following technical solutions:
A kind of change constant current-constant voltage charging method, including:
When cell voltage is relatively low, for the 60% of cell voltage rated value, carry out trickle according to the information of sampling feedback and fill Electricity;
When cell voltage rises to large current charge setting thresholding, it is set to about the 75% of cell voltage rated value and relatively closes Suitable, carry out the constant current charging mode of big electric current, during this, charging current can only be gradually reduced, it is impossible to converse change;
Constant voltage charging phase is entered when becoming after constant-current charging phase terminates.
Control chip is sampled by AD, obtains the voltage of electrokinetic cell, monomer voltage, charging current and battery temperature letter Breath.
During the upper voltage limit that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge, control chip will fill according to the Voltage Cortrol of battery Electricity current value.
The voltage controlled by control chip and current value are met following formula relation and determine:
I = I 1 × [ K 1 - K × Δ t × ( U a d U s ) ] ;
Wherein,
I1, minimum constant-current charge electric current, it is typically chosen the rate of charge of 0.5C;
K1, current ratio coefficient, the maximum charge multiplying power of setting and the ratio of minimum constant-current charge multiplying power;
K, voltage difference proportionality coefficient;
Uad, battery voltage sampling value;
Us, constant-current charge sets upper voltage limit, is typically set to the 0.95~about 0.99 of set of cells charge cutoff voltage;
Δ t, the upper voltage limit time that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge.
The invention have the advantage that by the analysis to conventional charging strategy pluses and minuses and the charge and discharge according to lithium titanate battery Electrical characteristics, propose to become constant current-constant-voltage charge method, have concentrated constant current-constant-voltage charge method, pulse charging method and time-dependent current intermittent The advantage of the charging strategy such as mise-a-la-masse method, and compensate for the deficiency of common charging strategy.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail, wherein:
Fig. 1 is the theoretical charging characteristic curve becoming constant-current constant-voltage charging method of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is to the present invention is directed to rated voltage 36V, the charge graph of the lithium titanate battery group of rated power 26AH.
Fig. 3 is the circuit diagram of charging current of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is battery temperature sampling principle figure of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is voltage sample schematic diagram of the present invention.
Detailed description of the invention
The detailed description of the invention of the present invention be expanded on further below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
A kind of change constant current-constant voltage charging method, including: when cell voltage is relatively low, carry out according to the information of sampling feedback Trickle charge;When cell voltage rises to large current charge setting thresholding, carry out the constant current charging mode of big electric current, this process Middle charging current can only be gradually reduced, it is impossible to converse change;Constant voltage charging phase is entered when becoming after constant-current charging phase terminates, when When change constant-current charge current value is reduced to 0.6 times of minimum constant-current charge electric current, program acquiescence becomes constant-current charge and terminates.
Control chip is sampled by AD, obtains the voltage of electrokinetic cell, monomer voltage, charging current and battery temperature letter Breath.
During the upper voltage limit that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge, control chip will fill according to the Voltage Cortrol of battery Electricity current value.
The voltage controlled by control chip and current value meet following formula relation:
I = I 1 × [ K 1 - K × Δ t × ( U a d U s ) ] ;
Wherein,
I1, minimum constant-current charge electric current, it is taken as 10A here;
K1, current ratio coefficient, it is taken as 4.2;
K, voltage difference proportionality coefficient, it is taken as 0.002;
Uad, battery voltage sampling value;
Us, constant-current charge sets upper voltage limit, is taken as any one numerical value between 39.00~39.90V;
Δ t, the upper voltage limit time that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge.
