CN105134114A - Reverse circulation gas drilling tool combination structure - Google Patents

Reverse circulation gas drilling tool combination structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105134114A
CN105134114A CN 201510653001 CN201510653001A CN105134114A CN 105134114 A CN105134114 A CN 105134114A CN 201510653001 CN201510653001 CN 201510653001 CN 201510653001 A CN201510653001 A CN 201510653001A CN 105134114 A CN105134114 A CN 105134114A
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gas
double
reverse circulation
drilling
connected
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CN 201510653001
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Chinese (zh)
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范黎明
曾绍清
周长虹
王虎
李宬晓
吴俊�
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中国石油集团川庆钻探工程有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a reverse circulation gas drilling tool combination structure which comprises a tap or a top drive, a gas distribution joint, a double-wall upper cock, a double-wall kelly bar, a double-wall lower cock, a rotary blowout preventer, a sleeve, a double-wall drill pipe, a double-wall drill collar, an annular check valve and a gas reverse circulation rock breaking tool. When the drilling tool combination structure is applied to a full-hole self-suction reverse circulation gas drilling system, participation of tools, such as conventional single-wall drilling tools and gas and water mixed joints, is not needed, a full hole takes air as a circulating medium, reverse circulation can be formed without participation of slurry or other drilling fluids, and thus the drilling tool combination structure is particularly suitable for well sections which severely lack water, severely leak or can not implement air-lift reverse circulation.

Description

一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构 An anti-cycle gas drilling assembly structure

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及石油天然气钻井技术领域,确切地说涉及一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构。 [0001] Technical Field The present invention relates to oil and gas drilling and, more particularly, to a gas reverse circulation drilling assembly configuration.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 气体钻井技术可大幅提高火山岩、砾石层、碎肩岩、碳酸盐岩等难钻地层的机械钻速,在川渝等地区应用,平均钻速提高4〜15倍。 [0002] Gas drilling technology can significantly increase drilling hard formations ROP volcanic rock, gravel, crushed rock shoulder, carbonate, etc., and other areas in Chongqing application, the average rate increased drilling 4~15 times. 但采用正循环气体钻井时(特别是大直径井),设备投资大、占地多、耗气量大、运行能耗高、成本高,如在26"井眼(500m)气体钻井所需气量500m3/min以上,17 1/2"井眼所需气量300m3/min ;在井壁稳定性较差,或地层出水量较大的情况下,增大气量进行气体钻井加剧了对井壁的冲蚀,增大了井壁失稳可能性;同时,处理地层出水问题的能力较差,倘若同时地层裂隙发育(即井漏失返且地层大量出水),则很难建立正常循环,即使采用充气钻井,也容易出现漏水不漏砂的情况,难以保证井下安全;这些问题对正循环气体钻井的应用带来了诸多限制。 When employing the positive cycle gas drilling (especially large diameter wells), investment in equipment, an area, large air consumption, high energy consumption, high cost, as in 26 "wellbore (500m) the desired gas drilling gas 500m3 / min or more, 17 1/2 "borehole desired air 300m3 / min; poor stability in the wellbore, formation or the case where a large amount of water, increasing the gas content of the gas drilling exacerbated erosion of the wall , increasing the possibility of wellbore instability; the same time, the ability to deal with the problem of formation water is poor, while if the fractured formation (i.e., a large number of the well formation and back leakage of water), it is difficult to establish a normal cycle, even if aerated drilling, also prone to water leakage does not leak sand, it is difficult to ensure mine safety; these issues apply positive cycle gas drilling has brought many restrictions.

