CN105402735B - Stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and its processing method - Google Patents

Stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and its processing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105402735B
CN105402735B CN201511009778.XA CN201511009778A CN105402735B CN 105402735 B CN105402735 B CN 105402735B CN 201511009778 A CN201511009778 A CN 201511009778A CN 105402735 B CN105402735 B CN 105402735B
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China
Prior art keywords
incinerator
gasification furnace
rubbish
gasification
combustion chamber
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CN201511009778.XA
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CN105402735A (en
Inventor
林顺洪
莫榴
李长江
徐�明
柏继松
季炫宇
田野
阳小燕
吕全伟
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Chongqing University of Science and Technology
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Chongqing University of Science and Technology
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/442Waste feed arrangements
    • F23G5/444Waste feed arrangements for solid waste
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/022Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/40Gasification

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and its processing method, incinerator includes feed hopper, gasification furnace and incinerator, incinerator falls the front lower place of cinder notch positioned at gasification furnace, windrow seal section is provided between feed hopper, gasification furnace, residue pusher is provided between gasification furnace and incinerator, the upper end of gasification furnace, the upper end of incinerator are arched upward, and set exhanst gas outlet respectively.Waste disposal method includes:Step A, furnace lifting, baker;Step B, make rubbish in the stove chamber inner combustion of gasification furnace;Step C, realize rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal;Step D, after rubbish and rubbish residue burn, close stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator.Rubbish is processed using this mechanical grate-type refuse gasification incinerator, rubbish conveying capacity is stronger, and garbage treatment quantity is bigger, and the organic efficiency of heat is higher, can efficiently reduce Pollution drainage.

Description

Stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and its processing method
Technical field
Burnt the invention belongs to solid waste incineration processing technology field, more particularly to a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification Burn stove and its processing method.
Background technology
Existing technology of garbage disposal mainly has burning, sanitary landfills, compost, waste recovery etc..In garbage disposal routine In technology, burning disposal has reduced training substantially, and innoxious thorough, occupation of land amount is small, and waste heat energy is utilized, and secondary pollution is few The advantages of, meet the strategic requirement of China's sustainable development.But with continuous improvement both at home and abroad to environmental requirement, how to strengthen Control to secondary pollution is particularly important.Therefore, refuse pyrolysis gasification burning technology is gradually shifted onto the road of industrial applications On, primarily now use all kinds of incineration technologies especially for domestic rubbish, gasification burning technology widely industrialize by The technological innovation of domestic garbage disposal industry is brought to regenerate.
For many years, scientific research of the China to the gasification burning technology such as biomass, rubbish, be in progress a lot of, the base in laboratory Plinth research is a lot, also has application study, such as:Rotary kiln type, vertical and fluidized bed type destructive gasifying or temperature gasification and high melting skill Art etc..But in Technique Popularizing application or there is a definite limitation, raw material type, garbage treatment quantity, secondary pollution control and economy Benefit etc. is principal element.
In existing burning process and equipment, fire grate type incinerator is various informative, and its application accounts for whole world waste incineration More than the 80% of the total market size, wherein having in body of heater using mechanical backstepping fire grate, forwards fire grate or combined fire grate, also adopts With fire grates such as chain-plate type and drum-types.
In sum, typical incinerator, respectively there is its own advantage, but needs what is solved in China's practical application Problem and shortage:
1., for characteristics such as China's high, complicated components of house refuse water content, the technology of moving hearth is used, to rubbish Conveying capacity needs emphasis to consider.
2. being on the increase with refuse production, sanitary fill such as mountain, garbage treatment quantity must be effectively improved, Can just meet the market requirement.
3., in face of strict pollutant emission requirement, secondary pollution control is the key problem for technically needing to solve.
4., in order to effectively increase economic efficiency, in rubbish heat treatment process, the organic efficiency of heat needs to improve.It is existing Rubbish heat treatment technics generally using boiler produce steam shift steam turbine power generation onto, whole transition heat efficiency losses are larger, place Reason identical quantity of refuse, relative thermal losses and the raising heat exchanger effectiveness of reducing can just improve the thermal efficiency.
