Few terres rares wide range speed control hybrid permanent magnet magnetic flux switching Double-stator motor
The present invention relates to a kind of magnetic flux to switch Double-stator motor, and in particular to a kind of wide tune of few terres rares used for electric vehicle
Fast hybrid permanent magnet magnetic flux switches Double-stator motor, belongs to motor body design field.
Automobile drive motor is the crucial power part of electric automobile, evaluates and weigh the important of motor performance quality
Index have high power density, efficiently (full working face high efficiency), high reliability, wide speed regulating range (5 times of base speed of ＞), have frequency
Numerous startup and acceleration and deceleration ability, low cost etc..At present, in automobile drive motor field, there is efficient, high power density
Rare-earth permanent-magnet electric machine be new-energy automobile main choosing.In however, class rare earth permanent-magnetic material price sharp rises again, and rare earth is forever
Magnetic material will certainly will decline in the permeability of new-energy automobile, and many car manufactures start to be directed to automobile-used rare earth permanent magnet
The deep exploitation of motor permanent-magnet material.Compared to traditional rotor permanent magnet type motor, both without permanent magnet or without winding on rotor
Stator permanent magnetic type electric has the advantages of Stability Analysis of Structures, installation are simple, radiating is convenient, rotary inertia is small, suitable high-speed cruising.Its
The flux switch permanent magnet motor of middle stator permanent magnetic type, can by the torque and power density of its special poly- magnetic effect motor
It is higher to accomplish, need the electric automobile field compared with high output again simultaneously more suitable for strict limiting motor size, in addition magnetic flux
Switch permanent magnet motor can obtain highly sinusoidal counter electromotive force without skewed slot, possess conventional rotors permanent magnet-type motor zero load magnetic linkage and be
Ambipolar advantage, more have the fault-tolerant ability to operate with failure concurrently.
To reduce the dosage of flux switch motor middle rare earth permanent-magnet material, Chinese Patent Application No. 201410508547.2
Document in disclose a kind of application process of hybrid permanent-magnet in flux switch permanent magnet motor, employ two kinds in the stator
The different permanent magnet of magnetic property, the wherein rare-earth permanent magnet of high energy product are arranged on the yoke portion of stator modules, and low magnetic energy product is simultaneously low
The non-rare-earth ferrite permanent magnet of price is arranged close to the teeth portion of stator modules, on the one hand significantly reduces being manufactured into for motor
This, while alleviate the magnetic saturation phenomenon of stator teeth.However, in order to maintain higher power density, non-rare earth permanent-magnetic material
Volume will be several times as much as rare earth permanent-magnetic material, competition for space problem is inevitably brought on the inside of limited stator or is caused
The increase of motor manufacturing size.Meanwhile by such motor application in electric automobile field, permanent magnetism intrinsic magnetic field still be present can not
Regulation, the defects of speed adjustable range is narrow.To realize effective regulation to flux switch permanent magnet motor air-gap field, Chinese patent application
Number for the polynary Magneticflux-switching type car wheel electromotor of composite excitation and Chinese patent that propose in 201310091558.0 document
The multiple tooth stator core composite excitation switch magnetic flux electricity of a kind of combined type disclosed in Application No. 201410344216.X document
In machine, employ and set up electrical excitation winding formation mixed excited magnetic pass switch motor, reach the mesh of broadening electric machine speed regulation scope
, while the dosage of rare earth permanent-magnetic material can be also reduced, however, the electrical excitation field of composite excitation and intercoupling for permanent magnetic field
The local magnetic field height saturation of motor is easily caused, so as to influence actual flux control scope.It can be seen that few rare earth of prior art
When class mixed excited magnetic pass switch motor is applied to electric automobile, effective regulation and control, motor in motor gas-gap magnetic field are adjusted
The broadening of fast scope, ensure that reducing rare earth permanent-magnetic material dosage etc. on the premise of the efficient performance of motor remains urgently to be resolved hurrily
The problem of.
The content of the invention
The present invention is intended to provide a kind of suitable electric automobile operation characteristic, can keep efficient few in wide speed regulating range
Terres rares wide range speed control hybrid permanent magnet magnetic flux switches Double-stator motor, is keeping efficient, the Gao Gong of traditional flux switch permanent magnet motor
Rate density, it is simple in construction, reliable the advantages that on the basis of, realize effectively reduce rare earth permanent-magnetic material dosage, reduce electricity
Machine manufacturing cost and the requirement for meeting automobile drive motor wide speed regulating range.
