CN105609155B - A kind of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

A kind of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN105609155B
CN105609155B CN201410669016.1A CN201410669016A CN105609155B CN 105609155 B CN105609155 B CN 105609155B CN 201410669016 A CN201410669016 A CN 201410669016A CN 105609155 B CN105609155 B CN 105609155B
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alloy
monofilament
aluminium
duralumin
aluminum wire
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CN105609155A (en
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陈保安
韩钰
祝志祥
陈新
张强
冯砚厅
刘东雨
杨长龙
张朝龙
韩春成
刘君
戚雪
佟明
李青春
王红梅
杨孝天
刘伟
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Shenzhen Woruide Composite Technology Co Ltd
State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Hebei Electric Power Co Ltd
North China Electric Power University
State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co Ltd
Smart Grid Research Institute of SGCC
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Shenzhen Woruide Composite Technology Co Ltd
State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Hebei Electric Power Co Ltd
North China Electric Power University
State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co Ltd
Smart Grid Research Institute of SGCC
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of conductance >=63%IACS, tensile strength >=163MPa aerial condutor duralumin, hard alumin ium alloy wire monofilament and preparation method thereof, aluminium alloy monofilament, which forms, by mass percentage is:Zr:0.01~0.05%, B:0.01~0.05%, Sc:0.05~0.2%, Fe:0~0.14%, Si:0~0.07%, (V+Ti+Cr+Mn):0~0.012%, remaining is Al and inevitable trace impurity.The invention also discloses the preparation method of the wire monofilament, employ and be blown into N2Degasification removes the gred, and without adding refining agent, so as to simplify the preparation technology of duralumin, hard alumin ium alloy, the electric wire and cable conductor thus prepared can improve conductance (63%IACS, 20 DEG C) and increase working strength (tensile strength >=163MPa).

Description

A kind of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament and preparation method thereof
【Technical field】
The present invention relates to a kind of transmission line of electricity aerial condutor manufacture method of power industry, a kind of in particular to make somebody a mere figurehead is led Line duralumin, hard alumin ium alloy monofilament and preparation method thereof.
【Background technology】
Overhead transmission line is typically generally using steel-cored aluminium strand as power transmission and distribution wire, in order to solve transmission line of electricity Reducing energy consumption, transmission of electricity line loss is reduced, is improved the circuit life-span, the general steel-cored aluminium strand prepared using high-conductivity hard aluminum alloy is real Now transmission line of electricity is energy-saving.There is advantages below using high-conductivity hard aluminum wire on transmission line of electricity:First, energy-conservation:Phase For conventional wires conductance, the conductance of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire improves about 3%, reduces resistance loss;Second, reduce Shaft tower is invested:Because wire wind load reduces about 10%, tower weight can reduce about 0.5%;Third, compression width of corridor:500 kilovolts When common-tower double-return road uses uiform section molded line, width of corridor can reduce 0.5 meter;Fourth, operational reliability is strong:Can relative reduction electricity Noise caused by corona and line loss.Counted according to the parties concerned, 2010, some local power transmission line path loss electricity are 171000000000 kilowatt hours;By 2015, if 20% transmission line of electricity uses high-conductivity hard aluminum wire, total losses can reduce 10.26 hundred million Kilowatt hour.Therefore, high-conductivity hard aluminum wire improves transfer efficiency, reduces line loss and fortune to some power network upgradings Row cost, there is vital effect.High-conductivity hard aluminum wire preparation technology is more complicated in the prior art, and properties of product are not Stable, product conductance is low, and is both needed in refining process to add refining agent, and one of existing refining agent what is common is that should It is single with narrow range, function, it can be only achieved different purposes after several different refining agents need to be put into respectively.And often effect is not It is significant, or Melt parity or environment are harmful to, and varying degree there are problems that it is various.