For example following two patents of invention of existing incinerator:Multiple row sectional drive combined type domestic garbage incinerator (ZL200710092508.9) an open question and in two-stage garbage incinerator (ZL201010268376.2):At rubbish heat Reason model comparision falls behind, and simply dry-burns-burns, and solid combustion discharges the process of heat;Thermal chemical reaction is aoxidizing in stove Based on reaction, reduction reaction auxiliary is also easy to produce secondary pollution;When rubbish burns in stove, oxygen quotient is crossed greatly, First air, two Secondary wind infeed amount is big, and dust content is higher in flue gas, larger on heat reclaiming system and smoke processing system influence, easily product Ash, exhaust gas volumn is larger, reduces thermal conversion efficiency;The gasification furnace and incinerator not being separately provided, can only by several times process rubbish, Large-scale rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal cannot be realized, garbage treatment quantity is smaller.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, there is provided a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and Its processing method, rubbish is processed using this mechanical grate-type refuse gasification incinerator, and rubbish conveying capacity is stronger, garbage treatment quantity It is bigger, thermal losses can be reduced and heat exchanger effectiveness is improved, the organic efficiency of heat is higher, and can efficiently reduce pollutant Discharge capacity.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
A kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator, including grate, and set gradually along feedstock direction on grate Feed hopper, gasification furnace and incinerator, the rear of gasification furnace is the cinder notch that falls of gasification furnace, and incinerator falls cinder notch positioned at gasification furnace Front lower place, the rear of incinerator is the slag notch of incinerator, and the grate is provided with garbage pusher device, the garbage pusher device position In the lower section of feed hopper, for by the rubbish push-in gasification furnace in feed hopper, windrow being provided between the feed hopper, gasification furnace Seal section, left on the grate part between the gasification furnace and incinerator transition fall slag section, transition fall slag section can form windrow Sealing state, the transition fall slag section be provided with residue pusher, for by the rubbish fallen in gasification furnace residue push-in burn In stove;
The gasification furnace, incinerator include furnace shell, moving hearth respectively, and the forward and backward side of the gasification furnace passes through heap respectively Material seal section, transition fall slag section sealing, and the transition falls slag section isolation gasification furnace, incinerator, makes gasification furnace, incinerator mutually only It is vertical.
In order to be carried out once to gasification furnace, incinerator, secondary air feed, and to flue gas point that gasification furnace, incinerator are produced Do not processed, the lower section of the gasification furnace moving hearth and the incinerator moving hearth are respectively arranged below with least one An individual air compartment being independently arranged, the gasification furnace, incinerator respectively in arching upward shape, on the face arch of the gasification furnace, rear arch point Secondary air feed mouthful is not set, and the vault of the gasification furnace sets the first exhanst gas outlet, and the vault of the incinerator sets the second cigarette Gas is exported, and igniting combustion supporting hole is respectively equipped with the gasification furnace, incinerator.
In order to being utilized again after the flue gas ash removal in incinerator, reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, make The organic efficiency of heat is higher, it is preferable that also including dust arrester, and the dust arrester is located at the top of incinerator, dedusting dress The inlet end put is connected by pipeline with the second exhanst gas outlet.
In order to strengthen sealing effectiveness, prevent flying dust from escaping, reduce pollutant discharge amount, it is preferable that set on the incinerator There is a cinder notch, the slag notch of the incinerator falls the underface of cinder notch positioned at incinerator, the incinerator falls cinder notch by pipeline Connected with the slag notch of dust arrester.
In order to the high-temperature flue gas effectively to incinerator discharge carry out dedusting, it is preferable that the dust arrester is whirlwind point From device or hot precipitator.
In order to prevent that wind is altered between gasification furnace, incinerator, it is preferable that the transition fall slag section on be provided with it is to be opened/closed every From door, the isolating door is used to separate gasification furnace, incinerator.The furnace lifting initial stage or need control gasification furnace and incinerator between When altering wind, isolating door is closed, after the slag section that falls stacks a certain amount of residue forms windrow sealing, isolating door can be kept to open, Coordinate to use with the residue pusher that lower section is set, to realize rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal.
In order to reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, make the organic efficiency of heat higher, it is preferable that also including being used for The cyclone combustion chamber of second-time burning, the upper end of the cyclone combustion chamber is provided with combustion chamber ignition combustion-supporting hole, under cyclone combustion chamber End is provided with the taper slag notch that radius from top to bottom diminishes, and the top of the cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall sets smoke inlet, institute State smoke inlet to be connected with the first exhanst gas outlet by pipeline, the bottom of the cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall sets the 3rd flue gas and goes out Mouthful, some combustion air air feeds mouthful are uniformly provided with the circumferential wall of the cyclone combustion chamber, each combustion air air feed mouthful is respectively positioned on flue gas Between entrance, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet.
In order that the high-temperature flue gas produced after burning are easily drained, and beneficial to the installation of pipeline, it is preferable that the flue gas Entrance, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet are located at the opposition side of cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall.
In order that flue gas, combustion air are discharged after being sufficiently mixed in cyclone firing room, being burnt from the 3rd exhanst gas outlet, preferably Ground, the smoke inlet, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet, combustion air air feed opening's edge cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall are radially or tangentially set.
