CN105544528A - Prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile - Google Patents

Prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105544528A
CN105544528A CN201610047687.3A CN201610047687A CN105544528A CN 105544528 A CN105544528 A CN 105544528A CN 201610047687 A CN201610047687 A CN 201610047687A CN 105544528 A CN105544528 A CN 105544528A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
stake
pile
shaft segment
reinforcing steel
presstressed reinforcing
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201610047687.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
郭帅杰
宋绪国
董捷
陈洪运
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China Railway Third Survey and Design Institute Group Ltd
Original Assignee
China Railway Third Survey and Design Institute Group Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by China Railway Third Survey and Design Institute Group Ltd filed Critical China Railway Third Survey and Design Institute Group Ltd
Priority to CN201610047687.3A priority Critical patent/CN105544528A/en
Publication of CN105544528A publication Critical patent/CN105544528A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/52Piles composed of separable parts, e.g. telescopic tubes Piles composed of segments
    • E02D5/523Piles composed of separable parts, e.g. telescopic tubes Piles composed of segments composed of segments
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/52Piles composed of separable parts, e.g. telescopic tubes Piles composed of segments
    • E02D5/523Piles composed of separable parts, e.g. telescopic tubes Piles composed of segments composed of segments
    • E02D5/526Connection means between pile segments
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/58Prestressed concrete piles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D2200/00Geometrical or physical properties
    • E02D2200/16Shapes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D2200/00Geometrical or physical properties
    • E02D2200/16Shapes
    • E02D2200/1628Shapes rectangular
    • E02D2200/1635Shapes rectangular made from single element
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D2250/00Production methods
    • E02D2250/0046Production methods using prestressing techniques
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D2600/00Miscellaneous
    • E02D2600/20Miscellaneous comprising details of connection between elements

Abstract

The invention discloses a prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile. A pile body of the anchoring anti-slide pile comprises a pile head section, a pile shaft and a pile tip section which are connected in sequence. The pile shaft is formed by connecting a plurality of pile shaft sections of the same structure from top to bottom in sequence. The cross section of each pile shaft section is in an ''I'' shape or hollow rectangular shape. A groove is formed in the top surface of each pile shaft section, and a protruding block is arranged on the bottom surface of each pile shaft section. In two adjacent pile shaft sections, the protruding block of the pile shaft section on the upper portion is embedded in the groove of the pile shaft section on the lower portion. Protruding blocks adaptive to the grooves of the pile shaft sections are arranged on the bottom surface of the pile head section. Grooves adaptive to the protruding blocks of the pile shaft sections are formed in the top surface of the pile tip section. The pile head section and the pile tip section are of an entity structure. The pile head section, the pile shaft and the pile tip section are anchored together through pre-stressed tendons arranged outside the pile shaft. According to the prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile, factory-like manufacturing is achieved, the anchoring anti-slide pile has the characteristics of modularization, standardization and mass manufacturing, construction difficulties are reduced, and constructing is fast and efficient.