Chinese patent CN103093855A discloses a kind of high conductivity rare earth hard aluminum conductor, by weight percentage its component For:Iron 0.0875%~0.145%, the control of iron silicon ratio example is 1.7~2.5, boron 0.01~0.12%, gadolinium 0.01~0.15%, Remaining is aluminium.The invention also discloses the preparation method of the high conductivity rare earth hard aluminum conductor, aluminium ingot is mainly matched, melting, The processing such as boronation, refining is carried out again, and conductance 63%IACS, tensile strength 160MPa hard aluminum wire is made.But the system Preparation Method adds the refining agents such as potassium fluoborate, cryolite, and environmental pollution is larger.
【The content of the invention】
To solve above-mentioned deficiency, in technical scheme provided by the invention, add in micro-alloying elements control alloy Impurity content, and adjust with Technology for Heating Processing the microstructure of alloy, obtain it is a kind of 20 DEG C at conductance >=63%IACS, anti- Tensile strength >=163MPa hard aluminum wire monofilament.
The purpose of foregoing invention, is realized with following technical scheme:
A kind of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament, the hard aluminum wire monofilament is containing following compositions by mass percentage:Zr: 0.01~0.05%, B:0.01~0.05%, Sc:0.05~0.2%, Fe:0~0.14%, Si:0~0.07%, V, Ti, Cr It is 0~0.012% with tetra- kinds of element mass percent sums of Mn, remaining is Al and inevitable trace impurity.
Preferably, the mass percent of the B is 0.03~0.05%.
A kind of preparation method of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament as described above, comprises the steps:
(1) smelt:By the aluminium ingot of purity >=99.7% 720~750 DEG C fusing after, at 730~750 DEG C add B, Zr, Sc, Fe, Si, V, Ti, Cr and Mn intermediate alloy, aluminum alloy melt is stirred after intermediate alloy is completely melt;
(2) refine:It is passed through N2Degasification, after removing the gred 10~20 minutes, the refining aluminium alloy liquid at 730~750 DEG C, stand 30 ~60 minutes;
(3) cast:Aluminum alloy melt obtained by step (2) is cast at 700~720 DEG C and is preheated to 200~250 DEG C of insulations In cylindrical type mould, duralumin pole is obtained;
(4) bar processed:Duralumin pole is squeezed into aluminium alloy rod after 400~500 DEG C are incubated 0.5~2h, while to squeezing out Aluminium alloy rod spraying cold water;
(5) wire drawing:Aluminium alloy rod is drawn with punching block through 10~20 passages with 15m/s speed cold drawing with wire drawing machine, The preferable number that draws is 15 times, obtains duralumin monofilament;
(6) anneal:Duralumin monofilament is annealed, room temperature is air-cooled to after taking-up.
Preferably, the order that intermediate alloy is added in step (1) is that Al-B intermediate alloy boron is added at 730~750 DEG C Change, after standing 30min, then at 750 DEG C of addition Al-Zr, Al-Sc intermediate alloys.
It is furthermore preferred that in step (4) sprinkling room temperature water 1~3 minute.
Another preferable, duralumin monofilament is annealed 3~6h at 140~180 DEG C in step (6).