To achieve the above object, the present invention uses following technical proposals：The present invention includes external stator, center roller and default
Son, there is radially outer air gap between center roller and external stator, there is the inside air gap in footpath between center roller and inner stator, it is outer fixed
Sub- inner surface is distributed uniformly and circumferentially X external stator tooth, on X external stator tooth replace coiling m phases armature winding and
Magnetize winding；Center roller is made up of rotor field spider, q blocks magnetic inductive block and q block collets, and rotor field spider outer round surface is circumferentially square
To q blocks magnetic inductive block and the q block collets of being staggered；Inner stator is made up of internal stator iron core and hybrid permanent magnet body unit, inner stator
Along the circumferential direction uniformly embedded K block hybrid permanent magnet body units, each hybrid permanent magnet body unit are non-dilute by centre in iron core
Native Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet and the rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet composition positioned at non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet both sides, two neighboring mixing
Permanent magnet unit tangentially magnetizes and in the opposite direction；External stator number of teeth X, armature winding number of phases m, magnetic inductive block and insulation number of blocks q,
Hybrid permanent-magnet element number K meets relation：X=2mNc=2K and 2q=X ± 2n, n are positive integer, NcFor the line of a phase winding
The present invention compared with prior art, has the following advantages that：
(1) present invention uses the structure of stator partition, by the armature winding in traditional flux switch motor and permanent magnet point
From, and be respectively placed in external stator and inner stator, the inner space of motor is taken full advantage of, solves traditional flux switch motor
The problem of permanent magnet and armature winding dosage mutually limit, radiating is convenient, space availability ratio is high, easy lifting motor power density and
(2) rare-earth Nd-Fe-B and non-rare earth aluminium nickel cobalt hybrid permanent magnet material are employed, effectively reduces rare earth permanent-magnetic material
Dosage, Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet collective effect, it is ensured that power of motor density and torque density, carry simultaneously
The ability for the machine magnetic field flexible modulation that is supplied with electric power；
(3) Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection is located at external stator, it is not necessary to which the device such as slip ring, brush, flux control scope is wide, and magnetizing current is held
It is continuous that the time is short, loss is low, operational efficiency is high；Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection to Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet can fill repeatedly online at any time simultaneously
Magnetic, change air-gap field, motor invariable power wide range speed control operation is improved by weak magnetic and increases magnetic to produce larger detent torque.
(4) this motor uses two kinds of permanent magnet composite excitations, and during a kind of permanent magnet accident loss of excitation, another permanent magnetism physical efficiency is just
Magnetic is often supplied, ensures that motor runs well, substantially increases the reliability of motor；
(5) Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet of high-coercive force is placed in the aluminium nickel cobalt both ends of low-coercivity so that Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet is not
Directly contacted with silicon steel sheet, reduce the local irreversible demagnetization risk of Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet, ensure that Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet
Magnetic property, realize that efficiently online adjustable magnetic operation is very crucial for motor；
(6) armature winding of this motor and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection use centralized winding, and short with end, leakage reactance is small, offline
The advantages that facilitating, copper wastage is reduced, improve electric efficiency.
(7) using the Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet composite excitation of non-rare earth, according to adjustable magnetic scope
Size determines two kinds of magnet size relations.Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection on external stator can be at any time by applying the short of different size and direction
When DC pulse Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet is carried out it is online fill degaussing repeatedly, change air-gap field, motor perseverance improved by weak magnetic
Power wide speed regulation runs and increased magnetic to produce larger detent torque.
Brief description of the drawings
The present invention is described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and detailed description.
Fig. 1 is the radial section signal of few terres rares hybrid permanent magnet type bimorph transducer flux switch motor provided by the invention
Fig. 2 is the axial section signal of few terres rares hybrid permanent magnet type bimorph transducer flux switch motor provided by the invention
Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 are respectively that the center roller permanent magnetic circuit of the motor and magnetic direction under diverse location show
It is intended to；
Fig. 7 is center roller same armature winding linkage permanent magnet flux linkage change schematic diagram in the motor under diverse location；
Unloaded equivalent magnetic circuit figure when Fig. 8, Fig. 9 are respectively Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet normal magnetization, magnetic reversal state；
When Figure 10 is that Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet fills degaussing, the armature winding linkage magnetic under hybrid permanent magnet unit difference level of magnetization
In figure：1-1. external stator；1-2. armature winding；1-3. magnetizes winding；1-4. collets；1-5. magnetic inductive block；1-6.
Inner stator；1-7. rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet；The non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnets of 1-8.；2-1. casing；2-2. armature winding and magnetic
Change winding；2-3. center roller；2-4. clutch shaft bearing；2-5. second bearing；2-6. 3rd bearing；2-7. motor output shaft；2-
8. center roller support.
Referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, by taking the pole motor of 12 grooves of external stator/7 poles of rotor/inner stator 6 as an example, wherein threephase stator
The number of teeth is 12, and the magnetization number of windings is 6, and center roller is 7 poles, and inner stator embeds 6 pieces of hybrid permanent magnet units.
The present invention includes external stator 1-1, center roller 2-3 and inner stator 1-6, the outer coaxial sleeve center rollers of inner stator 1-6
The outer coaxial sleeve external stator 1-1 of 2-3, center roller 2-3.There is radially outer air gap between center roller 2-3 and external stator 1-1, in
Between there is the inside air gap in footpath between rotor 2-3 and inner stator 1-6.The size of outer air gap and interior air gap is 0.4-0.8mm.
External stator 1-1 is made up of external stator iron core, armature winding 1-2 and magnetization winding 1-3, and the external stator number of teeth is X, outer fixed
Sub- 1-1 inner surfaces are distributed uniformly and circumferentially X external stator tooth, replace coiling m phase armature winding 1- on X external stator tooth
2 and magnetization winding 1-3, m phase armature winding 1-2 and magnetization winding 1-3 is integrated distribution formula winding.Such as Fig. 1 external stator
1-1 has 12 external stator teeth, replaces coiling threephase armature winding 1-2 and magnetization winding 1-3 on 12 external stator teeth.
Center roller 2-3 is made up of rotor field spider, q block magnetic inductive block 1-5 and q block collets 1-4, rotor field spider outer round surface
Along the circumferential direction it is staggered and q block magnetic inductive block 1-5 and q block collets 1-4 is set, forms the modulation ring structure of similar magnetic gear.
Center roller 2-3 such as Fig. 1 is staggered and formed by 7 pieces of magnetic inductive block 1-5 and 7 pieces of collets 1-4.
Inner stator 1-6 is made up of internal stator iron core and hybrid permanent magnet body unit, and K block hybrid permanent magnets are embedded in internal stator iron core
Body unit, K block hybrid permanent magnet body units are distributed uniformly and circumferentially, and the external diameter of hybrid permanent magnet body unit is equal to inner stator 1-6
External diameter.Each hybrid permanent magnet body unit is by the non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 of centre and positioned at non-rare earth aluminium nickel cobalt
The rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 of permanent magnet 1-8 both sides is formed, and forms hybrid permanent-magnet cellular construction.Middle non-rare earth aluminium
Nickel cobalt permanent magnet 1-8 and the rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 internal-and external diameters of both sides are equal, and are brought into close contact together.In Fig. 1
Arrow represents the direction of magnetization of hybrid permanent magnet body unit, and the magnetizing direction of hybrid permanent-magnet is in tangential distribution, two neighboring mixing
Permanent magnet unit unit tangentially magnetizes and in the opposite direction, i.e. NS-SN is distributed.To eliminate non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet as far as possible
Cross-couplings phenomenon between body 1-8 and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7, here non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 along magnetic
The length in change direction is taken as 3.5 times or so of the rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 length along the direction of magnetization.In in Fig. 1
6 pieces of hybrid permanent magnet body units are embedded with stator 1-6.
External stator number of teeth X, armature winding 1-2 numbers of phases m, magnetic inductive block 1-5 and collets 1-4 quantity q, hybrid permanent magnet body unit
Quantity K meets relation：X=2mNc=2K and 2q=X ± 2n, n are positive integer, wherein NcFor the line of the phase winding of composition one of definition
Referring to Fig. 2, external stator 1-1 and inner stator 1-6 are both secured on casing 2-1, center roller 2-5 passes through support 2-
8 are connected with motor output shaft 2-7, and are rotatablely connected by clutch shaft bearing 2-4 and second bearing 2-5 and casing 2-1；Motor exports
Axle 2-7 is rotatablely connected by 3rd bearing 2-6 and casing 2-1.