A kind of waste disposal method of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator, it is characterised in that the method is according to the following steps Carry out:
Step A, the gate for closing stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and atmospheric vent, start mechanical grate-type rubbish Incinerator, feed hopper is put into by garbage raw material, and garbage pusher device pusher back and forth, the rubbish that will be fallen from feed hopper is former Windrow seal section between material push-in feed hopper, gasification furnace, makes windrow seal section form windrow sealing state, and unnecessary rubbish falls Enter the moving hearth of gasification furnace, rubbish is conveyed into transition and fallen slag section by the moving hearth work of gasification furnace, and residue pusher is reciprocal Multiple pusher, in rubbish push-in incinerator transition fallen in slag section, the moving hearth work conveying garbage of incinerator, until rubbish Rubbish is accumulated to required thickness in the moving hearth of gasification furnace, incinerator, stops being fed intake to feed hopper, gasification furnace and incinerator Moving hearth is stopped, then, with start-up burner by the igniting combustion supporting hole of gasification furnace and incinerator respectively with gasification furnace Burner hearth with incinerator is communicated, and in the presence of start-up burner, furnace lifting, baker is carried out to gasification furnace and incinerator, treats this Process stabilization is completed, and gasification furnace and incinerator burner hearth is reached 600-700 DEG C of predetermined temperature;
Step B, regulation gasification furnace, the technological parameter of incinerator, feed intake to feed hopper, and the moving hearth work of gasification furnace is defeated Send rubbish, rubbish that burning is proceeded by the burner hearth of gasification furnace, it is close that the accumulation at transition falls slag section of rubbish residue forms windrow Envelope, makes the stove chamber inner combustion state temperature of gasification furnace be stabilized to more than 850 DEG C, after the moving hearth work output of incinerator burns Rubbish residue;
Step C, regulation gasification furnace, each technological parameter of incinerator, make gasification furnace gradually gasify to rubbish, make gasification Stove stabilization produces the high-temperature flue gas containing 10%-20% synthesis gas, makes incinerator fired state temperature stabilization to more than 850 DEG C, real Existing rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal;
Step D, need to overhaul or during blowing out, stop feeding intake, regulation gasification furnace, the technological parameter of incinerator, make gasification furnace by Fired state is gradually returned to, after rubbish and rubbish residue burn, stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator is closed.
In order to cyclone combustion chamber is comprehensively controlled with incinerator, it is preferable that in step C, whirlwind combustion need to be adjusted Each technological parameter of room is burnt, the flue gas exit temperature of cyclone combustion chamber the 3rd is stabilized to more than 850 DEG C;In step D, need to adjust simultaneously Each technological parameter of cyclone combustion chamber is saved, gasification furnace is gradually restored to fired state, gas to be synthesized closes whirlwind combustion after burning Burn room.
By adopting the above-described technical solution, the present invention has the advantages that:
1. windrow seal section is provided between feed hopper, gasification furnace, gasification furnace front is carried out windrow sealing, gasified Stove, the transition of incinerator fall slag section can also form windrow sealing state, allow gasification furnace rear formed windrow seal, make gasification The heat preservation and insulation of stove more preferably, can prevent heat leak in refuse gasification burning process, save fuel.
2. gasification furnace, incinerator are provided separately, and the vault of gasification furnace sets the first exhanst gas outlet, and the vault of incinerator is set Second exhanst gas outlet, flue gas is processed beneficial to the difference according to flue gas quality respectively, while being conducive to flue gas ash removal, can be provided The flue gas of higher quality, makes the utilization rate of flue gas higher, and the waste residue of discharge is less.
3. present inventive concept is novel, and garbage treatment quantity is big, and the rubbish bed of material experiences on stoker fired grate and dries, gasifies and residue Burn the stage, adapt to the characteristics such as China's high, complicated component of house refuse water content, improve the energy in garbage processing procedure Pollutant discharge amount in transformation efficiency and reduction flue gas, effectively prevents secondary pollution, and can realize that large-scale rubbish is continuous Gasification burning treatment, it is ensured that refuse gasification burns effect and lime-ash clinker ignition loss, relative to reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchange effect Rate, improves the thermal efficiency.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is structural representation of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of cyclone combustion chamber in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is structural representation of the present invention in the middle of.
Reference
1 is incinerator, and 101 is grate, and 102 is feed hopper, and 103 is gasification furnace, and 104 is incinerator, and 105 is stove Bed, 106 be garbage pusher device, 107 be an air compartment, 108 be windrow seal section, 109 for transition fall slag section, 110 push away for residue Glassware, 111 is isolating door, and 112 is the first exhanst gas outlet, and 113 is the second exhanst gas outlet, and 114 is igniting combustion supporting hole, and 115 is two Secondary air feed mouthful, 116 is slag notch, and 117 is the cinder notch that falls;
2 is circulation air feed system, and 201 is dust arrester, and 202 is the first blower fan, and 203 is the second blower fan, and 204 is the first discrimination Pipe, 205 is the second manifold, and 206 is the 3rd manifold, and 207 is the first regulating valve, and 208 is the second regulating valve, and 209 is the 3rd regulation Valve;
3 is cyclone combustion chamber, and 301 is combustion chamber ignition combustion-supporting hole, and 302 is taper slag notch, and 303 is smoke inlet, 304 It is the 3rd exhanst gas outlet, 305 is combustion air air feed mouthful.
