CN105162215B - One kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system and method in a balanced way - Google Patents

One kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system and method in a balanced way Download PDF

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CN105162215B
CN105162215B CN201510687601.9A CN201510687601A CN105162215B CN 105162215 B CN105162215 B CN 105162215B CN 201510687601 A CN201510687601 A CN 201510687601A CN 105162215 B CN105162215 B CN 105162215B
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lead
control unit
acid
voltage
constant
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CN105162215A (en
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许涛
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Abstract

One kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system and method in a balanced way, multiple lead-acid accumulators connect to form series connection lead acid storage battery pool unit, a lead-acid batteries are formed after multiple series connection lead acid storage battery pool units are in parallel, the output end of lead-acid batteries is connected to main control unit, each lead-acid accumulator is respectively connected with one from the constant current/constant voltage balancer in control unit, main control unit by being connected from the equalizer switch of control unit with corresponding lead-acid accumulator;Each gathers the output voltage signal of correspondence lead-acid accumulator from control unit and is sent to main control unit in real time, main control unit obtains maximum voltage signal and minimum voltage signal in multiple lead-acid accumulators, when the voltage difference between maximum voltage signal and minimum voltage signal is more than predetermined threshold value, main control unit control constant current/constant voltage balancer and equalizer switch carry out equalization operation to the corresponding lead-acid accumulator of minimum voltage signal.The present invention realizes the combination of cost and circuit reliability.

Description

One kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system and method in a balanced way
Technical field
It is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery in a balanced way the invention belongs to field of new energy technologies, more particularly to one kind Management system and method.
Background technology
In new energy market, lead-acid accumulator (including lead charcoal battery) occupies critical role always.Lead-acid accumulator Principle of electrochemical reaction is exactly to convert electrical energy into chemical energy when charging to store in battery, converts chemical energy during electric discharge External system is supplied for electric energy.
Due to the electrochemical properties of lead-acid accumulator in itself, it is and insensitive for overcharging, crossing clearance for electric current, typically Be not in burning and explosion phenomenon, this point is different from lithium battery.Therefore, it is considered that, lithium battery group needs external management Or protection circuit, and lead-acid accumulator and need not such external management or protection and mould is used using a kind of extensive style Formula.
(1) but the quality conformance of lead-acid accumulator monomer of batch production is often difficult to ensure, such as internal sulfuric acid Concentration difference directly affects battery cycle life difference, and this causes each battery cell to be had differences in performance;Particularly work as Battery was used after a period of time, and the otherness between battery cell is more obvious.
(2) during extensive style use, certain lead-acid accumulator monomer was met with when putting, this lead-acid accumulator monomer life-span Also it can be severely impacted, difference is more obvious between battery cell;
(3) during extensive style use, when certain lead-acid accumulator monomer meets with excessive electric current, battery may accelerated just The loose of pole brown lead oxide comes off, and this lead-acid accumulator monomer life-span can also be severely impacted, and difference is more between battery cell Plus substantially;
(4) during extensive style use, when certain lead-acid accumulator monomer experience is overcharged, internal temperature rise, and have big Gas evolution is measured, positive plate active material may be caused to meet with gas impact and come off, while positive grid alloy can suffer from Anodic oxidation and corrode, this lead-acid accumulator monomer life-span can also be severely impacted, and difference is more obvious between battery cell;
(5) under high temperature or cryogenic conditions, during extensive style use, if certain lead-acid accumulator monomer carries out work Make, internal electrochemistry component damages, this lead-acid accumulator monomer life-span can also be severely impacted, difference is more between battery cell Plus substantially;
(6) during lead-acid accumulator is stored, the self-discharge phenomenon of battery also to create a difference between battery cell;
(4) it is new, old mixed although should prevent lead-acid accumulator from having in lead-acid accumulator, it is new in many occasions The mixed phenomenon of used batteries remains unchanged presence, causes monomer difference in battery pack obvious;
In summary, when there is battery cell difference, under conditions of no external management, the performance of whole battery strings Worst battery cell will be limited by, so that overall service efficiency and service life are all pulled low.Serious situation, it is bright in difference The actual load electric current of two aobvious Battery packs is different, because fuse and the battery pack of whole electric power system Switching Power Supply are one by one Corresponding, it is possible to have that a Battery pack electric current is excessive and first disconnect, another Battery pack may also be excessive because of load thereafter And disconnect, and then it is out of service to cause whole electric power system to be forced.
