CN105360367A - Production method of black tea - Google Patents

Production method of black tea Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105360367A
CN105360367A CN201510858400.0A CN201510858400A CN105360367A CN 105360367 A CN105360367 A CN 105360367A CN 201510858400 A CN201510858400 A CN 201510858400A CN 105360367 A CN105360367 A CN 105360367A
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tealeaves
spreading
leaf
cooling
black tea
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冯朝文
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Luzhou Tianlyu Tea Factory
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Luzhou Tianlyu Tea Factory
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23FCOFFEE; TEA; THEIR SUBSTITUTES; MANUFACTURE, PREPARATION, OR INFUSION THEREOF
    • A23F3/00Tea; Tea substitutes; Preparations thereof
    • A23F3/06Treating tea before extraction; Preparations produced thereby
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23FCOFFEE; TEA; THEIR SUBSTITUTES; MANUFACTURE, PREPARATION, OR INFUSION THEREOF
    • A23F3/00Tea; Tea substitutes; Preparations thereof
    • A23F3/06Treating tea before extraction; Preparations produced thereby
    • A23F3/08Oxidation; Fermentation

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Food Science & Technology (AREA)
  • Polymers & Plastics (AREA)
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of tealeaf production and processing, and particularly discloses a production method of black tea. The production method comprises the following specific steps: natural withering: uniformly and thinly spreading picked tea leaves on a spread-cooling machine indoors to carry out natural withering, wherein the withering temperature is 25-30 DEG C, the spreading thickness is 3-5 cm and the withering time is 8-12 h so as to ensure that the fresh leaves wither uniformly and consistently; putting the naturally withered fresh leaves in a twisting machine to twist the leaves for twice, wherein the rotation speed of the twisting machine is 26-28r/min, the time of each twisting is 25-30min under natural temperature according to the principle of light force, heavy force and light force, the leaf feeding amount is 17.5-22.5kg and the water loss is 5-8%; and carrying out deblocking, primary spread-cooling, fermentation, secondary spread-cooling, shaping, primary drying, secondary drying, screening and packaging in sequence so as to obtain the finished product. According to the production method, the step sequence is reasonably designed and the process parameters of each step are strictly controlled, so that the fragrance and taste of the black tea are improved.

Description

A kind of production method of black tea
Technical field
The invention belongs to processing field of tea leaves, be specifically related to a kind of processing of black tea.
Background technology
Black tea belongs to fermentation teas, is with bud two, three leaf of tea tree for raw material, refines form through typical process processes such as withering, knead, ferment, be dry.Because its dry dark brown pool and the millet paste that brews are homophony with redness, therefore named black tea.China's black tea kind is more, and the place of production is comparatively wide, has the distinctive black kung fu tea of China and souchong, also has the red broken difference similar with India, Sri Lanka.Containing abundant theaflavin and thearubigin in the tealeaves of black tea, it is the product by Tea Polyphenols and derivative oxidative condensation thereof.Theaflavin is not only a kind of effective free radical quenchant and antioxidant, and have anticancer, anti-sudden change, antibacterial, antiviral, improve and the different physiological roles such as Cardiovarscular and diabetes.The effect of black tea can help gastro-intestinal digestion, promote appetite, can diuresis, eliminate oedema, and strong cardiac function.
Black tea contains a large amount of aldehydes matters, although the molecular weight of these aldehydes matters is very large, has larger difference with the phenols component in green tea.But from clinical test results, equally also have anti-oxidant, reduce blood fat, suppress artery sclerosis, strengthen the functions such as capillary function, anti-sudden change.Brown sugar contains lipopolysaccharides, and therefore, drink black tea and also have and fall hypoglycemic effect, black tea has stronger sterilization, antiinflammation.
Black tea is full fermented tea, and black tea is in process: the main chemical compositions Tea Polyphenols in tea fresh leaves carries out a series of enzymatic chemical change under the effect of enzyme, and Tea Polyphenols is oxidized, polymerization forms the huge theaflavins of molecular weight and thearubigin class.Fresh leaf is after being processed to form black tea, main component catechin in Tea Polyphenols reduces more than 80%, the theaflavins formed and thearubigin class are called chemical composition main in black tea: wherein theaflavins accounts for 1%-2% of dry matter content, thearubigin class accounts for 9%-20% of dry matter content, and both account for 40%-60% in black tea water extraction; Thearubigin and theaflavins are the characteristic materials of black tea, and the height of its content affects quality and the style of tealeaves.Meanwhile, thearubigin class and theaflavins are active ingredient main in black tea, and black tea shows good physiologically active.