Specific embodiment
It is a kind of preferred embodiment of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator, the incinerator 1 referring to Fig. 1 Including grate 101, and feed hopper 102, gasification furnace 103 and the incinerator set gradually along feedstock direction on grate 101 104, the rear of incinerator 104 is the slag notch of incinerator 104, and gasification furnace 103 mainly enters promoting the circulation of qi to the carbon-containing part of rubbish Change, and discharge flammable gasification flue gas and rubbish residue, incinerator 104 is substantially carried out the burning treatment of carbon residue, and discharges harmless The lime-ash of change.The siege 105 of gasification furnace 103 and incinerator 104 is using the independent stoker fired grate formula moving hearth for driving of segmentation 105, the fire grate of stoker fired grate formula moving hearth 105 is forward lapped with fixed grate plate by moving grate plate, spaced remittance Collection is formed, and adjacent multigroup moving grate plate is connected by pull bar, is driven using a set of drive device.Stoker fired grate formula moves stove Bed 105 as conveying garbage carrier, embodiments thereof can be all types of moving hearths 105, such as chain-plate type, drum-type, many Section grate system etc..
The grate 101 is provided with garbage pusher device 106, and the garbage pusher device 106 is located at the lower section of feed hopper 102, For by the rubbish push-in gasification furnace 103 in feed hopper 102, the lower section of the moving hearth 105 of gasification furnace 103 and incinerator 104 moving hearths 105 are respectively arranged below with least one air compartment 107 being independently arranged, in the present embodiment, with gasification furnace The corresponding fire grate of air compartment 107 of 103 first halfs, drive device, as the dryer section of the siege 105 of gasification furnace 103, with gasification The latter half of corresponding fire grate of an air compartment 107 of stove 103, drive device as the siege 105 of gasification furnace 103 gasification section.Gasification The dryer section of the siege 105 of stove 103, gasification section can be respectively adopted a 1-2 independent air feed of air compartment 107, it is also possible to respectively Using a 3-4 independent air feed of air compartment 107.Certainly, fire grate, drive device and an air compartment 107 can not also be correspondingly arranged, Preferably adjust bed of material movement and air distribution relation on moving hearth 105.Incinerator 104 can be using 1-4 independent First air The air feed of room 107, burns rear lime-ash and is excluded from slag notch, into next step treatment process.
It is provided with windrow seal section 108 between the feed hopper 102, gasification furnace 103, the work of garbage pusher device 106 is entered and located in place In in windrow seal section 108, garbage raw material is put into from feed hopper 102 and falls, and garbage pusher device 106 is retreated, then is advanced, reciprocal many Secondary pusher forms windrow in windrow seal section 108, the entrance of gasification furnace 103 is in windrow sealing state, and enhancing gasification furnace 103 is close Envelope effect, solves garbage pusher device 106 and the easy leakage problem of feed hopper 102.When needing complete prepurging to dispose all rubbish, The forward impelling half stroke again of garbage pusher device 106, rubbish is pushed completely into gasification furnace 103, loses the entrance of gasification furnace 103 Windrow sealing effectiveness.Left on the part of grate 101 between the gasification furnace 103 and incinerator 104 transition fall slag section 109, mistake Crossing slag section 109 can form windrow sealing state, and the transition slag section 109 that falls is provided with residue pusher 110, for will gasification In the rubbish residue push-in incinerator 104 fallen in stove 103, the transition slag section 109 that falls can be at windrow when rubbish residue is piled up Sealing state, strengthens the sealing effectiveness of gasification furnace 103, solves the problems, such as string wind between gasification furnace 103, incinerator 104.The present embodiment In, the transition to fall and be provided with isolating door to be opened/closed 111 in slag section 109, and the isolating door 111 is used for gasification furnace 103, combustion Cinder stove 104 separates.The furnace lifting initial stage or need control gasification furnace 103 and incinerator between alter wind when, close isolating door 111, when After the slag section that falls stacks a certain amount of residue formation windrow sealing, isolating door 111 can be kept to open, the residue set with lower section is pushed away Glassware 110 is coordinated to use, to realize rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal.