The key point becoming constant current-constant-voltage charge method is exactly the design of time-dependent current constant-current charging phase, at this stage control Chip is sampled by AD, obtains the information such as the voltage of electrokinetic cell, monomer voltage, charging current and battery temperature;At battery In the case of Zheng Chang when the upper voltage limit that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge, control chip is by the voltage of battery and electricity Flow valuve is updated in formula, adjusts charging current value, until entering constant-current phase when searching out suitable charging current value.These rank Section is in the case of charging voltage can bear the charging voltage upper limit less than battery, finds most suitable constant-current charging of battery electricity Flow valuve.According to the practical situation of battery, adjust the current value of constant-current charge, so the charging of the different times of same battery is bent Line chart also differs, the most much like.The setting of the K value in formula is particularly significant (is typically taken as maximum output electricity About 1~2 times of pressure value and switching tube operating frequency ratio), if excessive, charging current value declines too fast, then the charging interval Elongated;If too small, charging current declined and charging voltage will be caused to remain high slowly;So choosing of K value to need comprehensively Consider, mainly adjust according to the charge characteristic of electrokinetic cell.The setting of the Us in formula be related to the length in charging interval with And it is charged into the number of electric energy, if setting value is less, then to fill the working time in stage soon shorter for time-dependent current, is charged into the electric energy of battery relatively Few, cause the constant-current phase charging interval to lengthen, reduce the efficiency of change constant current-constant-voltage charge method;If but excessive, it is possible to send out The life-span of raw overvoltage phenomena impair battery;So the setting of Us to be adjusted according to the practical situation of battery.Become constant-current phase Theory curve as shown in the t0-t1 stage in Fig. 1.This example is for lithium titanate electricity based on DSP F28335 control chip The charger of a big electric current small voltage of the characteristics design in pond.So controller is a control circuit, including control chip DSP F28335, sample circuit, drive circuit, auxiliary power circuit etc.) master can be regulated in real time according to the sample information of electrokinetic cell The ON time of the switching tube of circuit i.e. can reach and is adjusted constant-current charge size of current and corresponding charging interval.Fig. 2 It is the charge graph of example, somewhat different from the theoretical charging characteristic curve of accompanying drawing.Mainly there are two reasons, first The battery performance that example uses is the most poor, and the feature becoming constant-current charging phase of charger is according to set of cells Practical situation adjusts charging curve in real time;The charging current multiplying power of the second charger is not up to the Design Theory value (reason of charger Opinion design load is 104A);So charging voltage is not clearly in large current charge stage fluctuating margin.
In the present invention, control chip is sampled by AD, obtains the voltage of electrokinetic cell, monomer voltage, charging current and electricity Pond temperature information.It is charging current, battery temperature sampling principle figure as shown in Figure 3,4, as it is shown in figure 5, be the voltage of the present invention Sampling principle figure.
During the upper voltage limit that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge, control chip will fill according to the Voltage Cortrol of battery Electricity current value.
According to becoming the constant current-constant-voltage charge strategy a big electric current small voltage of characteristics design for lithium titanate battery
Charger, become constant-current charging phase time, charging current I can be obtained by following formula:
I = I 1 × [ K 1 - K × Δ t × ( U a d U s ) ]
The theoretical charging characteristic curve of change constant-current constant-voltage charging method is initial stage (i.e. trickle as it is shown in figure 1, lithium titanate battery charges Charging), charging current is less and keeps constant i.e. constant-current charging phase, and along with the carrying out of charging, voltage is gradually increasing, and works as rising During to large current charge scope, charger proceeds to second stage immediately and i.e. becomes constant-current charging phase, in this stage, and charger According to the feedback information of battery, it is adjusted to charging current rapidly suitably be worth.The adjustment mode of electric current is from initially setting up Maximum current value I1 be that staged is gradually reduced, until suitable charging current value, charging voltage keeps being gradually increasing, and works as electricity When flow valuve is minimized setting value, charger enters phase III i.e. constant voltage charging phase, and charging voltage is that U0 omits as shown in Figure 1 Less than the upper voltage limit (Umax) during change constant-current charge.Keeping constant in this stage charging voltage, charging current is gradually reduced, Until less than setting value, terminating constant-voltage charge.So far, whole charging process terminates.
The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all essences in the present invention Any amendment, equivalent and the improvement etc. made within god and principle, should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. one kind becomes constant current-constant voltage charging method, it is characterised in that including:
When 60% that cell voltage is cell voltage rated value, carry out trickle charge i.e. small area analysis according to the information of sampling feedback Constant-current charge;
When cell voltage rises to large current charge setting thresholding, carry out the change constant current charging mode of big electric current, during this Charging current can only be gradually reduced, it is impossible to converse change;
Constant voltage charging phase is entered when becoming after constant-current charging phase terminates.
Change constant current-constant voltage charging method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that control chip is sampled by AD, obtains Take the voltage of electrokinetic cell, monomer voltage, charging current and battery temperature information.
Change constant current-constant voltage charging method the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that cell voltage is higher than constant-current charge During the upper voltage limit set, control chip will be according to the Voltage Cortrol charging current value of battery.
Change constant current-constant voltage charging method the most according to claim 3, it is characterised in that become constant-current charging phase voltage and Current value meets following formula relation:
I = I 1 × [ K 1 - K × Δ t × ( U a d U s ) ] ;
Wherein,
I1, minimum constant-current charge electric current;
K1, current ratio coefficient;
K, voltage difference proportionality coefficient;
Uad, battery voltage sampling value;
Us, constant-current charge sets upper voltage limit;
Δ t, the upper voltage limit time that cell voltage sets higher than constant-current charge.