Description

Precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile
Technical field
The present invention relates to slope reinforcement field, particularly relate to a kind of precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile.
Background technology
Along with the rapid growth of China's mountain railway design mileage, there is the High Cut Slope engineering of One's name is legion.Anchoring antislide pile can reinforce dark large High Cut Slope, is therefore widely used in railway subgrade works.But traditional Cast-in-situs type anchoring antislide pile cost is high, speed of application slow, pile quality not easily ensures, does not match with High Cut Slope reinforcement criteria rapidly and efficiently.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the deficiency that existing Cast-in-situs type Construction of Anti-sliding Pile exists, a kind of precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile is provided.Use this antislide pile significantly can reduce construction costs, lifting construction speed, reduce difficulty of construction and improve construction quality.
For this reason, technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
A kind of precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile, the pile body of this antislide pile comprises the stake epimerite section, pile body and the stake end sections that connect successively, described pile body is connected in sequence up and down by the shaft segment that multiple structure is identical, the cross section of described shaft segment is the rectangle of " work " font or hollow, the end face of each shaft segment is formed with groove, bottom surface is formed with projection, in adjacent two shaft segment, the projection of top shaft segment embeds in the groove of bottom shaft segment; The bottom surface of described stake epimerite section is formed with the projection adapted with the groove shapes of shaft segment; The end face of described stake end sections is formed with the groove adapted with the projection shape of shaft segment; Described stake epimerite section and stake end sections are entity structure, together with described stake epimerite section, pile body and stake end sections are anchored at by the presstressed reinforcing steel be laid in outside pile body.
Wherein, when the cross section of described shaft segment is the rectangle of hollow, described groove is recessed to form downwards by the local, top of the shaft segment at two places, long limit in described rectangle, and described projection is extended to form downwards by the local, bottom of the shaft segment at two places, long limit in described rectangle.The cross section of described shaft segment hollow region is rectangle, be close to the inwall of shaft segment in the hollow region that described presstressed reinforcing steel is laid in described shaft segment, the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections and stake epimerite section.
Or, on the outer side surface of the shaft segment at described rectangle two minor face place, gap-forming has multiple prestressing force groove, the length of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections is slightly larger than the length of described shaft segment, presstressed reinforcing steel duct is formed in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, described presstressed reinforcing steel is laid in the prestressing force groove of shaft segment, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections and stake epimerite section.
When the cross section of described shaft segment is " work " font, described groove and projection be respectively formed at the shaft segment at the waist place place of described " work " font above and below.Presstressed reinforcing steel duct is formed in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, described presstressed reinforcing steel passes described presstressed reinforcing steel duct and is laid in four interior angle places of " work " font, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections and stake epimerite section.
Or, on the outer side surface of the shaft segment at the widthwise edge place of described " work " font, gap-forming has multiple prestressing force groove, the length of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections is slightly larger than the length of described shaft segment, presstressed reinforcing steel duct is formed in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, described presstressed reinforcing steel is laid in the prestressing force groove of shaft segment, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections 2 and stake epimerite section.
Connected mode between described multiple shaft segment is wet seam, glueds joint seam, stem grafting seam.
Advantage of the present invention and good effect as follows:
The precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile that the present invention is, by " break the whole up into parts; collect zero one-tenth whole " mode, achieve batch production manufacture, there is modularization, standardization, the feature manufactured in enormous quantities, farthest can ensure pile quality, avoid repeatedly drawing hole perforation procedure in assembled process, reduce difficulty of construction, play construction advantage rapidly and efficiently, and take full advantage of the compressive property of concrete material and the tensile property of presstressed reinforcing steel, make the best use of everything, through engineering approaches application prospect is very wide.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Figure 1A is the structural representation of precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile of the present invention, and wherein, presstressed reinforcing steel is lay in shaft segment cavity;
Figure 1B is the structural representation of precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile of the present invention, and wherein, presstressed reinforcing steel is that shaft segment surface is laid;
Fig. 2 A, 2B are cross sectional view and the lateral view of one embodiment of the invention pile sections;
Fig. 3 A, 3B are cross sectional view and the lateral view of another embodiment of the present invention pile sections;
Fig. 4 A, 4B are 2 kinds of inner laying mode schematic diagrames of presstressed reinforcing steel of the present invention;
Fig. 5 A, 5B are the end face structure schematic diagrames laying mode corresponding stake end sections/stake epimerite section respectively with presstressed reinforcing steel in Fig. 4 A, 4B;
Fig. 6 A, 6B are in the present invention, when presstressed reinforcing steel is laid on surface, and the structural representation of shaft segment 2 embodiments;
Fig. 7 A, 7B are 2 kinds of surperficial laying mode schematic diagrames of presstressed reinforcing steel of the present invention;
Fig. 8 A, 8B are the end face structure schematic diagrames laying mode corresponding stake end sections/stake epimerite section respectively with presstressed reinforcing steel in Fig. 7 A, 7B.
Wherein:
1: shaft segment 2: stake end sections 3: stake epimerite section 4: fixed end anchor head
5: stretching end anchor head 6: shear connector 6a: groove 6b: projection 7: shaft segment
8a: presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8b: prestressing force groove 9: presstressed reinforcing steel
Detailed description of the invention
Precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile of the present invention, by segmented for pile body prefabrication, on-the-spot segmented assembly, by stake end sections anchoring anchorage style, connects into entirety by vertical prestressing bar post stretching Shi Hanzhang by each section of anchoring antislide pile.
Be described in detail below in conjunction with the structure of accompanying drawing to precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile of the present invention.
As shown in FIG. 1A and 1B, precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile of the present invention is made up of pile body and prestressed reinforcement (cable wire or steel strand).Described pile body comprises the stake epimerite section 3, pile body and the stake end sections 2 that connect successively, and described pile body is connected in sequence by the shaft segment about 1 that multiple structure is identical.Stake epimerite section 3 and stake end sections 2 are entity structure, together with stake epimerite section 3, pile body and stake end sections 2 are anchored at by the presstressed reinforcing steel 9 be laid in outside pile body, the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel 9 is arranged in stake end sections 2, and stretching end anchor head is arranged in an epimerite section 3.
See Fig. 2 A-Fig. 3 B, pile body cross section 7 is the rectangle or I-shaped of hollow, the end face of each shaft segment is formed with groove 6a, bottom surface is formed with projection 6b, and in adjacent two shaft segment, the projection of top shaft segment embeds in the groove of bottom shaft segment and forms shear connector 6.The bottom surface of stake epimerite section 3 is formed with the projection adapted with the groove shapes of shaft segment 1; The end face of stake end sections 2 is formed with the groove adapted with the projection shape of shaft segment 1.
When the cross section of shaft segment is the rectangle of hollow, described groove 6a is recessed to form downwards by the local, top of the shaft segment at two places, long limit in described rectangle; Described projection 6b is extended to form downwards by the local, bottom of the shaft segment at two places, long limit in described rectangle.The cross section of shaft segment hollow region can be rectangle, in the case, see Fig. 4 A and 5A, presstressed reinforcing steel 9 can be laid in this rectangular hollow region and to be close to the inwall of shaft segment, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel 9 and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a of stake end sections 2 and stake epimerite section 3.
Presstressed reinforcing steel 9 can also be laid in the outside of shaft segment.In this case, see Fig. 6 A, 7A and 8A, on the outer side surface of the shaft segment at described rectangle two minor face place, gap-forming has multiple prestressing force groove 8b, the length of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections is slightly larger than the length of described shaft segment, presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a is formed in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, presstressed reinforcing steel 9 is laid in the prestressing force groove 8b of shaft segment, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel 9 and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a of stake end sections 2 and stake epimerite section 3.
When the cross section of described shaft segment is " work " font, see Fig. 3 A and 3B, described groove 6a and projection 6b be respectively formed at the shaft segment at the waist place place of described " work " font above and below.See Fig. 4 B, 5B, presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a is formed in the corresponding position of stake epimerite section and stake end sections, presstressed reinforcing steel can be laid in four interior angle places of " work " font, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel 9 and stretching end anchor head 5 are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a of stake end sections 2 and stake epimerite section 3.
Presstressed reinforcing steel 9 can also be laid in the outside of shaft segment.In this case, see Fig. 6 B, 7B and 8B, on the outer side surface of the shaft segment at the widthwise edge place of described " work " font, gap-forming has multiple prestressing force groove 8b, the length of stake epimerite section and stake end sections is slightly larger than the length of described shaft segment, presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a is formed in the corresponding position of stake epimerite section and stake end sections, presstressed reinforcing steel 9 is laid in the prestressing force groove 8b of shaft segment, and the fixed end anchor head 4 of presstressed reinforcing steel 9 and stretching end anchor head 5 are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct 8a of stake end sections 2 and stake epimerite section 3.
In addition, the connected mode between multiple shaft segment can be wet seam, glued joint seam or stem grafting seam.
Below the construction method of precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile of the present invention is described in detail.
Anchoring antislide pile is assemblied to form primarily of a stake end sections, a stake epimerite section and some shaft segment, according to transport and lifting appliance ability, the length of each sections is generally 1 ~ 3m, the sectional dimension of each sections specifically sets according to conventional antislide pile cross section or antislide pile supporting capacity, the pre-of sections carries out built in precasting yard, when stake top and stake end precast segment, pre-buried stretching end anchor head also reserves the prestressed pore passage 8 of correspondence position, accurately controls the position of segment sizes and shear connector and surperficial prestressing force groove during shaft segment is prefabricated.
After the sections of prefabricate anchoring antislide pile is transported to scene, the on-the-spot anchoring antiskid stake holes from bottom to top segmented assembly along constructing in advance.Concrete lifting and assembled operation as follows:
One, wear the presstressed reinforcing steel of stake end sections in ground location, and by stake end fixed end anchor head 4 anchor pile end sections presstressed reinforcing steel, after the installation of stake end sections presstressed reinforcing steel, lifting stake end sections is to precalculated position;
Two, after stake end segment lifting completes, lift shaft segment successively to precalculated position, when adopting splicing seam, stem grafting seam assembled between sections, tongue, recessed block structured shear connector will engage each other, when adopting splicing seam assembled, the adjacent surface of each sections also will coat epoxide-resin glue.
Three, stake epimerite section is finally lifted to precalculated position, by presstressed reinforcing steel through stake epimerite section presstressed reinforcing steel duct, adopt post-stress muscle that each sections of anchor pile (antislide pile) is connected into entirety, after tension of prestressed tendon has also locked, slip casing by pressure filling is carried out along pile body periphery, ensure the good contact of pile body and pile peripheral earth, finally complete the construction of an anchoring antislide pile.

