CN105843229A - Unmanned intelligent vehicle and control method - Google Patents

Unmanned intelligent vehicle and control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105843229A
CN105843229A CN201610328078.5A CN201610328078A CN105843229A CN 105843229 A CN105843229 A CN 105843229A CN 201610328078 A CN201610328078 A CN 201610328078A CN 105843229 A CN105843229 A CN 105843229A
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China
Prior art keywords
dolly
controller
ccd industrial
steering wheel
unmanned intelligent
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Granted
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CN201610328078.5A
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CN105843229B (en
Inventor
刘广军
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World Heavy Industry China Co Ltd
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World Heavy Industry China Co Ltd
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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0231Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using optical position detecting means
    • G05D1/0246Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using optical position detecting means using a video camera in combination with image processing means
    • G05D1/0248Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using optical position detecting means using a video camera in combination with image processing means in combination with a laser
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0255Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using acoustic signals, e.g. ultra-sonic singals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/08Control of attitude, i.e. control of roll, pitch, or yaw
    • G05D1/0891Control of attitude, i.e. control of roll, pitch, or yaw specially adapted for land vehicles

Abstract

The invention discloses an unmanned intelligent vehicle which comprises a power supply module, a controller, a vehicle body, drive wheels, guide wheels, steering gears, a navigation positioning device and an obstacle avoidance device. Four wheels are arranged at the bottom of the vehicle body. Two drive wheels are arranged at the rear part to drive the vehicle to drive. Two guide wheels are arranged at the front part for steering. The power supply module is a battery used for providing electric energy. The navigation positioning device comprises 2 CCD industrial cameras and 2 steering gears. The steering gears are arranged in the front of the vehicle body. The CCD industrial cameras are placed on the steering gears which drive the CCD industrial cameras to rotate. The obstacle avoidance device comprises a laser range finder and an ultrasonic sensor. The laser range finder, the ultrasonic sensor and the CCD industrial cameras transmit collected signals to the controller. The controller controls the steering gears. The vehicle provided by the invention has the functions of automatic obstacle avoidance and obstacle state identification, can solve the disadvantage of manual operation of a traditional vehicle, and can realize safe and stable automatic cruise.