Content of caffeine in black tea and green tea close; Amino acid and peptide, organic acid and free sugar are a little more than green tea; Vitamins is far below green tea.Main chemical compositions in black tea and characteristic and green tea widely different, say from the angle of the traditional Chinese medical science, black tea is warm in nature, and black tea is warm in nature, and green tea is cool in nature.Therefore, black tea quality characteristic sum health-care effect also has it unique.
Black tea is warm in nature, arrogates to oneself in temperature and dispels cold, and warm stomach is dispeled cold, and can reduce phlegm, help digestion, appetizing; Visible, black tea should weakness of the spleen and the stomach person be drunk.Therefore, in daily life, the bad consumer of taste should select black tea to carry out savoring drink, and drinking black tea has health and obviously benefit.
It is comparatively simple that existing black tea dries production process, generally includes (1) and wither: by fresh leaf evenly thin being spread out on the curtain that withers naturally wither, withering leaf moisture content is reduced, the food value of leaf is soft, and blade face corrugates, and base of leaf folding is not easily broken, the tarnish of leaf look dark green, green grass gas reduces; (2) knead: usual kneading machine is kneaded now, by the pressurization principle pressurization that weight is light, rub and tightly roll up to tea bar, tea juice overflows, and sticks at tea table for degree; (3) ferment: will knead even, the loose heap of leaf, in fermenting frame top fermentation, treat that leaf look Huang is red, have joyful fragrance to occur stopping fermenting, the various technique of fermentation time has difference, and usual 3-4 hours or 6-8 hours are not etc.(4) Titian: the tealeaves after fermentation is put into perfuming machine for tea, and dry 2.5h under 90 DEG C of temperature conditions, obtains black tea Cheng Ping.Or (5) are dry: first baking temperature 110-120 DEG C, the time is 15-20min, and leaf-spreading thickness 2-3cm turns once every 5min, and after foot fire, moisture content of finished products content controls below 6%, obtains finished product after oven dry.
Above-mentioned black tea manufacture technique has the following disadvantages: technique is simple, by means of only withering, knead, ferment, the processing step such as Titian, and have ignored knead step after tealeaves is deblocked, spreading for cooling, directly enter fermentation procedure, the old tender inequality of the fresh leaf wherein plucked, by the tealeaves direct fermentation after kneading, there is the difference that tealeaves is old and tender, mix and ferment, increase the difficulty of fermentation, and affect black tea quality; Tealeaves after fermentation, obtain black tea finished product by drying, due in sweat, Polyphenols oxidation heat liberation, makes the temperature rise of tealeaves leaf, and dispel the heat or dispel the heat if wherein do not carry out not in time, temperature is too high, can affect the color of black tea; Technological parameter in production technology also directly can affect the quality of black tea, as natural withering time, kneads time, fermentation time, fermentation condition, just baking time and temperature, dries time and temperature etc. again the fragrance of black tea, flavour all can be caused to get a desired effect.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is for solving the problems of the technologies described above and providing a kind of production method of black tea, the sequencing of each operating procedure and flow process in appropriate design production technology, complete in kneading machine to after tea rolling in time and successively tealeaves is deblocked, spreading for cooling, tealeaves is broken up, combing, significantly reduce the damage of tealeaves and squeeze off, improve the quality of tealeaves, reduce the difficulty of fermentation; Carry out spreading for cooling after tea leaf fermentation, avoid the heat produced in sweat to cause tealeaves too high or too low for temperature, affect the color of tealeaves; And the technological parameter of each step in production technology is strictly controlled, make the fragrance of black tea, flavour gets a desired effect; Wherein by shaping, as required, tealeaves can be cooked and forms the various shape such as needle-like, fan-shaped, make tealeaves have fine profile.