Referring to Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the operation of the motor follows " magnetic flux switching " principle, and center roller 2-5 magnetic inductive block 1-5 exists
During position as shown in Figure 3, magnetic flux caused by non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 passes outer
Stator tooth enters center roller 2-5, and then forms a closed-loop path.For the armature winding 1-2 of zero load, its both ends meeting
Induce corresponding counter electromotive force.And when position shown in rotor motion to Fig. 5, permanent magnet flux quantitatively keeps constant, but
The direction walked contrast for armature winding 1-2, to penetrate external stator tooth.Obviously, this caused counter electromotive force
Compared with a kind of upper situation, numerical value is equal but opposite polarity.This principle is based on, when center roller 2-5 is rotated, permanent magnet
The cyclically-varying between positive and negative maximum of caused magnetic flux, and then cause counter electromotive force caused by armature winding 1-2 sensings
Amplitude and phase are also in cyclically-varying.Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 respectively illustrate center roller 2-3 electricity under diverse location
In the permanent magnetic circuit and magnetic direction of machine, wherein Fig. 3 and Fig. 5, the magnetic linkage amplitude of armature winding 1-2 linkage is respectively positive and negative
In maximum, Fig. 4 and Fig. 6, armature winding 1-2 caused linkage inducting flux under permanent magnetic field is zero；That is, center roller is worked as
After 2-5 rotations, magnetic inductive block 1-5 rotates to S poles from the N poles of hybrid permanent-magnet, can be produced in corresponding stator armature winding 1-2
Linkage bipolarity magnetic linkage as shown in Figure 7, four positions in Fig. 7 in a, b, c, d difference corresponding diagram 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6.
Referring to shown in Fig. 7,8, for the magnetic circuit, every pole total magnetic flux that permanent magnet provides to external magnetic circuit：
The calculating magnetomotive force F of permanent magnet magnetomotive force sourcesc=HcL, H in formulacIt is absolute value, l is permanent magnet magnetizing direction
Define weak magnetic coefficient：
Wherein, Fc_anc、Fc_nfbRespectively non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 calculating magnetic moves
Gesture, Rm_anc、Rm_nfbRespectively non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 interior magnetic resistance, Rm_g、Rm_r
Respectively air-gap reluctance and rotor magnetic resistance, Φanc、ΦnfbRespectively non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetism
Every pole magnetic flux that body 1-7 is provided, ΦmThe every pole total magnetic flux provided for two kinds of permanent magnets.
Non- rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 direction of magnetization length lancWith rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet 1-7 direction of magnetization length
lnfbTwo constraintss when normal magnetization and magnetic reversal need to be met, it is as follows：
It is shown in Figure 8, when non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 is by normal magnetization, Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet is expired magnetization pair
When the maximum weak magnetic coefficient of whole magnetic circuit magnetic flux is more than 1.4, then
It is shown in Figure 9, when non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 is reversed magnetization, Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet is expired magnetization pair
When the minimum weak magnetic coefficient of whole magnetic circuit magnetic flux is less than 0.6, then
By Hanc=119366A/m, Hnfb=890000A/m substitutes into formula (3) (4), arranges to obtain non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet
The length ratio of 1-8 and rare-earth Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet the 1-7 direction of magnetization is 7.45>lanc/2lnfb>2.98。
Referring to Fig. 1 and Figure 10, Finite Element Simulation Analysis, tune of the research magnetization winding 1-3 to motor-field of the present invention are utilized
Save performance.From motor theory, in the case where other specification is constant, armature winding 1-2 linkage magnetic linkage amplitudes are bigger, electricity
Machine output torque is bigger, and load capacity is stronger.During the motor operation, when magnetization winding 1-3 is passed through different size of direct current
During stream, thus it is possible to vary the non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 intensity of magnetization.When non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet in hybrid permanent magnet unit
When the body 1-8 direction of magnetizations are identical with caused total magnetomotive force direction, the magnetization that can increase non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 is strong
Degree, rises armature winding 1-2 magnetic linkage amplitude, improves the torque output capability of motor；If non-rare earth in hybrid permanent magnet unit
When the Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 direction of magnetizations are opposite with caused total magnetomotive force, then make armature winding 1-2 magnetic linkage amplitude reduce,
In the case where armature winding input rated current is constant, the output torque of motor is reduced, improves motor output speeds, risen
To the effect of weak magnetic speed-up, the speed adjustable range of motor can be improved.Figure 10 show the different magnetization of non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8
Under state, the change curve of armature winding 1-2 linkage magnetic linkages.It can thus be concluded that as non-rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 magnetizes shape
The increase or reduction of state, armature winding 1-2 linkages magnetic linkage also increase or reduced therewith, that is, magnetizing winding can be non-by on-line control
The rare earth Al-Ni-Co permanent magnet 1-8 intensity of magnetization reaches the purpose for changing hybrid permanent magnet unit level of magnetization, so as to realize motor
Air-gap field on-line control and control, make the speed adjustable range expanded of motor of the present invention, for driving used for electric vehicle
For motor, there is significant superiority.