Description

Unmanned intelligent carriage and control method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of intelligent carriage, particularly relate to a kind of unmanned intelligent carriage and control method, Belong to intelligence haulage equipment technical field.
Background technology
Along with the development of electronic information technology, machine intelligence level steps up.Lorry conduct The Typical Representative of mechanically moving, the most gradually changes in the development to field unmanned, intelligentized.
Tradition dolly carries out controlled in wireless typically by the remote controller such as infrared ray, bluetooth.In such control Under form, user need to send kinestate by remote controller to dolly in a certain distance and instruct, just can be real The automatically working of existing dolly.
By wireless remote control, the control of dolly is freed user the most completely, during trolley travelling, User remains a need for by remote controller, dolly being assigned instruction in real time.In order to realize the intelligence of moving of car further Change, need to make dolly have identification and arbitration functions to current road conditions and kinestate by all kinds of sensing devices, Carry out oneself's decision-making, such that it is able to make dolly realize complete operatorless intelligent operation.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of unmanned intelligent carriage and control method, solve prior art Dolly carry out controlled in wireless by the remote controller such as infrared ray, bluetooth, it is impossible to realize complete operatorless skill Art problem.Dolly has automatic obstacle-avoiding and barrier state recognition function.Tradition dolly can not only be improved need Want manned drawback, but also the automatic cruising function of safety and stability can be realized on this basis.
The purpose of the present invention is achieved by the following technical programs:
A kind of unmanned intelligent carriage, including power module 4, controller 5, vehicle body 6, driving wheel 7, Directive wheel 8, steering wheel 9, navigation positional device 11, fault avoidnig device 12, install four bottom described vehicle body 6 Wheel, two driving wheels 7 are installed on rear portion, are used for driving dolly to travel, before two directive wheels 8 are installed on Portion, is used for turning to;Described power module 4 is accumulator, is used for providing electric energy;Described navigation positional device 11 include 2 CCD industrial cameras 1 and 2 steering wheels 9, and it is anterior that described steering wheel 9 is arranged in vehicle body 6, institute Stating CCD industrial camera 1 to be placed on steering wheel 9, steering wheel 9 drives CCD industrial camera 1 to rotate;Described keep away Fault device 12 includes laser range finder 2, ultrasonic sensor 3, and described laser range finder 2, ultrasound wave pass The signal of collection is delivered to controller 5 by sensor 3, CCD industrial camera 1, and described controller 5 is to steering wheel 9 It is controlled.
A kind of unmanned intelligent carriage control method:
Obtain the present road image residing for dolly by CCD industrial camera, utilize at OpenCV image Reason and computer vision function library carry out pretreatment to source images, including gray processing, denoising, distortion correction; Then the picture processed is carried out Threshold segmentation, extracts road boundary feature;By extracting feature with in advance The road template set carries out matching ratio relatively, if both couplings, then identifies successfully, illustrates that this position is feasible Road;If it fails to match, illustrate that current location is not connecting way, then control steering wheel and drive CCD industry phase Machine rotational angle re-recognizes, and circulates with this, until finding connecting way position;
Controller adjusts dolly attitude in real time, it is ensured that travel direction is correct;
When ultrasonic sensor has detected barrier, dolly stop motion, laser range finder starts working, Within the time of Δ t, send two bundle laser and find range, record obstacle distance and be respectively L1 and L2, then lead to Cross calculate L1-L2 value, can disturbance in judgement thing be in static, towards moving of car or deviate from dolly fortune Dynamic state;The speed of service of barrier is calculated, in this, as moving of car control by formula (L1-L2)/Δ t Foundation, i.e. when barrier near to certain distance L time, dolly retreat, it is to avoid collision;Otherwise, then continue Continuous advance;
Dolly avoidance and Turning travel are realized by the differential control of driving wheel, in the process of moving, work as barrier When hindering thing to occur in field range, by extracting the characteristics of image captured by camera, it is judged that the position of barrier Confidence ceases and is passed to controller, controller output control signal, makes the driving wheel near obstacle side Rotating speed, more than the driving wheel rotating speed of opposite side, makes dolly turn to and carries out avoidance, after turning over certain angle, the visual field In the range of can't detect barrier, controller changes control signal, makes two driving wheel synchronous axial system, and dolly is extensive Complex line transport condition.
The purpose of the present invention can also be realized further by techniques below measure:
Aforementioned unmanned intelligent carriage, wherein the model of CCD industrial camera 1 is DFK22AUC03.
Aforementioned unmanned intelligent carriage, wherein the model of steering wheel 9 is MG995.
Aforementioned unmanned intelligent carriage, wherein the model of laser range finder 2 is KLH-01T-20hz.
Aforementioned unmanned intelligent carriage, wherein the model of ultrasonic sensor 3 is HC-SR04.
Aforementioned unmanned intelligent carriage, its middle controller 5 be model be the single-chip microcomputer of LPC2148.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows: dolly has automatic obstacle-avoiding and barrier state Identifying function, can not only solve tradition dolly needs manned drawback, and can realize safety and stability Automatic cruising function.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is unmanned vehicle structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is unmanned trolley control system block diagram;