Technical scheme provided by the invention: a kind of production method of black tea, comprises the following steps:
(1) leaf picking: plucking a bud one leaf fresh leaves of tea plant is raw material, the picking process of fresh leaf can the local tealeaves of Luzhou, Sichuan be also raw material, plucks two leaves and a bud or tender fresh tea leaf in its of splitting leaf;
(2) naturally wither: be evenly thinly spread out on spreading-and-cooling machine by the fresh leaf after plucking, Indoor Natural withers, and withering temperature is 25-30 DEG C, and leaf-spreading thickness is 3-5cm, withering time 8-12h, fresh leaf is withered uniformity;
(3) knead: the fresh leaf of process of naturally withering is put into kneading machine and kneads, throwing leaf amount is 17.5-22.5kg, kneading machine rotating speed is 26-28r/min, undertaken by light, heavy, light principle under natural temperature, knead time 25-30min, in mass fraction, compared with the tealeaves of leaf picking, the fluid loss of tealeaves is 5-8%;
(4) deblock: the tealeaves group after kneading to be broken up, stretching, will knead, deblocking operation step eats and repeat twice successively, namely " knead-deblock-knead-deblock ";
(5) first time spreading for cooling: the tealeaves after deblocking is put on spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 20-30min;
(6) ferment: ferment the tealeaves after spreading for cooling process in closed environment under natural temperature 6-7h;
(7) second time spreading for cooling: the tealeaves after fermentation process is placed in spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 20-30min;
(8) shaping: the tealeaves after secondary spreading for cooling is placed in shaping machine and carries out shaping, temperature during described shaping is 100-120 DEG C;
(9) just dry: the tealeaves after shaping is put into dryer and carry out just drying, temperature during described just baking is 80-110 DEG C, and the first baking time is 3-5min;
(10) secondary drying: the temperature of dryer is set to 90-120 DEG C, dries, the secondary drying time is 3-5min.Wherein said step (2) is withered to the tealeaves after harvesting, wither and refer in certain temperature, evenly spread under damp condition, appropriateness promotes the activity of fresh leaf enzyme, there is appropriate physics in internal substance, chemical change distributes portion of water, make stem, here leaf withers, color and luster is dark green, green grass gas scatters and disappears, in the present invention, tea leaf withering mainly adopts nature withering technology, fresh leaf 3-5cm under adopting is spread on spreading-and-cooling machine, make fresh leaf in withering here state, wither in process, moisture reduces, blade obtains soft by crisp cirrhosis, be convenient to knead operation, the increased activity of contained enzyme material in leaf, impel starch, protein, the fresh leaf composition such as insoluble pectin decomposes, transform, generate glucose, amino acid, soluble pectins etc. are conducive to the active principle of black tea quality, polyphenols is also oxidized in varying degrees.Normally and effectively wither, make the green grass gas of fresh leaf disappear and produce delicate fragrance, and have the fragrant or fragrance of a flower of fruit, become tea flavour alcohol and not pained.Indoor temperature of withering is 25-30 DEG C and air circulation is good.
In step (2) except the natural withering technology that the present invention adopts, solar wither can also be adopted, concrete operation method is wither 4 hours under sunshine, fresh leaf to spread thickness out identical with the thickness that the fresh leaf that naturally withers is spread out, finally make fresh leaf wither uniformity.
Deliver in kneading machine the tea leaf conveying after naturally withering in step (3) and operate, kneading is that black tea is moulded graceful profile and formed the important procedure of endoplasm, and profile and endoplasm depend on that blade rolls tightly degree and cell tissue damaged degree.Make tealeaves that following change occur by kneading: one is leaf cell disorganization, and tealeaves is excessive; Accelerating the enzymatic oxidation of polyphenol compound, laying the foundation for forming the distinctive endoplasm of black tea; Two is blade is rubbed be rolled into vertical bar rope, reduces the bodily form, moulds perfect profile; Three is that tealeaves is excessive gathers in leaf bar surface, soluble in water when brewing, and increases millet paste concentration, and forms the profile of gloss.Wherein kneading machine is known device of the prior art, and 90 such as large-scale types are two dynamic, 90 type single action kneading machines, 65 medium-sized types, 50 type kneading machines, small-sized 40 type kneading machines etc.
Knead effect in step (3) and throw leaf amount, knead the time, knead mode, the humiture of kneading room is relevant, in technical solution of the present invention, arranging at every turn the time of kneading is 25-30min, the throwing leaf amount of kneading once is 17.5-22.5kg, the weight kneading pressure will directly affect the quality of kneading, according to the rule of the motion upset slivering of tealeaves in kneading machine, according to " light, heavy, principle gently " is kneaded, light withering leaf is gently pressed, heavy withering leaf weight, and pressurization answers gradation to carry out, pressurization and decompression hocket, knead beginning a period of time do not pressurize or gently press, make the preliminary slivering of blade, and then progressively tea bar is tightened up in pressurization, kneading the decompression for the previous period of end, bar shaped is made to receive circle, leaf juice reclaims.