Each alloys producing and mechanism in technical scheme is as follows:
Zr:Zirconium atom radius ratio aluminium atom radius is bigger, and zirconium is spread in aluminium with substitute mode, and its diffusion activation energy is high, Trickle Al is separated out to sub- crystal grain border3Zr phases are not easy agglomeration, higher stability, can prevent the production of recrystallization It is raw, so as to effectively pin dislocation and crystal boundary, deformation and transgranular and crystal boundary sliding are hindered, is improved intensity.Meanwhile zirconium The creep-resistant property of aluminium alloy can be improved by adding, and enable aluminum alloy to the creep elongation for also there was only very little at high temperature, therefore, it is possible to Make spacing increase of the overhead transmission line between tower bar of transmitting electricity, and keep the less pendency degree of aluminium alloy conductor;
B:If impurity element exists with solid solution condition, the influence to electric conductivity is very big, and borax treatment can effectively drop Low magazine content, i.e., after a certain amount of B element is added in aluminium alloy, it can be sent out with Transition Group Impurities element Cr, Mn, V, Ti etc. Raw reaction, is allowed to be changed into compound state by solid solution state and is deposited on melt bottom, so as to improve the electric conductivity of aluminium alloy;
Sc:Scandium has good dispersion-strengthened action to aluminium, is the thin agent of the excellent crystal grain of aluminium alloy and well to tie suppression again. Microamounts of Scandium element is added in aluminium alloy, a large amount of disperses, the secondary Al of coherence can be formed3Sc phase particles, these particles one side Face can consumingly pinning dislocation and sub boundary, there is very strong stabilization to the substructure in deformed microstructure, alloy is existed What deformation process was formed occurred in subsequent annealing process to reply by the cellular structure that entanglement dislocation is formed forms Asia Crystal boundary, and many sub boundaries are made up of the network of dislocation of two dimension, and strong substructure invigoration effect can be played to alloy;Separately On the one hand these disperses, the secondary A1 of coherence3The tiny particle of Sc phases, the strong pinning dislocation of energy, hinders the motion of dislocation, carries significantly Shearing stress needed for high dislocation movement by slip, so as to cause alloy strengthening.Meanwhile scandium element can be with the impurity element of some in aluminium alloy Reaction forms the second phase, so as to which the conductance enabled aluminum alloy to improves;
Fe:Contain a certain amount of iron in aluminium, be a kind of major impurity in fine aluminium.Because the instrument that melting uses with casting All it is steel or cast iron, iron will be brought into aluminium by these instruments, and in remelting waste material, then can be mixed into iron and iron filings. Iron is harmful to the mechanical property for casting aluminium, because it generally occurs with a thick crystal, or with Al-Fe-Si compound shapes Formula is present, and they all improve the hardness of aluminium to a certain extent, but reduce the plasticity of aluminium.It recent studies have shown that, iron can carry High aluminium conductor intensity, does not significantly reduce its electric conductivity.But also there is data to show in actual production, the Fe/Si in aluminium conductor It is too high than should be 1.3~1.5, its resistivity can be made significantly to raise, so it should also be noted that the content of control iron;
Si:Element silicon is a kind of major impurity element in fine aluminium.As Si contents raise, the electrical conductivity of alloy declines. This is due to improve Si contents in alloy, and Si quantity of dissociating in aluminum substrate increase, Si is semiconductor, high compared with the resistivity of aluminum substrate Much, so the raising of Si contents reduces effective conductive cross-sectional area of aluminum substrate, low-alloyed electrical conductivity drops.Therefore, in duralumin It should be tried one's best in alloy and reduce Si contents;
Cr, Mn, V and Ti are the impurity element in alloy.This several element has crystal grain thinning, improves aluminium alloy room temperature Tensile strength and the effect for improving heat resistance, but they in aluminium conductor to be dissolved in the presence of state, it is easy to absorb conductor material Free electron in material and fill their incomplete electronic shell, the reduction of this conduction number of electrons result in aluminium conductor conduction The reduction of property.Research shows that every 1% (Cr+Mn+V+Ti) illeffects is to the 5 of aluminium electric conductivity illeffects per 1%Si Times.So it need to strictly control the content of this several element.
In the preparation method of nonheat-treatable heat-resisting aluminium alloy monofilament provided by the invention, first smelt, when fine aluminium ingot is complete Each alloying element is sequentially placed into after fusing, wherein B and Al has eutectic reaction, and alloying element is easier to dissolve, in fusion process It can be directly added into aluminum melt;For Zr, Sc element because fusing point is higher, dissolving is very slow, it is necessary to which larger overheat can be just completely dissolved. Aluminium liquid is stirred with mixer, makes alloying element full and uniformization;Dehydrogenation is carried out to aluminium liquid using nitrogen, except Slag treatment. Mould is heated, prevents mold temperature has big difference to cause with temperature of aluminum liquid from causing shrinkage cavity, mould in aluminium liquid casting cycle 200~250 DEG C of 60~90min of insulation are heated to, aluminium liquid casting is then carried out, is cast into 45 × 100mm of Ф duralumin pole.Adopt Ф 9.5mm circle aluminium bar is extruded into the mode of hot extrusion, then carries out wire drawing.With 15m/s speed on wire drawing machine it is cold Wire drawing, drawn by punching block multi-pass, the final monofilament for obtaining Ф 3.05mm.Adjusted by 140~180 DEG C of 3~6h of annealing Integrate the performance of gold.