In order to preferably adapt to the installing space in factory, the upper end of the gasification furnace 103, the upper end of incinerator 104 point Cheng not arch upward shape, and the face arch of the gasification furnace 103 is flat construction, or, the face arch of gasification furnace 103 is inclined upwardly knot for rear end Structure.The vault of the gasification furnace 103 sets the first exhanst gas outlet 112, and the vault of the incinerator 104 sets the second exhanst gas outlet 113, it is respectively equipped with igniting combustion supporting hole 114 on the arching upward of the upper end of the gasification furnace 103, the arching upward of the upper end of incinerator 104.Gasification cigarette Gas is excluded from the first exhanst gas outlet 112, the second exhanst gas outlet 113, the furnace cavity of gasification furnace 103 and traditional incinerator phase Than relatively reduced;Forward and backward arch diminishes with the relative position of moving hearth 105, reduces the space of incinerator occupancy, is also easier to Insulation, reduces the amount of leakage of heat, is conducive to rubbish fully to gasify.It is respectively provided with the face arch of the gasification furnace 103, rear arch Secondary air feed mouthful 115.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of cyclone combustion chamber 3.It is combustion-supporting that the upper end of the cyclone combustion chamber 3 is provided with combustion chamber ignition Hole 301, the lower end of cyclone combustion chamber 3 is provided with the taper slag notch 302 that radius from top to bottom diminishes, and the cyclone combustion chamber 3 is justified The top of perisporium sets smoke inlet 303, and the bottom of the circumferential wall of the cyclone combustion chamber 3 sets the 3rd exhanst gas outlet 304, described Some combustion air air feeds mouthful 305 are uniformly provided with the circumferential wall of cyclone combustion chamber 3, each combustion air air feed mouthful 305 is respectively positioned on flue gas Between entrance 303, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet 304.The smoke inlet 303, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet 304 are justified positioned at cyclone combustion chamber 3 The opposition side of perisporium;The smoke inlet 303, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet, combustion air air feed opening's edge cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall are radially Or it is tangentially-arranged.The smoke inlet 303 of cyclone combustion chamber 3 and combustion-supporting air feed mouthful are arranged in the circumferential wall of cyclone combustion chamber 3, Can make that the flue gas in cyclone combustion chamber 3 is longer with combustion air incorporation time, mixing is more uniformly distributed, and more fully burns, energy Enough reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, substantially increase the organic efficiency of heat, and pollutant can be efficiently reduced Discharge capacity.
Also include dust arrester 201, the dust arrester 201 is located at the top of incinerator 116, and dust arrester 201 enters Gas end is connected by pipeline with the second exhanst gas outlet 113, the outlet side of dust arrester 201 by pipeline and each air compartment 107, Secondary air feed mouthful 115 on cyclone combustion chamber 3 and the face arch of gasification furnace 103, rear arch is connected.The dust arrester 201 is whirlwind Separator or hot precipitator, in the present embodiment, the dust arrester 201 is cyclone separator.Set in the incinerator 104 There is solid-holding device 116, the solid-holding device 116 is located under rear, the slag notch of incinerator 104 of the moving hearth 105 of incinerator 104 Side, the lime-ash for receiving the discharge of incinerator 104;The incinerator 104 is provided with cinder notch 117, and the cinder notch 117 that falls is located at and holds The surface of slag device 116, it is described fall cinder notch 117 connected with the slag notch of dust arrester 201 by pipeline.This structure can be reduced The quantity of solid-holding device 116, good sealing effect effectively holds and reduces pollutant discharge amount.
Referring to Fig. 3, stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator using it is central using circulate air feed system 2 carry out air feed, The circulation air feed system 2 includes the first blower fan 202, the second blower fan 203, and first blower fan 202 is high-temperature blower, described the Two blower fans 203 are air blower.The outlet side of the dust arrester 201 is connected by pipeline with the inlet end of the first blower fan 202, institute The outlet side for stating the first blower fan 202 connects the house steward of the first manifold 204, the branch pipe of first manifold 204 respectively with gasification furnace Secondary air feed on each air compartment 107 and the face arch of gasification furnace 103, rear arch of the lower section of 103 moving hearths 105 mouthful 115 with And the smoke inlet 303 of cyclone combustion chamber 3 is connected, the first regulating valve is respectively provided with each branch pipe of first manifold 204 207, the First air of gasification furnace 103 is that the flue gas of high-temperature blower extraction incinerator 104 produces certain pressure to blast the machinery of gasification furnace 103 In the corresponding air compartment 107 in the lower section of grate-type moving hearth 105, then worn by the air holes injection on moving hearth 105 Saturating rubbish, is gasified, and wind supply quantity is adjusted by the first regulating valve 207 on each branch pipe of correspondence.The Secondary Air of gasification furnace 103 is high The flue gas that warm air machine extracts incinerator 104 produces certain pressure to blast the burner hearth of gasification