Claims (8)

1. a precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile, the pile body of this antislide pile comprises the stake epimerite section, pile body and the stake end sections that connect successively, described pile body is connected in sequence up and down by the shaft segment that multiple structure is identical, it is characterized in that: the cross section of described shaft segment is the rectangle of " work " font or hollow, the end face of each shaft segment is formed with groove, bottom surface is formed with projection, in adjacent two shaft segment, the projection of top shaft segment embeds in the groove of bottom shaft segment; The bottom surface of described stake epimerite section is formed with the projection adapted with the groove shapes of shaft segment; The end face of described stake end sections is formed with the groove adapted with the projection shape of shaft segment; Described stake epimerite section and stake end sections are entity structure, together with described stake epimerite section, pile body and stake end sections are anchored at by the presstressed reinforcing steel be laid in outside pile body.
2. precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: when the cross section of described shaft segment is the rectangle of hollow, described groove is recessed to form downwards by the local, top of the shaft segment at two places, long limit in described rectangle, and described projection is extended to form downwards by the local, bottom of the shaft segment at two places, long limit in described rectangle.
3. precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the cross section of described shaft segment hollow region is rectangle, be close to the inwall of shaft segment in the hollow region that described presstressed reinforcing steel is laid in described shaft segment, the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections and stake epimerite section.
4. precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: on the outer side surface of the shaft segment at described rectangle two minor face place, gap-forming has multiple prestressing force groove, the length of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections is slightly larger than the length of described shaft segment, presstressed reinforcing steel duct is formed in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, described presstressed reinforcing steel is laid in the prestressing force groove of shaft segment, the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections and stake epimerite section.
5. precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: when the cross section of described shaft segment is for " work " font, described groove and projection be respectively formed at the shaft segment at the waist place place of described " work " font above and below.
6. precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to claim 5, it is characterized in that: be formed with presstressed reinforcing steel duct in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, described presstressed reinforcing steel passes described presstressed reinforcing steel duct and is laid in four interior angle places of " work " font, and the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections and stake epimerite section.
7. precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to claim 5, it is characterized in that: on the outer side surface of the shaft segment at the widthwise edge place of described " work " font, gap-forming has multiple prestressing force groove, the length of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections is slightly larger than the length of described shaft segment, presstressed reinforcing steel duct is formed in the corresponding position of described stake epimerite section and stake end sections, described presstressed reinforcing steel is laid in the prestressing force groove of shaft segment, the fixed end anchor head of presstressed reinforcing steel and stretching end anchor head are separately positioned in the presstressed reinforcing steel duct of stake end sections 2 and stake epimerite section.
8. the precast splice type external prestressing anchoring antislide pile according to any one of claim 1-7, is characterized in that: the connected mode between described multiple shaft segment is wet seam, glueds joint seam, stem grafting seam.
CN201610047687.3A 2016-01-22 2016-01-22 Prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile Pending CN105544528A (en)

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CN201610047687.3A CN105544528A (en) 2016-01-22 2016-01-22 Prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201610047687.3A CN105544528A (en) 2016-01-22 2016-01-22 Prefabricated assembling type externally pre-stressed anchoring anti-slide pile

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108340331A (en) * 2018-01-16 2018-07-31 石家庄铁道大学 A kind of assembled steel deposits beam pedestal

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN201221081Y (en) * 2008-06-02 2009-04-15 华升建设集团有限公司 Connection structure of prestressed concrete pipe pile
KR101056027B1 (en) * 2009-09-09 2011-08-10 주식회사 스마텍엔지니어링 Combined structure of edge prestressed concrete composite pile with tension member and expansion foundation
CN104343080A (en) * 2014-09-29 2015-02-11 北京工业大学 Method for constructing segmental prefabricating and assembling swing foundation pier
CN204282378U (en) * 2014-12-09 2015-04-22 甘肃建筑职业技术学院 A kind of prefabricated box prestressed slip-resisting pile
CN205348166U (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-06-29 铁道第三勘察设计院集团有限公司 Solid friction pile of external prestressed anchorage of prefabricated pin -connected panel

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN201221081Y (en) * 2008-06-02 2009-04-15 华升建设集团有限公司 Connection structure of prestressed concrete pipe pile
KR101056027B1 (en) * 2009-09-09 2011-08-10 주식회사 스마텍엔지니어링 Combined structure of edge prestressed concrete composite pile with tension member and expansion foundation
CN104343080A (en) * 2014-09-29 2015-02-11 北京工业大学 Method for constructing segmental prefabricating and assembling swing foundation pier
CN204282378U (en) * 2014-12-09 2015-04-22 甘肃建筑职业技术学院 A kind of prefabricated box prestressed slip-resisting pile
CN205348166U (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-06-29 铁道第三勘察设计院集团有限公司 Solid friction pile of external prestressed anchorage of prefabricated pin -connected panel

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108340331A (en) * 2018-01-16 2018-07-31 石家庄铁道大学 A kind of assembled steel deposits beam pedestal

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Application publication date: 20160504