[0003] 现有一种气举反循环的钻井方法,如公开号为CN101929309A,公开日为2010年12月29日的中国专利文献公开了一种气举反循环钻进工艺,其工艺步骤为:①先卸下双壁方钻杆向芯管内注满液体,然后重新安装好双壁方钻杆,②关闭排渣管出口处的高压阀门,启动空压机供气,③待进气压力上升到5.5-6MPa时,再迅速打开排渣管出口处的高压阀门。 [0003] Present a gas lift method of reverse circulation drilling, as disclosed No. CN101929309A, Japanese Publication discloses a gas lift Reverse Circulation Drilling process is a Chinese Patent Document 29 December 2010, the process steps of: ① first remove the double wall drill pipe into the core tube filled with liquid, and reinstall the double wall drill pipe, pipe ② closed high-pressure valve at the outlet of slag, starting gas compressor, the intake pressure to be increased ③ when 5.5-6MPa, the valve then quickly opens the high-pressure pipe at the outlet of the slag. 是一种不用全部拔出所有钻具就能解决钻头进水眼堵塞的气举反循环钻进工艺。 All in all not pull out a drill bit can solve water clogging the gas lift reverse circulation drilling process.

[0004] 采用上述专利文献为代表的现有技术,具体应用时,该方法是将少量(如3~5m3/min)气体在井内气水混合接头处于钻柱内液体混合,利用钻柱内、外的钻井液密度差,实现钻井液反循环的钻井方法。 [0004] With the above prior art patent document is represented by a specific application, which is a small amount (e.g., 3 ~ 5m3 / min) liquid gas mixture within the mixing fitting is in the drill string in the well gas and water, the use of the drill column, outside the fluid density difference, to achieve drilling of reverse circulation drilling method. 虽然该方法在节省气量、节省设备使用量以及井漏失返有明显效果,但必须使用泥浆进行循环。 Although this method gas savings, savings in equipment as well as the amount of return loss wells have a significant effect, but the mud must be circulated. 因此在地层漏失严重(比如溶洞)、井内泥浆液面过低或者井内缺水的情况下,气举反循环是无法实施的。 Therefore, formation leakage severe (such as cave), a case where the well or well water slurry level is too low, the gas reverse circulation can not be implemented. 同时,由于井内需要泥浆循环,故只能使用牙轮钻头或者PDC钻头,而且深井钻井时泥浆的液柱压力对井底依然有压持效应,所以深井钻井提速效果并不显著,这在石油、天然气钻进中有一定的局限性。 Meanwhile, since the wells need mud circulation, it can only use the PDC bits or roller cone bits, and deep drilling mud column pressure when the bottom still hold effect, the deep drilling speed effect is not significant, which in the oil, natural gas drilling has certain limitations. 另外,气举反循环钻井方法除了使用双壁钻具之外还必须使用常规单壁钻杆和气水混合接头。 Further, the gas reverse circulation drilling method using a double-walled addition drill must also use a conventional single rod cylinder wall water mixing fitting.

[0005] 还有一种扩孔用大直径集束式潜孔锤的反循环工艺。 [0005] There are reverse circulation process for large diameter counterbore bundled DTH. 此类方法是利用井口安装的密封装置封住井眼环空,将气体憋入双壁钻具的中心通道实现反循环排砂。 Such methods are installed using a wellhead sealing means to seal the borehole annulus, the gas hold the central channel into the double-walled implementation of reverse circulation drilling sand discharge. 该工法主要用于煤矿行业扩孔钻进,对地层要求较高,倘若地层裂隙发育,则环空压力无法建立,反循环形成效果也会受到影响。 The construction method is mainly used in the coal industry reaming drilling, require a higher stratum, if fractured formations, the annulus pressure can not be established, the formation of reverse circulation effect will be affected. 同时,该工法使用的破岩工具是集束式潜孔锤,该工具的结构稍许复杂,维护保养以及更换钻头稍显繁琐。 Meanwhile, the construction method used is a rock-breaking tool bundled DTH, the structure of the tool is slightly complicated, maintenance and replacement of a drill bit is slightly complicated.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0006] 本发明旨在针对上述现有技术所存在的缺陷和不足,提供一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构,将本钻具组合结构应用于全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统中,不需要常规单壁钻具、气水混合接头等工具的参与,全井段用空气作为循环介质,不需要泥浆或者其他钻井液的参与也可形成反循环,尤其适用于严重缺水、井漏严重或者无法实施气举反循环的井段。 [0006] The present invention is intended for the above-mentioned prior art shortcomings and deficiencies exist, there is provided a gas reverse circulation drilling assembly configuration, the BHA according to the present structure is applied to the whole interval from the suction gas reverse circulation drilling system , the drill does not require a conventional single wall, air-water mixing tool joints involved in the whole interval using air as the circulating medium, mud or other drilling fluid does not require participation of reverse circulation may be formed, especially for severe water shortages serious lost circulation or reverse circulation gas can not be implemented in the interval.