Traditionally the connected mode of multigroup lead-acid accumulator is (so that 3 go here and there 2 simultaneously as an example) as shown in Figure 1, i.e. lead in series connection group Acid accumulator is interconnected to form series connection by both positive and negative polarity first, is then just connected between different series-connected cell whole groups, bears It is connected so as to form the parallel connection of whole group, external charge and discharge electrical interface is drawn respectively by the total positive pole of whole group, total negative terminal.It is apparent it A kind of extensive style " naked use " state is stored in, i.e., without any external management or protection circuit.Therefore one group of lead-acid batteries In " worst " lead-acid accumulator module will seriously restrict the performance and used life of whole battery pack, this " short -board effect " is in mesh It is insurmountable in preceding lead-acid accumulator occupation mode.It can only carry out inspecting periodically on working service and replace poor performance Battery cell, but so cause maintenance workload to increase, particularly a large amount of in use, maintenance cost is high.
And some research institutions are by the mode of lithium battery protection board, electric discharge and charging process to lead-acid accumulator are carried out Limitation, so that certain protective effect is played to lead-acid accumulator, but this can't lift the overall performance of battery pack;
In addition, mode of some research institutions by lithium battery management system, equilibrium is carried out to lead-acid accumulator, but just As lithium electric management system, they take centralized solution, i.e. management system complete as a part concentrated and battery pack Entirely independently, it is attached between them using wire harness, although this mode can ensure the boundary of battery management system and battery pack Line is clearly demarcated, but wire harness is more, and the assembling for significantly changing current lead-acid accumulator is accustomed to by this, and compactedness and inheritance are bad, Burden is brought to construction, and the system expandability is bad, i.e., and the battery pack of different string numbers needs different battery management systems. Although it largely solves " short -board effect " of battery pack, the whole efficiency and service life of battery pack are improved.However, By this battery management system for lithium battery, then seem for lead-acid accumulator particularly expensive, with cheap plumbic acid Battery is not matched.
The content of the invention
For the defect of prior art, it is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery pipe in a balanced way the invention provides one kind Manage system and method.
To achieve the above objectives, the present invention uses following technical scheme:
One kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system, including lead-acid accumulator, main control unit in a balanced way And connected from control unit, main control unit and between control unit by slave data bus communication;The main control unit bag Constant current/constant voltage balancer is included, described to include equalizer switch from control unit, multiple lead-acid accumulators connect to form series connection plumbic acid storage Battery unit, a lead-acid batteries, the output of lead-acid batteries are formed after multiple series connection lead acid storage battery pool units are in parallel End is connected to main control unit, and the number from control unit is identical with the number of lead-acid accumulator, and each lead-acid accumulator is respectively connected with One from control unit, and the constant current/constant voltage balancer from the equalizer switch of control unit with corresponding lead-acid accumulator by being connected; Each is responsible for the output voltage signal of collection correspondence lead-acid accumulator in real time from control unit and is sent to main control unit, the master control Unit obtains maximum voltage signal and minimum voltage signal in multiple lead-acid accumulators, and judges maximum voltage signal and minimum Whether the voltage difference between voltage signal is more than predetermined threshold value, when voltage difference is more than predetermined threshold value, the main control unit The constant current/constant voltage balancer and equalizer switch is controlled to carry out balanced behaviour to the corresponding lead-acid accumulator of minimum voltage signal Make.