Fig. 3 is unmanned vehicle automatic cruising avoidance schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is unmanned dolly barrier motion state detection schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is unmanned dolly vision guided navigation theory diagram.
Detailed description of the invention
The invention will be further described with specific embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
As it is shown in figure 1, the unmanned intelligent carriage of the present invention include power module 4, controller 5, vehicle body 6, Driving wheel 7, directive wheel 8, steering wheel 9, navigation positional device 11, fault avoidnig device 12, described vehicle body 6 end Four wheels are installed in portion, and two driving wheels 7 are installed on rear portion, are used for driving dolly to travel, two directive wheels 8 are installed on front portion, are used for turning to;Described power module 4 is accumulator, is used for providing electric energy;Described lead Boat positioner 11 includes 2 CCD industrial cameras 1 and 2 steering wheels 9, and described steering wheel 9 is arranged in car Body 6 is anterior, and described CCD industrial camera 1 is placed on steering wheel 9, and steering wheel 9 drives CCD industrial camera 1 Rotate;Described fault avoidnig device 12 includes laser range finder 2, ultrasonic sensor 3, described laser range finder 2, the signal of collection is delivered to controller 5, described control by ultrasonic sensor 3, CCD industrial camera 1 Steering wheel 9 is controlled by device 5.The model of described CCD industrial camera 1 is DFK22AUC03, steering wheel 9 Model is MG995, and the model of laser range finder 2 is KLH-01T-20hz, the model of ultrasonic sensor 3 For HC-SR04, controller 5 be model be the single-chip microcomputer of LPC2148.
CCD industrial camera is used for the current periphery road conditions of identification of taking pictures, and camera is fixed on vehicle body by steering wheel, Move by controlling steering wheel, camera can be realized to the 360 ° of work information collections of dolly periphery.
Vehicle body, as the mounting platform of each parts of dolly, can provide the platform of bearing goods simultaneously.Two are driven Driving wheel is placed in the rear end of body bottom, is used for driving dolly to perform advance, retrogressing and divertical motion.Lead for two It is placed in the front end of body bottom to wheel, is connected by revolute with vehicle body, can carry out freely rotatable around rotary shaft, Guide for moving of car.When dolly stop motion, wheel is fixed in brake, it is to avoid at External force interference Car phenomenon is slipped during lower or parking on ramp.
As in figure 2 it is shown, laser range finder 2, ultrasonic sensor 3, CCD industrial camera 1 and controller 5 Being connected, the signal of collection is delivered to controller 5, ultrasonic sensor is used for obstacle detection, laser Sensor is for finding range to barrier.Described controller is single-chip microcomputer, and single-chip microcomputer receives from navigator fix Device, fault avoidnig device and the environmental information detected and the moving of car state fed back to, judge it Export activation bit after process, control the kinestate of dolly.
It is illustrated in figure 3 unmanned vehicle automatic cruising schematic diagram.During dolly automatic running, by binocular phase Machine obtains road picture, and road edge is dark road sign, and middle road surface is light color, by the picture to shooting Carry out the steps such as gray processing, denoising, distortion correction and Threshold segmentation and i.e. can get current road figure, Then corresponding control signal is sent to driver, dolly attitude can be adjusted in real time, it is ensured that travel direction Correctly.Dolly avoidance and Turning travel are realized by the differential control of driving wheel.In the process of moving, when When barrier occurs in field range, by extracting the characteristics of image captured by camera, it is judged that barrier Positional information is also passed to controller, controller output control signal, makes the driving near obstacle side Wheel speed, more than the driving wheel rotating speed of opposite side, makes dolly turn to and carries out avoidance, after turning over certain angle, depending on Can't detect barrier in the range of open country, make again controller change control signal, make two driving wheel synchronous axial system, Dolly recovers straight travel state.
It is illustrated in figure 4 unmanned dolly barrier motion state detection schematic diagram.Work as ultrasonic sensor When barrier having been detected, dolly stop motion, laser range finder is started working, and within the time of Δ t, sends out Go out two bundle laser to find range, record obstacle distance and be respectively L1 and L2, then by whether calculating L1-L2 Be zero, can disturbance in judgement thing be in static, towards moving of car or deviate from moving of car state, and And the speed of barrier can be calculated by (L1-L2)/Δ t.The reference controlled in this, as moving of car: work as barrier Hindering thing when only certain distance L, dolly retreats, it is to avoid collision;Otherwise, then move on.
It is illustrated in figure 5 unmanned dolly vision guided navigation theory diagram, obtains dolly institute by CCD camera The present road picture at place, utilizes OpenCV image procossing and computer vision function library to carry out pre-to source images Process: gray processing, denoising, distortion correction.Then the picture processed is carried out Threshold segmentation, extracts road Road boundary characteristic, finally, carries out matching ratio relatively by extracting feature with the road template being previously set, if two Person is mated, then identify successfully, illustrate that this position is connecting way;If it fails to match, illustrate that current location is not It is connecting way, then controls steering wheel and drive camera to turn over an angle and re-recognize, circulate with this, until Find connecting way position.
In addition to the implementation, the present invention can also have other embodiments, all employing equivalents or equivalence The technical scheme that conversion is formed, all falls within the protection domain of application claims.