furnace 103, and its spray-hole is arranged on gasification furnace On 103 face arch and rear arch.Secondary air feed mouthful 115 is provided with forward and backward arch, gasification efficiency, polymer in enhancing flue gas is improved Matter is decomposed.The unnecessary flue gas that the flue gas of incinerator 104 is produced enters cyclone firing Indoor Combustion.High-temperature blower extracts incinerator 104 flue gas produces certain pressure to blast the corresponding air compartment 107 in the lower section of 103 stoker fired grate formula moving hearth of gasification furnace 105 With the secondary air chamber on the forward and backward arch of gasification furnace 103, first manifold 204 is also with one and cyclone combustion chamber smoke inlet The branch pipe of connection, the branch pipe is provided with corresponding regulating valve.What high-temperature blower was extracted has not utilized remainder flue gas, then passes through The smoke inlet of cyclone combustion chamber 3 is injected into cyclone combustion chamber 3, carries out syngas combustion, is supplied by corresponding regulation valve regulation Air quantity, can reduce thermal losses and improve heat exchanger effectiveness, substantially increase the organic efficiency of heat, and can efficiently reduce Pollutant discharge amount.It is provided with igniting combustion supporting hole 114 on rear arch, furnace lifting, baker and temperature is used in stabilization gasification furnace 103 pass through The regulation wind supply quantity of the first regulating valve 207 on each branch pipe of correspondence.The air inlet and atmosphere of second blower fan 203, second The air that blower fan 203 is blasted can be cold wind or by the hot blast after heating.The gas outlet connection second of second blower fan 203 The house steward of manifold 205, the branch pipe of second manifold 205 respectively with each air compartment of the lower section of 104 moving hearth of incinerator 105 107 and dust arrester 201 inlet end, outlet side connection, be respectively provided with the second tune on each branch pipe of second manifold 205 Section valve 208.The First air of incinerator 104 is that the air of certain pressure is blasted the lower section of stoker fired grate formula moving hearth 105 by air blower In a corresponding air compartment 107, then by an air holes spray penetration residue on moving hearth 105, residual burning is carried out, led to Cross the regulation wind supply quantity of the first regulating valve 207 corresponded on each branch pipe.The inlet end of dust arrester 201, the air intake of outlet side are tune Warm air feed, temperature adjustment air feed is that the air of certain pressure is blasted incinerator 104 and export (i.e. cyclone inlet) by air blower Row temperature adjustment, meanwhile, Cyclone outlet (i.e. high-temperature blower entrance) blasts further temperature adjustment, by the on each branch pipe of correspondence One regulating valve 207 adjusts wind supply quantity.It is the wind for more fully being bloated using the second blower fan, and beneficial to finer regulation The intake of cyclone combustion chamber each several part, it is preferable that also including the 3rd manifold 206, the house steward and second of the 3rd manifold 206 The gas outlet connection of blower fan 203, each branch pipe of the 3rd manifold 206 is connected with each combustion air air feed mouthful 305 respectively, the 3rd discrimination The 3rd regulating valve 209 is respectively provided with each branch pipe of pipe 206.Wind supply quantity is adjusted by the 3rd regulating valve 209 on correspondence branch pipe, Thermal losses can be reduced and heat exchanger effectiveness is improved, the organic efficiency of heat is substantially increased, and pollution can be efficiently reduced Thing discharge capacity.The combustion-supporting air feed of cyclone combustion chamber 3 is air blower to be blasted the air of certain pressure combustion-supporting air feed mouth and is injected into rotation Wind combustion chamber 3, carries out syngas combustion.
Air blower blasts air and provides First air and for cyclone separator, high-temperature blower provide temperature adjustment air feed for incinerator, By the second regulation valve regulation wind supply quantity on correspondence pipeline, incinerator residue is set fully to burn;Then, high-temperature blower extracts combustion The flue gas of cinder stove, gasification furnace is supplied once by the flue gas for after temperature adjustment and cyclone collection flying dust, forming certain pressure Wind and Secondary Air, by the first regulation valve regulation wind supply quantity on correspondence pipeline, make rubbish in gasification furnace produce gasification, contain one The flue gas of quantitative synthesis gas, from the discharge of the first exhanst gas outlet, into cyclone combustion chamber processing links, cyclone combustion chamber provides high temperature Flue gas.Present inventive concept is novel, and garbage treatment quantity is big, and the rubbish bed of material experiences dry, gasification and the combustion of residue on stoker fired grate In the cinder stage, improve the energy conversion efficiency in garbage processing procedure and reduce pollutant discharge amount in flue gas, can realize big The rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal of scale, it is ensured that refuse gasification burns effect and lime-ash clinker ignition loss.
The incinerator 104 is provided with cinder notch 117, and the slag notch 116 of the incinerator 104 falls cinder notch positioned at incinerator 117 underface, it is described fall cinder notch 117 connected with the slag notch of dust arrester 201 by pipeline.This sealing structure effect is good, Reduction pollutant discharge amount can effectively be held.