Further, main control unit of the present invention includes main control singlechip and constant current/constant voltage balancer, the perseverance Stream/constant pressure balancer includes voltage conversion circuit, constant voltage power supply circuit, constant-current power supply circuit and interlock switch, the electricity The input of voltage conversion circuit is connected with the output end of the lead-acid batteries, the output end of voltage conversion circuit respectively with institute The input of the input and constant-current supply of stating constant voltage power supply circuit is connected, the output end and perseverance of the constant voltage power supply circuit The output end for flowing power circuit is connected by an interlock switch with the equalizer switch from control unit.
Further, it is of the present invention to include from control unit from control single-chip microcomputer, equalizer switch and bleeder circuit, the partial pressure The input of circuit is connected with corresponding lead-acid accumulator both positive and negative polarity, and the output end of bleeder circuit is connected to from control single-chip microcomputer In A/D converter circuit, the equalizer switch is relay switch, and lead-acid accumulator both positive and negative polarity passes through relay switch and master control list The constant current/constant voltage balancer connection of member.
Further, it is of the present invention also to include detecting electricity with the relay adhesion being connected from control single-chip microcomputer from control unit Road.
Further, present invention additionally comprises host computer, the main control unit is drawn upload data/address bus and is connected with host computer.
The present invention, which provides one kind, is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management method in a balanced way, comprises the following steps:
When lead-acid batteries are normally run, the real-time output electricity of each lead-acid accumulator in collection lead-acid batteries Press signal;
Maximum voltage value and minimum amount of voltage that are obtained in lead-acid batteries, and calculates voltage difference between the two Value;
When voltage difference is more than predetermined threshold value, lead-acid accumulator corresponding to minimum amount of voltage that carries out equalization operation to protect Demonstrate,prove the equilibrium operating of lead-acid batteries.
Wherein, the process of the equalization operation is:
When the output voltage values of the corresponding lead-acid accumulator of minimum amount of voltage that are less than preset value, constant-current charge is carried out;
When the output voltage values of lead-acid accumulator are more than preset value, constant-voltage charge is switched to by constant-current charge.
The method have the benefit that:
(1) present invention it is a kind of be used for lead-acid batteries in a balanced way distributed battery management system take main control unit and from Control the part of two separation of unit;
(2) from control unit with lead-acid accumulator (or its parallel combination) is compact links together, and according to battery strings Several differences can be with arbitrary extension;
(3) it is absorbed in the otherness of lead-acid batteries battery cell during discharge and recharge, use, it is overall from battery pack Energy is obtained, by first constant current in the pattern of constant pressure, is carried out for worst battery cell balanced;
(4) data/address bus between principal and subordinate's control takes one of LIN buses or 485 buses according to the difference of battery strings number, Control holistic cost;
(5) equalizer switch on slave controller uses relay, while including relay test circuit, realizes holistic cost With the combination of circuit reliability.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the connected mode figure of traditionally multigroup lead-acid accumulator
Fig. 2 is structure principle chart of the invention;
Fig. 3 is the structure principle chart of main control unit;
Fig. 4 is the structure principle chart from control unit;
Fig. 5 is the monolithic processor controlled logical flow chart of master control;
Fig. 6 is from the monolithic processor controlled logical flow chart of control.
Embodiment
Reference picture 2, is the structure principle chart of the present invention, the present invention is a kind of to be used for lead-acid batteries distributed electrical in a balanced way Pond management system, including lead-acid accumulator, host computer, main control unit and from control unit, main control unit and from control unit between Connected by slave data bus communication;The main control unit is drawn upload data/address bus and is connected with host computer, the master control Unit includes constant current/constant voltage balancer, and described to include equalizer switch from control unit, multiple lead-acid accumulators connect to form series connection Lead acid storage battery pool unit, a lead-acid batteries, lead-acid batteries are formed after multiple series connection lead acid storage battery pool units are in parallel Output end be connected to main control unit, from control unit number it is identical with the number of lead-acid accumulator, each lead-acid accumulator is equal One is connected with from control unit, the constant current/constant voltage balancer passes through the equalizer switch and corresponding lead acid storage battery from control unit Pond is connected;Each is responsible for the output voltage signal of collection correspondence lead-acid accumulator in real time from control unit and is sent to main control unit, The main control unit obtains maximum voltage signal and minimum voltage signal in multiple lead-acid accumulators, and judges that maximum voltage is believed Whether the voltage difference number between minimum voltage signal is more than predetermined threshold value, described when voltage difference is more than predetermined threshold value Main control unit controls the constant current/constant voltage balancer and equalizer switch to enter the corresponding lead-acid accumulator of minimum voltage signal Row equalization operation.