Complete after kneading once-through operation, namely enter deblocking operation, in the technical program, knead operation repetition twice, even if operating procedure order is: first time kneads, and first time deblocks, and second time is kneaded, and second time is deblocked, and then enters down one operational sequence.
Step (4) black tea deblocking operation, in prior art, the tealeaves after kneading directly is delivered in fermentation process operation, and add in the technical program deblock, first spreading for cooling treatment process, wherein deblocking machine is known device of the prior art, model as the production of Yongxing, Anhui Machinery Co., Ltd. is the black tea deblocking machine of YX-6CJK-40B type, deblocking operation can utilize that deblocking machine self structure is broken up the tealeaves kneaded, combing, significantly reduce the damage of tealeaves and squeeze off, improving the quality of tealeaves.Meanwhile, sieve classification can also be carried out to tealeaves after this deblocking operation, and the order number sieved can be selected, broken tea is screened away, and realize carrying out quality grading to tealeaves, enter in follow-up treatment process in batches, effectively can control profile and the endoplasm of tealeaves.
Step (5) tealeaves after deblocking carries out first spreading for cooling, heat in time by kneading, in deblocking operation entrained by tealeaves distributes, concrete operations are: spread uniformly in spreading-and-cooling machine by tealeaves thickness, can not stir, scentetd, moisture, improve the quality of tealeaves, spread time 20-30min, now feel is advisable for grabbing tealeaves softness.
In step (6) fermentation process operation, fermentation is the unique stage of black tea processing, and it makes the polyphenols in tealeaves fully oxidized, forms the qualitative characteristics of black tea color, smell and taste.During fermentation of black tea of the present invention, adopt spontaneous fermentation, fermentation time is 6-7 hours, air humidity General Requirements more than 90%, and steam pH value is preferably between 6.5-7.5, and air circulation is good, and oxygen supply is sufficient.Fermenting cellar requirement is of moderate size, sanitation and hygiene, free from extraneous odour.In principle north and south seat to factory building window be exposed to the north, window is liftoff 1-1.5 meters, be convenient to ventilate, avoid direct sunlight, will heat in indoor, humidification and aeration-cooling equipment, have temperature, psychrometry utensil.
In sweat, temperature is very large on fermentation impact, and wherein temperature comprises temperature and Ye Wen two aspects, and temperature directly affects leaf temperature.In sweat, Polyphenols oxidation heat liberation, makes Ye Wen improve; When oxidation weakens, leaf temperature drop is low.Therefore, leaf Wen Youyi is arrived low process from low to high again.Ye Wen is generally high than temperature 2-6 DEG C, sometimes up to more than 10 DEG C.Require that fermentated leaves temperature remains on 35 DEG C and is advisable, temperature controls between 26-28 DEG C as good.As temperature and Ye Wen too high, Polyphenols oxidation is too violent, affects the color of black tea.When temperature is too high, cooling measure must be taked, if thin stand leaf layer is maybe by low room temperature etc.; Breeding, temperature is too low, and fermentation slowly, is difficult to guaranteed quality, need thickeies leaf layer or take the measure of heating.
Attenuation degree one sees that leaf look changes: general spring tea fermentation, and require during leaf look yellowish red color to be appropriate, summer tea take reddish yellow as appropriateness; The food value of leaf always tender be not all different, tender leaf uniform color, Lao Ye because of fermentation more difficult and aobvious red inner general green grass or young crops; Insufficient fermentation, leaf look viridescent or bluish yellow; Yeast-bitten, leaf look secretly red.
Two is hear the change of fragrance: namely have blue or green gas, delicate fragrance, the fragrance of a flower, a process that ripe perfume (or spice) gradually changes, and the leaf of fermentation appropriateness has the fragrance of a flower or fruital, insufficient fermentation then in blue or green gas, yeast-bitten fragrance is low vexed, even acid is turned sour.