Referring to Fig. 3, a kind of waste disposal method of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator, the method is entered according to the following steps OK:
Step A, the gate for closing stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator 1 and atmospheric vent, start mechanical grate-type rubbish Rubbish incinerator 1, feed hopper 102 is put into by garbage raw material, and the pusher back and forth of garbage pusher device 106 will be from feed hopper 102 Windrow seal section 108 between the garbage raw material push-in feed hopper 102, the gasification furnace 103 that fall, forms windrow seal section 108 Windrow sealing state, unnecessary rubbish falls into the moving hearth 105 of gasification furnace 103, and the moving hearth 105 of gasification furnace 103 works, Rubbish is conveyed into transition to fall slag section 109, the pusher back and forth of residue pusher 110, the transition rubbish in slag section 109 that falls is pushed away Enter in incinerator 104, the work conveying garbage of moving hearth 105 of incinerator 104, until rubbish is in gasification furnace 103, incinerator 104 moving hearth 105 is accumulated to required thickness:0.6-0.8m, during baker, the rubbish piled up can protect mobile stove Bed 105, prevents scaling loss siege 105.Stop being fed intake to feed hopper 102, the moving hearth 105 of gasification furnace 103 and incinerator 104 stops Only work, then, with start-up burner by the igniting combustion supporting hole 114 of gasification furnace 103 and incinerator 104 respectively with gasification furnace 103 and the burner hearth of incinerator 104 communicate, in the presence of start-up burner, gasification furnace 103 and incinerator 104 are carried out furnace lifting, Baker, treats that this process stabilization is completed, and gasification furnace 103 and the burner hearth of incinerator 104 is reached 600-700 DEG C of predetermined temperature;Baker Purpose be in order to remove the Natural Water in lining and the crystallization water, in order to avoid when going into operation because furnace temperature rises too fast, moisture content is a large amount of Expansion causes body of heater spalling, bubbling or deformation even furnace wall to collapse, and influences the intensity and service life of heating furnace furnace wall.
Step B, startup regulation circulation air feed system 2, regulation gasification furnace 103, incinerator 104 and circulation air feed system 2 Technological parameter (pusher speed, fire grate speed, wind-warm syndrome, blast and an air quantity, secondary air temperature, blast and air quantity, furnace temperature, Negative pressure, thickness of feed layer etc. in stove), fed intake to feed hopper 102, the work conveying garbage of moving hearth 105 of gasification furnace 103, rubbish Burning is proceeded by the burner hearth of gasification furnace 103, rubbish residue is piled up to form windrow sealing at transition falls slag section 109, made The stove chamber inner combustion state temperature of gasification furnace 103 is stabilized to more than 850 DEG C, the work output combustion of moving hearth 105 of incinerator 104 Rubbish residue after cinder.
Each technological parameter (pusher speed of step C, regulation gasification furnace 103, incinerator 104 and circulation air feed system 2 Negative pressure, thickness of feed layer in degree, fire grate speed, wind-warm syndrome, blast and an air quantity, secondary air temperature, blast and air quantity, furnace temperature, stove Deng), gasification furnace 103 gradually gasifies to rubbish, and gasification temperature stabilization produces the stabilization of gasification furnace 103 between 700-800 DEG C The raw high-temperature flue gas containing 10%-20% synthesis gas, it is equal that the vaporized state of gasification furnace 103 stabilization carries out low temperature, middle temperature or high-temperature gasification Can.Make the fired state temperature stabilization of incinerator 104 to more than 850 DEG C, realize rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal;Need to adjust simultaneously Each technological parameter of cyclone combustion chamber 3, makes the temperature stabilization of the 3rd exhanst gas outlet of cyclone combustion chamber 3 304 to more than 850 DEG C.
Step D, need to overhaul or during blowing out, stop feeding intake, regulation gasification furnace 103, incinerator 104 and circulation air feed system 2 technological parameter, makes gasification furnace 103 be gradually restored to fired state, after rubbish and rubbish residue burn, closes stoker fired grate Formula refuse gasification incinerator 1 and circulation air feed system 2.Each technological parameter of cyclone combustion chamber 3 need to be simultaneously adjusted, makes gasification furnace 103 are gradually restored to fired state.
Finally illustrate, preferred embodiment above is merely illustrative of the technical solution of the present invention and unrestricted, although logical Cross above preferred embodiment to be described in detail the present invention, it is to be understood by those skilled in the art that can be Various changes are made to it in form and in details, without departing from claims of the present invention limited range.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator, it is characterised in that:Including grate, and along feedstock direction on grate Feed hopper, gasification furnace and the incinerator for setting gradually, the rear of gasification furnace is the cinder notch that falls of gasification furnace, and incinerator is located at gasification furnace Fall the front lower place of cinder notch, and the rear of incinerator is the slag notch of incinerator, and the grate is provided with garbage pusher device, the rubbish Pusher is located at the lower section of feed hopper, for the rubbish in feed hopper to be pushed in gasification furnace, between the feed hopper, gasification furnace Be provided with windrow seal section, left on the grate part between the gasification furnace and incinerator transition fall slag section, transition fall slag section can Formed windrow sealing state, the transition fall slag section be provided with residue pusher, for the rubbish residue that will be fallen in gasification furnace In push-in incinerator;
The gasification furnace, incinerator include furnace shell, moving hearth respectively, and the forward and backward side of the gasification furnace is close by windrow respectively Envelope section, transition fall slag section sealing, and the transition falls slag section isolation gasification furnace, incinerator, makes gasification furnace, incinerator separate.
2. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The gasification furnace is moved The lower section of dynamic siege and the incinerator moving hearth are respectively arranged below with least one air compartment being independently arranged, institute Gasification furnace, incinerator are stated respectively in arching upward shape, and secondary air feed mouthful, the gas are respectively provided with the face arch of the gasification furnace, rear arch The vault for changing stove sets the first exhanst gas outlet, and the vault of the incinerator sets the second exhanst gas outlet, the gasification furnace, incinerator On be respectively equipped with igniting combustion supporting hole.
3. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:Also filled including dedusting Put, the dust arrester is located at the top of incinerator, the inlet end of dust arrester is connected by pipeline with the second exhanst gas outlet.
4. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 3, it is characterised in that:On the incinerator It is provided with cinder notch, the slag notch of the incinerator falls the underface of cinder notch positioned at incinerator, the incinerator falls cinder notch by pipe Road is connected with the slag notch of dust arrester.
5. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:The transition falls slag Isolating door to be opened/closed is provided with section, the isolating door is used to separate gasification furnace, incinerator.
6. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:Also include being used for two The cyclone combustion chamber of secondary burning, the upper end of the cyclone combustion chamber is provided with combustion chamber ignition combustion-supporting hole, the lower end of cyclone combustion chamber The taper slag notch that radius from top to bottom diminishes is provided with, the top of the cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall sets smoke inlet, described Smoke inlet is connected by pipeline with the first exhanst gas outlet, and the bottom of the cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall sets the 3rd flue gas and goes out Mouthful, some combustion air air feeds mouthful are uniformly provided with the circumferential wall of the cyclone combustion chamber, each combustion air air feed mouthful is respectively positioned on flue gas Between entrance, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet.
7. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:The flue gas enters Mouth, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet are located at the opposition side of cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall.
8. a kind of stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 6 or 7, it is characterised in that:The flue gas Entrance, the 3rd exhanst gas outlet, combustion air air feed opening's edge cyclone combustion chamber circumferential wall are radially or tangentially set.
9. a kind of method for carrying out garbage disposal using stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator described in claim 6, its feature It is that the method is carried out according to the following steps:
Step A, the gate for closing stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator and atmospheric vent, start mechanical grate-type refuse gasification Incinerator, feed hopper is put into by garbage raw material, garbage pusher device pusher back and forth, and the garbage raw material fallen from feed hopper is pushed away Enter the windrow seal section between feed hopper, gasification furnace, windrow seal section is formed windrow sealing state, unnecessary rubbish falls into gas Change stove moving hearth, gasification furnace moving hearth work, by rubbish be conveyed into transition fall slag section, residue pusher is back and forth Pusher, in rubbish push-in incinerator transition fallen in slag section, the moving hearth work conveying garbage of incinerator, until rubbish exists Gasification furnace, the moving hearth of incinerator are accumulated to required thickness, stop being fed intake to feed hopper, the movement of gasification furnace and incinerator Siege is stopped, then, with start-up burner by the igniting combustion supporting hole of gasification furnace and incinerator respectively with gasification furnace and combustion The burner hearth of cinder stove is communicated, and in the presence of start-up burner, furnace lifting, baker is carried out to gasification furnace and incinerator, treats this process Stabilization is completed, and gasification furnace and incinerator burner hearth is reached 600-700 DEG C of predetermined temperature;
Step B, regulation gasification furnace, the technological parameter of incinerator, feed intake to feed hopper, the moving hearth work conveying rubbish of gasification furnace Rubbish, rubbish proceeds by burning in the burner hearth of gasification furnace, and the accumulation at transition falls slag section of rubbish residue forms windrow sealing, makes The stove chamber inner combustion state temperature of gasification furnace is stabilized to more than 850 DEG C, and the moving hearth work of incinerator exports the rubbish after burning Rubbish residue;
Step C, regulation gasification furnace, each technological parameter of incinerator, make gasification furnace gradually gasify to rubbish, make gasification furnace steady Fixed output quota high-temperature flue gas of the life containing 10%-20% synthesis gas, make incinerator fired state temperature stabilization to more than 850 DEG C, realize rubbish Rubbish continuous gasification burning disposal;
Step D, need to overhaul or during blowing out, stop feeding intake, regulation gasification furnace, the technological parameter of incinerator make gasification furnace gradually extensive Fired state is arrived again, after rubbish and rubbish residue burn, closes stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator.
10. a kind of method for carrying out garbage disposal using stoker fired grate formula refuse gasification incinerator according to claim 9, It is characterized in that:In step C, each technological parameter of cyclone combustion chamber need to be adjusted, make the flue gas exit temperature of cyclone combustion chamber the 3rd It is stabilized to more than 850 DEG C;In step D, each technological parameter of cyclone combustion chamber need to be simultaneously adjusted, gasification furnace is gradually restored to combustion Burning state, gas to be synthesized closes cyclone combustion chamber after burning.
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CN109469904B (en) * 2018-10-19 2020-09-08 重庆科技学院 Garbage gasification combustion furnace with telescopic grate structure and gasification combustion treatment process

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