With immediate prior art ratio, beneficial effects of the present invention:Technical scheme provided by the invention, due in duralumin Minor Sc is with the addition of in alloy, can either reduce impurity content has Grain Refinement Effect again, is ensureing duralumin, hard alumin ium alloy tool Aluminium alloy has preferable mechanical property while having high conductivity;Used when technical scheme is as a result of hot extrusion The method of cold water chilling duralumin round bar, avoids the appearance with precipitated phase;Only with being blown into technical scheme N2Degasification is removed the gred, and without adding refining agent, so as to simplify the preparation technology of duralumin, hard alumin ium alloy, the electric wire thus prepared is led Body can improve conductance (63%IACS, 20 DEG C) and increase working strength (tensile strength >=163MPa).
【Embodiment】
Unless otherwise stated, all embodiments are all to use existing smelting and extrusion equipment.
Embodiment 1
The 63%IACS conductance hard aluminum wire monofilament of following components and its mass percent is prepared,:
By the aluminium ingot that purity is 99.7% in medium frequency induction melting furnace, melted at 720 DEG C, when rising to 730 DEG C, in Between alloy mode, add aluminium boron intermediate alloy boronation, stand 30 minutes after, at 750 DEG C, add Zr, Sc alloying element, make Its final content is reached respectively, and alloying element is added in the form of intermediate alloy, is sufficiently stirred after intermediate alloy is completely melt; It is passed through N2Degasification, slagging-off 10 minutes, the refining aluminium alloy liquid at 750 DEG C, cast after standing 40min.It is before casting that cylindrical type is low Carbon Steel Die, which is put into batch-type furnace, is heated to 200 DEG C, is incubated 20min, and temperature of aluminum liquid is down into 720 DEG C, then falls aluminium liquid Enter in mould, prepare the duralumin pole that size is 45 × 300mm of Ф length.Duralumin pole is squeezing after 450 DEG C are incubated 1 hour It is squeezed into Ф 9.5mm aluminium alloy rod on press, while the cold water 2 minutes of room temperature is sprayed to the aluminium alloy rod squeezed out.By aluminium Rod of metal alloy carries out cold drawing with 15m/s speed on high speed wiredrawing bench, is drawn using punching block by 15 passages, finally obtains Ф 3.05mm duralumin monofilament.By aluminium alloy monofilament in 180 DEG C of batch annealing 3 hours, room temperature is air-cooled to after taking-up.Through inspection Survey, gained duralumin monofilament conductance is 63.01%IACS, and test intensity is 163.15MPa, elongation percentage 2.13%.
Embodiment 2
Prepare the 63%IACS conductance hard aluminum wire monofilament of following components and its mass percent:
By the aluminium ingot that purity is 99.7% in smelting furnace, after 720 DEG C of fusings, 740 DEG C are warming up to, with intermediate alloy Mode, aluminium boron intermediate alloy boronation is added, after standing 30 minutes, at 750 DEG C, Zr, Sc alloying element, made final up to its respectively Content, alloying element are added in the form of intermediate alloy, are sufficiently stirred after intermediate alloy is completely melt;It is passed through N2Degasification, Slagging-off 15 minutes, the refining aluminium alloy liquid at 750 DEG C, cast after standing 40min.Cylindrical type low-carbon steel mold is put into before casting 200 DEG C are heated in batch-type furnace, is incubated 20min, and temperature of aluminum liquid is down to 720 DEG C, then pours into aluminium liquid in mould, is prepared Go out the duralumin pole that size is 45 × 300mm of Ф length.Duralumin pole is squeezed into Ф after 450 DEG C are incubated 1 hour on extruder 9.5mm aluminium alloy rod, while spray to the aluminium alloy rod that squeezes out the cold water 2 minutes of room temperature.By aluminium alloy rod with 15m/s's Speed carries out cold drawing on high speed wiredrawing bench, is drawn using punching block by 15 passages, the final duralumin list for obtaining Ф 3.05mm Silk.By aluminium alloy monofilament in 160 DEG C of batch annealing 4 hours, room temperature is air-cooled to after taking-up.After testing, gained duralumin list Silk conductance is 63.07%IACS, and test intensity is 163.52MPa, elongation percentage 2.07%.