It is at natural temperature, closed environment bottom fermentation that the present invention controls fermentation operation condition, and the too violent color, smell and taste of black tea that will affect of Ye Wen too high Polyphenols oxidation, Ye Wen is too low, ferments and is slowly difficult to guaranteed quality.Wherein in the technical program, fermentation time is set to 6-7 hour, is according to long-term test operation, reaches the selection result of anticipation black tea quality.Black tea during the fermentation inner various chemical composition there occurs deep change, and surface also presents the change of rule, leaf look by dark green, yellowish green, yellow, reddish yellow, Huang Hong, red in kermesinus, fragrance by blue or green gas, delicate fragrance to the fragrance of a flower.
Carry out second time spreading for cooling to tealeaves in time to wanting after fermentation process in step (7), concrete operations operate consistent with first spreading for cooling.
Step (8) be to second time spreading for cooling after tealeaves by shaping machine shaping, as required tealeaves can be made flat, aciculiform, fan-shaped etc., reach good looking appearance, also meet the needs of consuming public simultaneously, realize the large-scale production of flat tea simultaneously, the end product quality of tealeaves can be guaranteed, adapt to apply on a large scale for various shape black tea leaf.The shaping machine wherein related in shaping operational sequence of the present invention is known plant equipment, and its operation principle etc. is not described in detail herein.
Step (9) is just dried, and is carried out successively by the tealeaves after shaping just drying and secondary drying, and first bake out temperature is 80-110 DEG C, the first baking time is 3-5min, secondary drying temperature is 90-120 DEG C, and the secondary drying time is 3-5min, then carries out screening packaging and gets product.When wherein just drying, leaf-spreading thickness is 2-3cm, and turns once every 3-5 minutes, is dried to seven-eighty per cant and does, middle spreading for cooling 0.5-1 hour, and then carry out secondary drying program.Wherein just dry the impact of tea aroma, flavour comparatively large, the temperature of especially just drying, the technological parameters such as time.
Further, in order to better realize the present invention, described step (1) leaf picking is operating as and carries out classification process according to standard of plucking to fresh leaf.Namely according to the season of plucking, institute of place place can be plucked and plants tea quality classification is carried out to the quality of tealeaves, be divided into one-level, secondary, three grades, like this can further by qualities such as the colors of production technology raising black tea of the present invention.
Further, in order to better realize the present invention, in treatment process of naturally withering in described step (2), relative air humidity remains 85-90%.
Further, in order to better realize the present invention, kneading concrete operation method by light, heavy, light principle in described step (3) is: kneading machine gently rubs 8min successively to fresh leaf, heavily rubs 5-8min, gently rubs 8min.Wherein pressure weight is the principal element that quality is kneaded in impact, in kneading machine, bar rule is turned in motion according to tealeaves, the principle of " light, heavy, light " that the present invention takes, and limit specifically gently rubbing, heavily rubbing, gently rub point other operating time, effectively can improve tealeaves bar shaped and receive circle.
Further, in order to better realize this present invention, in described step (3), fresh leaf is placed in the thickness of kneading machine is 45-50cm.
Further, in order to better realize the present invention, the raw tea method of described black tea is further comprising the steps of: (11) carry out selected operation to tealeaves, and the tealeaves after (12) are selected carries out packaging and gets product.
beneficial effect
(1) the present invention is by the sequencing of appropriate design black tea manufacture technological operation step, kneading machine complete to after tea rolling in time and successively tealeaves is deblocked, spreading for cooling, the operation of deblocking mainly realizes the breaing up of tealeaves, combing, effective minimizing is to the damage of tealeaves and squeeze off, improve the quality of tealeaves, reduce the difficulty of fermentation;
(2) the present invention carries out secondary spreading for cooling to tealeaves after arranging tea leaf fermentation, avoids the heat produced in sweat to cause tealeaves too high or too low for temperature, affects the color of tealeaves;
(3) the present invention is by strictly controlling the technological parameter of each step in production technology, as can be effectively avoided the fragrance to black tea too high or too low for temperature, flavour etc. to have an impact, makes the fragrance of black tea, flavour gets a desired effect;
(4) in the present invention by arranging shaping operating procedure, tealeaves is cooked and forms the various shape such as needle-like, fan-shaped, while the fine profile of raising tealeaves, meet the needs of consumer and vast colony.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to the object of the present invention of understanding clearly, technical scheme and beneficial effect, below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described further, but protection scope of the present invention do not limited in the examples below.