CN201610562934.3A 2016-07-18 2016-07-18 Variable constant-current constant-voltage charging method CN106025409A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN106785142A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-31 重庆田畸实业有限公司 A kind of battery of electric vehicle fills method and device soon
CN107147170A (en) * 2017-06-02 2017-09-08 江苏万邦微电子有限公司 A kind of power-supply management system and method
CN107394854A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-11-24 江苏聚合新能源科技有限公司 A kind of natural charging method of battery dynamic and system
CN107959072A (en) * 2017-11-17 2018-04-24 珠海市魅族科技有限公司 A kind of charging method, device, computer equipment and readable storage medium storing program for executing
CN108134424A (en) * 2018-01-03 2018-06-08 上海传英信息技术有限公司 The method and charging equipment for mobile phone of charging current are controlled in a kind of mobile phone charging process
WO2018119798A1 (en) * 2016-12-28 2018-07-05 深圳市大疆创新科技有限公司 Battery charging method, charging system and charger and battery
CN108539804A (en) * 2017-03-03 2018-09-14 北京小米移动软件有限公司 Battery charging control method, battery charging control device and electronic equipment
CN108550935A (en) * 2018-04-19 2018-09-18 天津雅迪实业有限公司 A kind of lead-acid battery of electric vehicle fast charge method
CN108680863A (en) * 2018-04-18 2018-10-19 星恒电源股份有限公司 A kind of measurement method of lithium ion battery maximum charging current
CN108777331A (en) * 2018-06-08 2018-11-09 广东小天才科技有限公司 The charge control method and device of lithium ion battery in a kind of electronic equipment
CN108808783A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-11-13 深圳市自然门科技有限公司 For the dynamic charging current control method and charging system of programmable charging chip
CN109037811A (en) * 2018-06-27 2018-12-18 中航锂电(洛阳)有限公司 A kind of charging method of graphite cathode system lithium ion battery
CN109728371A (en) * 2018-12-29 2019-05-07 上海卡耐新能源有限公司 A kind of power soft pack cell ladder charge control mode
CN109888419A (en) * 2019-01-24 2019-06-14 合肥国轩高科动力能源有限公司 A kind of charging method improving cylindrical lithium ion power cell cycle performance
CN110518669A (en) * 2019-09-05 2019-11-29 深圳传音控股股份有限公司 A kind of charging system and method, terminal device for handheld device
CN111016717A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-04-17 深圳猛犸电动科技有限公司 Method and device for identifying simultaneous charging of multiple electric vehicles

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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2018119798A1 (en) * 2016-12-28 2018-07-05 深圳市大疆创新科技有限公司 Battery charging method, charging system and charger and battery
CN106785142A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-31 重庆田畸实业有限公司 A kind of battery of electric vehicle fills method and device soon
CN106785142B (en) * 2016-12-29 2019-05-14 重庆域垣汽车设计有限公司 A kind of battery of electric vehicle fast charge method and device
CN108539804A (en) * 2017-03-03 2018-09-14 北京小米移动软件有限公司 Battery charging control method, battery charging control device and electronic equipment
CN107147170A (en) * 2017-06-02 2017-09-08 江苏万邦微电子有限公司 A kind of power-supply management system and method
CN107394854A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-11-24 江苏聚合新能源科技有限公司 A kind of natural charging method of battery dynamic and system
CN107959072A (en) * 2017-11-17 2018-04-24 珠海市魅族科技有限公司 A kind of charging method, device, computer equipment and readable storage medium storing program for executing
CN108134424A (en) * 2018-01-03 2018-06-08 上海传英信息技术有限公司 The method and charging equipment for mobile phone of charging current are controlled in a kind of mobile phone charging process
CN108680863A (en) * 2018-04-18 2018-10-19 星恒电源股份有限公司 A kind of measurement method of lithium ion battery maximum charging current
CN108680863B (en) * 2018-04-18 2020-05-22 星恒电源股份有限公司 Method for measuring maximum charging current of lithium ion battery
CN108550935A (en) * 2018-04-19 2018-09-18 天津雅迪实业有限公司 A kind of lead-acid battery of electric vehicle fast charge method
CN108777331A (en) * 2018-06-08 2018-11-09 广东小天才科技有限公司 The charge control method and device of lithium ion battery in a kind of electronic equipment
CN108808783A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-11-13 深圳市自然门科技有限公司 For the dynamic charging current control method and charging system of programmable charging chip
CN109037811A (en) * 2018-06-27 2018-12-18 中航锂电(洛阳)有限公司 A kind of charging method of graphite cathode system lithium ion battery
CN109728371A (en) * 2018-12-29 2019-05-07 上海卡耐新能源有限公司 A kind of power soft pack cell ladder charge control mode
CN109888419A (en) * 2019-01-24 2019-06-14 合肥国轩高科动力能源有限公司 A kind of charging method improving cylindrical lithium ion power cell cycle performance
CN110518669A (en) * 2019-09-05 2019-11-29 深圳传音控股股份有限公司 A kind of charging system and method, terminal device for handheld device
CN111016717A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-04-17 深圳猛犸电动科技有限公司 Method and device for identifying simultaneous charging of multiple electric vehicles

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Application publication date: 20161012