Reference picture 3, is the structure principle chart of main control unit, and the main control unit includes main control singlechip and constant current/perseverance Press balancer, the constant current/constant voltage balancer include voltage conversion circuit, constant voltage power supply circuit, constant-current power supply circuit with And interlock switch, the input of the voltage conversion circuit is connected with the output end of the lead-acid batteries, voltage conversion electricity The output end on road is connected with the input of the constant voltage power supply circuit and the input of constant-current supply respectively, the constant voltage source The output end of circuit and the output end of constant-current power supply circuit pass through an interlock switch and the equalizer switch from control unit It is connected.
Wherein:Main control singlechip is as the arithmetic core of main control unit, and many single-chip microcomputers can meet function, this implementation The STM8S208S6 single-chip microcomputers encapsulated in example using LQFP44.
Voltage conversion circuit on the positive and negative two ends connection main control unit of the principal voltage of lead-acid batteries, voltage conversion electricity The function on road is to realize to export stable two kinds of voltages of 5V and about 14.5V by total voltage transformation, and wherein 5V voltages give master control list 5V voltage networks are powered on piece machine, and about 14.5V voltages are defeated by constant voltage power supply circuit and constant-current power supply circuit, are used as both Voltage Reference.Voltage conversion circuit is built based on transformer, there is many implementations in the prior art, is no longer gone to live in the household of one's in-laws on getting married herein State;
The about 14.5V of voltage conversion circuit output voltage is defeated by constant voltage power supply circuit and constant-current power supply circuit, wherein The function of constant-current power supply circuit is the fixed electric current of output as needed, and the function of constant voltage power supply circuit is that output is stable 14.5V voltages.For constant voltage power supply circuit and constant-current power supply circuit, there are many implementations in the prior art, herein not Repeat again.
Main control singlechip and from control single-chip microcomputer between data communication be by 485 buses realize.On main control singlechip On program burn writing interface, be basic generic configuration.On other main control singlechip spy is used as equipped with two NTC themistors Head, it is therefore an objective to explore the temperature of lead-acid batteries double sampledly, carries out heat measurement.
Main control singlechip is responsible for being communicated with host computer simultaneously, and main control singlechip, which is drawn, uploads data/address bus and host computer It is connected, uploads data/address bus and take CAN.
Reference picture 4, is the structure principle chart from control unit, described to include from control unit from control single-chip microcomputer, equalizer switch, divide Volt circuit and the relay adhesion detection circuit being connected with from control single-chip microcomputer, the input of the bleeder circuit and corresponding lead Acid accumulator both positive and negative polarity is connected, and the output end of bleeder circuit is connected to from the A/D converter circuit on control single-chip microcomputer, the equilibrium Switch as relay switch, lead-acid accumulator both positive and negative polarity passes through relay switch and the constant current/constant voltage balancer of main control unit Connection.
Wherein:From control unit on from control single-chip microcomputer as arithmetic core, many single-chip microcomputers can meet function, this reality Apply the STM8S003F3 single-chip microcomputers that example uses TSSOP20 to encapsulate.Program burn writing interface from control single-chip microcomputer, is basic general Configuration.