embodiment 1:
A kind of production method of black tea, plucking a bud one leaf fresh leaves of tea plant is raw material, and be spread out on spreading-and-cooling machine by evenly thin for the fresh leaf after harvesting, Indoor Natural withers, withering temperature is 25 DEG C, leaf-spreading thickness is 3cm, withering time is 8h, fresh leaf is withered uniformity, then the fresh leaf after process of naturally withering is placed in 6CR-30 type kneading machine to knead, kneading machine rotating speed is 26r/min, by " light under natural temperature, heavy, light principle " knead 25min at every turn, the throwing leaf amount of at every turn kneading is 17.5kg, leaf-spreading thickness is 47cm, in mass fraction, compared with the tealeaves of leaf picking, the fluid loss of tealeaves is 5%, complete and knead, tealeaves is deblocked, tealeaves group after kneading is broken up, stretching, kneading then by tealeaves, connect block and repeat twice, namely " knead-deblock-knead-deblock ", tealeaves after deblocking operation is carried out first spreading for cooling, tealeaves after deblocking is put into spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 20min, then ferment, in closed environment, JY-6CH type fermentation machine fermentation 6h under natural temperature, is adopted during fermentation, the inner various chemical composition of fermentation of black tea there occurs profound change, surface also presents regular change, leaf look is by viridescent, yellowish green, yellow, reddish yellow, Huang Hong, red, to kermesinus, , fragrance is then by blue or green gas, delicate fragrance is to the fragrance of a flower, fermentation ends carries out second time spreading for cooling, tealeaves is placed in spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 20min, shaping, temperature is 80 DEG C, as required tealeaves can be made aciculiform, fan-shaped etc., and carry out successively just drying, secondary drying, the temperature of first baking dryer is 80 DEG C, the first baking time is 3min, during secondary drying, the temperature of dryer is 90 DEG C, drying time is 3min, secondary drying terminates to screen tealeaves afterwards, and to be tested qualified after, carry out packing and get final product according to different shares.
embodiment 2:
A kind of production method of black tea, plucking a bud one leaf fresh leaves of tea plant is raw material, and be spread out on spreading-and-cooling machine by evenly thin for the fresh leaf after harvesting, Indoor Natural withers, withering temperature is 30 DEG C, leaf-spreading thickness is 5cm, withering time is 12h, fresh leaf is withered uniformity, then the fresh leaf after process of naturally withering is placed in 6CR-30 type kneading machine to knead, kneading machine rotating speed is 28r/min, by light under natural temperature, heavy, light principle kneads 25min at every turn, the throwing leaf amount of at every turn kneading is 22.5kg, leaf-spreading thickness is 50cm, in mass fraction, compared with the fresh leaf plucked, the fluid loss of tealeaves is 8%, complete and knead, tealeaves is deblocked, tealeaves group after kneading is broken up, stretching, kneading then by tealeaves, connect block and repeat twice successively, namely " knead-deblock-knead-deblock ", tealeaves after deblocking operation is carried out first spreading for cooling, tealeaves after deblocking is put into spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 30min, then ferment, in closed environment, JY-6CH type fermentation machine fermentation 7h under natural temperature, is adopted during fermentation, the inner various chemical composition of fermentation of black tea there occurs profound change, surface also presents regular change, leaf look is by viridescent, yellowish green, yellow, reddish yellow, Huang Hong, red, to kermesinus, , fragrance is then by blue or green gas, delicate fragrance is to the fragrance of a flower, fermentation ends carries out second time spreading for cooling, tealeaves is placed in spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 30min, shaping, temperature is 120 DEG C, as required tealeaves can be made aciculiform, fan-shaped etc., and carry out successively just drying, secondary drying, the temperature of first baking dryer is 110 DEG C, the first baking time is 3min, during secondary drying, the temperature of dryer is 120 DEG C, drying time is 5min, secondary drying terminates to screen tealeaves afterwards, and to be tested qualified after, carry out packing and get final product according to different shares.