Embodiment 3
Prepare the 63%IACS conductance hard aluminum wire monofilament of following components and its mass percent:
By the aluminium ingot that purity is 99.7 in smelting furnace, melted at 720 DEG C, when rising to 730 DEG C, with the side of intermediate alloy Formula, aluminium boron intermediate alloy boronation is added, after standing 30 minutes, at 750 DEG C, add Zr, Sc alloying element, make to reach it most respectively Whole content, alloying element are added in the form of intermediate alloy, are sufficiently stirred after intermediate alloy is completely melt;It is passed through N2Remove Gas, slagging-off 20 minutes, the refining aluminium alloy liquid at 730 DEG C, cast after standing 60 minutes.Low-carbon steel mold is put into case before casting 220 DEG C are heated in formula stove, 700 DEG C of aluminum alloy melt is cast in the cylindrical type mould, prepare size for Ф 45 × The duralumin pole of 300mm length;Duralumin pole is squeezed into Ф 9.5mm aluminium alloy after 500 DEG C are incubated 40 minutes on extruder Bar, while the cold water 3 minutes of room temperature is sprayed to the aluminium alloy rod that squeezes out, to avoid with precipitated phase precipitation.By aluminium alloy rod Cold drawing is carried out on wire drawing machine with 15m/s speed, is drawn using punching block by 15 passages, finally obtains a diameter of 3.05mm Duralumin monofilament;By aluminium alloy monofilament in 140 DEG C of batch annealing 6h, room temperature is air-cooled to after taking-up.After testing, gained is hard Aluminium monofilament conductance is 63.05%IACS, and test intensity is 163.36MPa, elongation percentage 2.18%.
Embodiment 4
Prepare the 63%IACS conductance hard aluminum wire monofilament of following components and its mass percent:
The aluminium ingot that purity is 99.7% is added in medium frequency induction melting furnace, 720 DEG C is kept the temperature at and melts fine aluminium, When temperature rises to 730 DEG C, start in a manner of intermediate alloy, add aluminium boron intermediate alloy boronation, after standing 30 minutes, 750 DEG C, Zr, Sc alloying element are added, the final content for making them is as it appears from the above, alloying element is in the form of intermediate alloy Add, aluminum alloy melt is sufficiently stirred after intermediate alloy is completely melt;It is passed through N2Degasification, slagging-off 10 minutes, at 750 DEG C Lower refining aluminium alloy liquid, cast after standing 40min.Cylindrical type low-carbon steel mold is put into batch-type furnace before casting and is heated to 210 DEG C, be incubated 20min, and temperature of aluminum liquid be down to 700 DEG C, then pour into aluminium liquid in mould, prepare size for Ф 45 × The duralumin pole of 300mm length.After 480 DEG C are incubated 1.5 hours, the aluminium that Ф 9.5mm are squeezed on extruder closes duralumin pole Golden bar, while spray to the aluminium alloy rod that squeezes out the cold water 3 minutes of room temperature.By aluminium alloy rod with 15m/s speed at a high speed Cold drawing is carried out on wire drawing machine, is drawn using punching block by 15 passages, the final duralumin monofilament for obtaining Ф 3.05mm.By aluminium alloy Monofilament is air-cooled to room temperature in 140 DEG C of batch annealing 6 hours after taking-up.After testing, gained duralumin monofilament conductance is 63.02%IACS, test intensity are 163.05MPa, elongation percentage 2.08%.