Described also to include voltage transformation module from control unit, the both positive and negative polarity of lead-acid accumulator is connected to voltage transformation module, This module is using conventional LM7805 voltage stabilizing chips system and its filter capacitor network, and module output voltage is+5V electricity Pressure, is connected to the VDD pin of STM8S003F3 single-chip microcomputers, is used as the supply voltage from control single-chip microcomputer.
Bleeder circuit input is connected to during the positive and negative electrodes in same of lead-acid accumulator, purpose herein is the mould because single-chip microcomputer Number converter AD input voltage is so to need the positive and negative pole tension of lead-acid accumulator that (its highest can reach between 0-5V To 14.5V) carry out partial pressure, as long as this bleeder circuit ensure 1/3rd voltage, while ensure it is smaller to earth-current, Realize that the bleeder circuit of such function is a lot, this place takes simple resistance-type partial pressure, branch away voltage access STM8S003F3 The AD pin of single-chip microcomputer.
Reference picture 5, is the monolithic processor controlled logical flow chart of master control, is described as follows:
Including two parts, one is principal function, and one is timer interruption function.
1st, principal function is first to the clock from control single-chip microcomputer, and peripheral hardware etc. is initialized, and then equalizer switch is disconnected, alarm Deng reset, opening timing device is interrupted, afterwards into major cycle, starts to send instruction from control single-chip microcomputer to serial number i, and judge From control single-chip microcomputer whether returned data, if 30s does not have returned data, then be recorded as communication abnormality, if receiving data, then Data processing is carried out to the data received, row is compared to the lead-acid accumulator voltage swing that each is reported from control single-chip microcomputer Sequence, finds out maximum and minimum value, if difference is more than setting value, then that lead-acid accumulator minimum to voltage sends and opened Beginning equalization instruction, and open corresponding slave equalizer switch.
2nd, balancing procedure is to be set the need for being reported from control single-chip microcomputer by lead acid storage battery cell voltage in a balanced way less than some When being worth (such as 14V), then start constant current equilibrium first, perseverance is converted to when this lead acid storage battery cell voltage is higher than some setting value Pressure is balanced.
If the 3, difference is less than setting value, then the total voltage of detection lead-acid batteries, electric current, and carry out fault detect The information of lead-acid accumulator, is finally passed through CAN by (such as from control plate relay adhesion or power failure) and troubleshooting It is sent to vehicle.
4th, timer interruption function is fixed 10ms and interrupted once, mainly judges whether to enter equilibrium state, and timing, when equal When the weighing apparatus time is more than 60s, sends and close equalization instruction to corresponding from control single-chip microcomputer.
Reference picture 6, is, from the monolithic processor controlled logical flow chart of control, to be described as follows:
Including two parts, one is principal function, and one is timer interruption function.
1st, principal function is first to the clock from control single-chip microcomputer, and peripheral hardware etc. is initialized, and then equalizer switch is disconnected, alarm Deng reset, opening timing device is interrupted, afterwards into major cycle, and whether cycle criterion receives main control singlechip instruction, receives Response, does not receive beginning communication overtime and counts.At the same time, the instruction according to main control singlechip carries out switch equalizer switch, And detect relay failure, lead-acid accumulator brownout fault detect.
2nd, timer interruption function is fixed 10ms and interrupted once, and main task is the sampling to lead acid storage battery cell voltage, meter Average value is calculated, communication abnormality counts and stores frequency of abnormity to EEPROM.