embodiment 3:
A kind of production method of black tea, plucking a bud one leaf fresh leaves of tea plant is raw material, and be spread out on spreading-and-cooling machine by evenly thin for the fresh leaf after harvesting, Indoor Natural withers, withering temperature is 25 DEG C, leaf-spreading thickness is 3cm, withering time is 8h, fresh leaf is withered uniformity, then the fresh leaf after process of naturally withering is placed in 6CR-30 type kneading machine to knead, kneading machine rotating speed is 27r/min, by light under natural temperature, heavy, light principle kneads 25min at every turn, the throwing leaf amount of at every turn kneading is 20kg, leaf-spreading thickness is 45cm, in mass fraction, compared with the fresh leaf just plucked, the fluid loss of tealeaves is 7%, complete and knead, tealeaves is deblocked, tealeaves group after kneading is broken up, stretching, kneading then by tealeaves, connect block and repeat twice successively, namely " knead-deblock-knead-deblock ", tealeaves after deblocking operation is carried out first spreading for cooling, tealeaves after deblocking is put into spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 25min, then ferment, in closed environment, JY-6CH type fermentation machine fermentation 6.5h under natural temperature, is adopted during fermentation, the inner various chemical composition of fermentation of black tea there occurs profound change, surface also presents regular change, leaf look is by viridescent, yellowish green, yellow, reddish yellow, Huang Hong, red, to kermesinus, , fragrance is then by blue or green gas, delicate fragrance is to the fragrance of a flower, fermentation ends carries out second time spreading for cooling, tealeaves is placed in spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 25min, shaping, temperature is 110 DEG C, as required tealeaves can be made aciculiform, fan-shaped etc., and carry out successively just drying, secondary drying, the temperature of first baking dryer is 100 DEG C, the first baking time is 4min, during secondary drying, the temperature of dryer is 110 DEG C, drying time is 4min, secondary drying terminates to screen tealeaves afterwards, and to be tested qualified after, carry out packing and get final product according to different shares.
Arbitrary feature disclosed in this description, unless specifically stated otherwise, all can be replaced by other equivalences or the alternative features with similar object.The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all any amendments done within the spirit and principles in the present invention, equivalent replacement and improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a production method for black tea, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps,
(1) leaf picking: plucking a bud one leaf fresh leaves of tea plant is raw material;
(2) naturally wither: be evenly thinly spread out on spreading-and-cooling machine by the fresh leaf after plucking, Indoor Natural withers, and withering temperature is 25-30 DEG C, and leaf-spreading thickness is 3-5cm, withering time 8-12h, fresh leaf is withered uniformity;
(3) knead: the fresh leaf of process of naturally withering is put into kneading machine and kneads, throwing leaf amount is 17.5-22.5kg, kneading machine rotating speed is 26-28r/min, undertaken by light, heavy, light principle under natural temperature, knead time 25-30min, repeat twice, in mass fraction, compared with the tealeaves of leaf picking, the fluid loss of tealeaves is 5-8%, completes and kneads;
(4) deblock: the tealeaves group after kneading to be broken up, stretching, will knead, deblocking operation step repeats twice successively, namely " knead-deblock-knead-deblock ";
(5) first time spreading for cooling: the tealeaves after deblocking is put on spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 20-30min;
(6) ferment: ferment the tealeaves after spreading for cooling process in closed environment under natural temperature 6-7h;
(7) second time spreading for cooling: the tealeaves after fermentation process is placed in spreading-and-cooling machine, spreading for cooling 20-30min;
(8) shaping: the tealeaves after secondary spreading for cooling is placed in shaping machine and carries out shaping, temperature during described shaping is 100-120 DEG C;
(9) just dry: the tealeaves after shaping is put into dryer and carry out just drying, temperature during described just baking is 80-110 DEG C, and the first baking time is 3-5min;
(10) secondary drying: the temperature of dryer is set to 90-120 DEG C, dries, the secondary drying time is 3-5min.
2. the production method of a kind of black tea according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described step carries out classification process by standard of plucking to fresh leaf in (1).
3. a kind of red tea producing process according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the relative air humidity that naturally withers in described step (2) keeps 85-90%.
4. the production method of a kind of black tea according to claim 1, is characterized in that: kneading concrete operation method by light, heavy, light principle in described step (3) is: kneading machine gently rubs 8min successively to fresh leaf, heavily rubs 5-8min, gently rubs 8min.
5. the production method of a kind of black tea according to claim 1, is characterized in that: in described step (3), fresh leaf is placed in the thickness of kneading machine is 45-50cm.
6. the production method of a kind of black tea according to claim 1, is characterized in that: further comprising the steps of, and (11) are selected, screens the tealeaves after secondary drying; (12) tealeaves after screening carries out packing and get final product.
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CN106359694A (en) * 2016-11-17 2017-02-01 杨攀 Black tea preparation method
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