Claims (7)

1. a unmanned intelligent carriage, it is characterised in that include power module (4), controller (5), Vehicle body (6), driving wheel (7), directive wheel (8), steering wheel (9), navigation positional device (11), avoidance fill Putting (12), four wheels are installed in described vehicle body (6) bottom, and two driving wheels (7) are installed on rear portion, use In driving dolly to travel, two directive wheels (8) are installed on front portion, are used for turning to;Described power module (4) For accumulator, it is used for providing electric energy;Described navigation positional device (11) includes 2 CCD industrial cameras (1) With 2 steering wheels (9), it is anterior that described steering wheel (9) is arranged in vehicle body (6), described CCD industrial camera (1) Being placed on steering wheel (9), steering wheel (9) drives CCD industrial camera (1) to rotate;Described fault avoidnig device (12) Including laser range finder (2), ultrasonic sensor (3), described laser range finder (2), supersonic sensing The signal of collection is delivered to controller (5), described controller (5) by device (3), CCD industrial camera (1) Steering wheel (9) is controlled.
Unmanned intelligent carriage the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that described CCD industry phase The model of machine (1) is DFK22AUC03.
Unmanned intelligent carriage the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that described steering wheel (9) Model is MG995.
Unmanned intelligent carriage the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that described laser range finder (2) model is KLH-01T-20hz.
Unmanned intelligent carriage the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that described supersonic sensing The model of device (3) is HC-SR04.
Unmanned intelligent carriage the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that described controller (5) Be model be the single-chip microcomputer of LPC2148.
7. the control method of a unmanned intelligent carriage as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that Obtain the present road image residing for dolly by CCD industrial camera, utilize OpenCV image procossing and Computer vision function library carries out pretreatment to source images, including gray processing, denoising, distortion correction;Then The picture processed is carried out Threshold segmentation, extracts road boundary feature;By extracting feature and being previously set Road template carry out matching ratio relatively, if both coupling, then identify successfully, illustrate that this position is connecting way; If it fails to match, illustrate that current location is not connecting way, then control steering wheel and drive CCD industrial camera to rotate Angle re-recognizes, and circulates with this, until finding connecting way position;
Controller adjusts dolly attitude in real time, it is ensured that travel direction is correct;
When ultrasonic sensor has detected barrier, dolly stop motion, laser range finder starts working, Within the time of Δ t, send two bundle laser and find range, record obstacle distance and be respectively L1 and L2, then lead to Cross calculate L1-L2 value, can disturbance in judgement thing be in static, towards moving of car or deviate from dolly fortune Dynamic state;The speed of service of barrier is calculated, in this, as moving of car control by formula (L1-L2)/Δ t Foundation, i.e. when barrier near to certain distance L time, dolly retreat, it is to avoid collision;Otherwise, then continue Continuous advance;
Dolly avoidance and Turning travel are realized by the differential control of driving wheel, in the process of moving, work as barrier When hindering thing to occur in field range, by extracting the characteristics of image captured by camera, it is judged that the position of barrier Confidence ceases and is passed to controller, controller output control signal, makes the driving wheel near obstacle side Rotating speed, more than the driving wheel rotating speed of opposite side, makes dolly turn to and carries out avoidance, after turning over certain angle, the visual field In the range of can't detect barrier, controller changes control signal, makes two driving wheel synchronous axial system, and dolly is extensive Complex line transport condition.
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