Embodiment 5
Prepare the 63%IACS conductance hard aluminum wire monofilament of following components and its mass percent:
The aluminium ingot that purity is 99.7% is added in medium frequency induction melting furnace, 730 DEG C is kept the temperature at and melts fine aluminium, When temperature rises to 740 DEG C, start in a manner of intermediate alloy, add aluminium boron intermediate alloy boronation, after standing 30 minutes, Zr, Sc alloying element at 750 DEG C, the final content for making them are as it appears from the above, alloying element is added in the form of intermediate alloy Enter, aluminum alloy melt is sufficiently stirred after intermediate alloy is completely melt;It is passed through N2Degasification, slagging-off 25 minutes, at 750 DEG C Refining aluminium alloy liquid, cast after standing 40min.Cylindrical type low-carbon steel mold is put into batch-type furnace before casting and is heated to 200 DEG C, be incubated 20min, and temperature of aluminum liquid be down to 710 DEG C, then pour into aluminium liquid in mould, prepare size for Ф 45 × The duralumin pole of 300mm length.Duralumin pole is squeezed into Ф 9.5mm aluminium alloy after 420 DEG C are incubated 1 hour on extruder Bar, while spray to the aluminium alloy rod that squeezes out the cold water 1 minute of room temperature.Aluminium alloy rod is drawn with 15m/s speed in high speed Cold drawing is carried out on silk machine, is drawn using punching block by 15 passages, the final duralumin monofilament for obtaining Ф 3.05mm.By aluminium alloy single Silk is air-cooled to room temperature in 150 DEG C of batch annealing 5 hours after taking-up.After testing, gained duralumin monofilament conductance is 63.03%IACS, test intensity are 163.09MPa, elongation percentage 2.12%.
It is the data of embodiment in form.
Embodiment Conductance (%IACS) Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation percentage (%)
1 63.01 163.15 2.13
2 63.07 163.52 2.07
3 63.05 163.36 2.18
4 63.02 163.05 2.08
5 63.03 163.09 2.12
It is only the detailed description carried out to presently preferred embodiments of the present invention above, but the present invention is not limited to above reality Apply example.It should be understood that in the case of the spirit and scope of claims hereof are not departed from, those skilled in the art The various modifications made, still fall within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament, it is characterised in that the hard aluminum wire monofilament is following containing by mass percentage Composition:Zr:0.01~0.05%, B:0.01~0.05%, Sc:0.05~0.2%, Fe:0~0.14%, Si:0~0.07%, V+Ti+Cr+Mn:0~0.012%, remaining is Al and inevitable trace impurity;
The preparation method of described high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament, comprises the steps:
(1) smelt:By the aluminium ingot of purity >=99.7% after 720~750 DEG C of fusings, B, Zr, Sc are added at 730~750 DEG C Intermediate alloy, stir aluminum alloy melt after intermediate alloy is completely melt;
(2) refine:It is blown into N2Degasification, after removing the gred 10~20 minutes, the refining aluminium alloy liquid at 730~750 DEG C, stand 30~60 Minute;
(3) cast:Temperature of aluminum liquid obtained by step (2) is down to 700~720 DEG C, is cast to and is preheated to 200~250 DEG C of insulations In mould, duralumin pole is made;
(4) bar processed:Duralumin pole is squeezed into aluminium alloy rod after 400~500 DEG C are incubated 0.5~2h, while to the aluminium squeezed out Rod of metal alloy spray water;
(5) wire drawing:Aluminium alloy rod is drawn through 10~20 passages using punching block, obtained with 15m/s speed cold drawing with wire drawing machine Duralumin monofilament;
(6) anneal:Duralumin monofilament is annealed, room temperature is air-cooled to after taking-up;
The order that intermediate alloy is added in step (1) is that Al-B intermediate alloy boronations are added at 730~750 DEG C, stands 30min Afterwards, Al-Zr, Al-Sc intermediate alloy are added at 750 DEG C;
Spray water 1~3 minute in step (4).
2. hard aluminum wire monofilament as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the mass percent of the B be 0.03~ 0.05%.
3. high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the drawing in step (5) in punching block Number is 15 times.
4. high-conductivity hard aluminum wire monofilament as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (6) at 140~180 DEG C Anneal 3~6h.
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