Described above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and protection scope of the present invention is not limited merely to above-mentioned implementation Example.All technical schemes belonged under thinking of the present invention belong to protection scope of the present invention.It is noted that for the art Those of ordinary skill for, improvements and modifications under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention, these improvements and modifications also should It is considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. one kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, it is characterised in that including lead-acid accumulator, Main control unit and from control unit, main control unit and from control unit between connected by slave data bus communication;The master Controlling unit includes constant current/constant voltage balancer, and described to include equalizer switch from control unit, multiple lead-acid accumulators connect to form string Join lead acid storage battery pool unit, a lead-acid batteries, lead-acid accumulator are formed after multiple series connection lead acid storage battery pool units are in parallel The output end of group is connected to main control unit, and the number from control unit is identical with the number of lead-acid accumulator, each lead-acid accumulator One is respectively connected with from control unit, the constant current/constant voltage balancer from the equalizer switch of control unit with corresponding plumbic acid by storing Battery is connected;Each is responsible for the output voltage signal of collection correspondence lead-acid accumulator in real time from control unit and is sent to master control list Member, the main control unit obtains maximum voltage signal and minimum voltage signal in multiple lead-acid accumulators, and judges maximum electricity Press whether the voltage difference between signal and minimum voltage signal is more than predetermined threshold value, when voltage difference is more than predetermined threshold value, The main control unit controls the constant current/constant voltage balancer and equalizer switch to the corresponding lead acid storage battery of minimum voltage signal Pond carries out equalization operation.
2. according to claim 1 be used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, it is characterised in that The main control unit includes main control singlechip and constant current/constant voltage balancer, and the constant current/constant voltage balancer includes voltage Change-over circuit, constant voltage power supply circuit, constant-current power supply circuit and interlock switch, the input of the voltage conversion circuit with it is described The output ends of lead-acid batteries is connected, the output end of voltage conversion circuit respectively with the input of the constant voltage power supply circuit with And the input of constant-current supply is connected, the output end of the constant voltage power supply circuit and the output end of constant-current power supply circuit pass through One interlock switch is connected with the equalizer switch from control unit.
3. according to claim 1 or 2 be used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, its feature exists In, it is described to include from control unit from control single-chip microcomputer, equalizer switch and bleeder circuit, the input of the bleeder circuit with it is corresponding Lead-acid accumulator both positive and negative polarity is connected, and the output end of bleeder circuit is connected to from the A/D converter circuit on control single-chip microcomputer, described equal Weighing apparatus switch is relay switch, and lead-acid accumulator both positive and negative polarity passes through relay switch dress balanced with the constant current/constant voltage of main control unit Put connection.
4. according to claim 3 be used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, it is characterised in that It is described also to include detecting circuit with the relay adhesion being connected from control single-chip microcomputer from control unit.
5. according to claim 4 be used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, it is characterised in that Main control singlechip uses the STM8S208S6 single-chip microcomputers that LQFP44 is encapsulated.
6. according to claim 5 be used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, it is characterised in that The STM8S003F3 single-chip microcomputers that TSSOP20 is encapsulated are used from control single-chip microcomputer.
7. according to claim 6 be used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system in a balanced way, it is characterised in that Also include host computer, the main control unit is drawn upload data/address bus and is connected with host computer.
8. one kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management method in a balanced way, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
When lead-acid batteries are normally run, the real-time output voltage letter of each lead-acid accumulator in collection lead-acid batteries Number;
Maximum voltage value and minimum amount of voltage that are obtained in lead-acid batteries, and calculates voltage difference between the two;
When voltage difference is more than predetermined threshold value, lead-acid accumulator corresponding to minimum amount of voltage that carries out equalization operation to ensure lead The equilibrium operating of acid accumulator group;The process of wherein described equalization operation:
When the output voltage values of the corresponding lead-acid accumulator of minimum amount of voltage that are less than preset value, constant-current charge is carried out;
When the output voltage values of lead-acid accumulator are more than preset value, constant-voltage charge is switched to by constant-current charge.
CN201510687601.9A 2015-10-21 2015-10-21 One kind is used for lead-acid batteries distributed battery management system and method in a balanced way Expired - Fee Related CN105162215B (en)

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CN107732985B (en) * 2016-08-10 2019-11-29 宁德时代新能源科技股份有限公司 Distributed battery management system
CN106451638A (en) * 2016-11-04 2017-02-22 深圳市佰特瑞储能系统有限公司 Intelligent mixing apparatus and method for new and old batteries
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CN107634273B (en) * 2016-12-26 2020-02-21 普天新能源车辆技术有限公司 Balancing system and method for power battery
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