[0007] 本发明是通过采用下述技术方案实现的: [0007] The present invention is achieved by adopting the following technical solution:

一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构,其特征在于:包括水龙头或顶驱、配气接头、双壁上旋塞、双壁方钻杆、双壁下旋塞、旋转防喷器、套管、双壁钻杆、双壁钻铤、环形止回阀和气体反循环破岩工具,其中: An anti-cycle gas drilling assembly structure comprising: a top drive or a faucet, valve fitting, double wall plug, a double-walled drill pipe, the double wall plug, rotating blowout preventor, sleeve, bis wall drill pipe, drill collar double-walled, annular check valve and gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool, wherein:

耐冲蚀鹅颈管与水龙头或顶驱连接,高压注气软管与配气接头相连,正循环气体钻井排砂管线与旋转防喷器壳体侧出口连接; Erosion resistance gooseneck faucet or the top drive is connected, and the high-pressure gas injection valve hose connector is connected to the positive line cycle gas drilling and sand discharge outlet side rotating blowout preventor connector housing;

所述水龙头的下端通过螺纹与配气接头连接,配气接头下端通过螺纹与双壁上旋塞连接,双壁上旋塞下方连接双壁方钻杆,双壁方钻杆下方连接双壁下旋塞和双壁钻杆;或者顶驱下端通过正扣直接连接双壁钻杆; The lower end of the faucet valve threadedly linker, a lower end fitting by a threaded connection to the valve cock double wall, the bottom wall of the double plug connector double wall drill pipe, below the double-wall connecting a double-walled lower kelly cock and double-wall drill pipe; directly connected to the lower end of the top drive or double wall drill pipe through the positive snap;

双壁钻杆下方依次连接双壁钻铤、环形止回阀和气体反循环破岩工具; Below the double wall drill pipe is connected in turn a double-walled drill collars, and an annular check valve gas reverse circulation rock breaking tool;

所述套管位于井口下方,井口的上方连接旋转防喷器,旋转防喷器上端连接双壁下旋塞。 The sleeve is positioned below the wellhead, the wellhead connector upper rotary BOP, BOP connected to the upper end of a double-walled lower rotary plug.

[0008] 所述井口的一侧设有节流管汇。 [0008] side of the wellhead choke manifold is provided.

[0009] 正循环气体钻井排砂管线通过阀门F与旋转防喷器壳体侧出口连接。 [0009] n-circulation gas drilling sand discharge line valve F via the outlet side of the rotating blowout preventor housing.

[0010] 所述的高压是指不低于21 MPa的压强。 [0010] The high pressure means a pressure not lower than 21 MPa.

[0011] 与现有技术相比,本发明所达到的有益效果如下: [0011] Compared with the prior art, the present invention is to achieve the following advantageous effects:

1、采用地面管汇连接结构和钻具组合结构结合形成的用于油气钻井的全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统,全井段采用双壁钻具,不需要常规单壁钻具、气水混合接头等工具的参与;全井段用空气作为循环介质,不需要泥浆或者其他钻井液的参与也可形成反循环。 1, self-priming gas reverse circulation drilling system for drilling oil and gas wells whole manifold section connected to the ground structure and the structure formed by the combination BHA, drill whole interval double wall, does not require a conventional single-walled drill string, water mixed gas participation tool joints; full interval using air as the circulating medium, mud or other drilling fluid does not require participation of reverse circulation may be formed. 适用于严重缺水、井漏严重或者无法实施气举反循环的井段;能提高钻井效率的同时,节省气体钻井气量、设备使用量,减少设备占地面积额,节约综合成本,同时为克服井下出水、井漏失返提供一种新的钻探工艺。 For severe water, well leakage or severe embodiment not reverse circulation of air interval; drilling efficiency can be improved while saving gas drilling gas, the amount of equipment, reduce the amount of equipment footprint, comprehensive cost savings, at the same time to overcome the underground water, wells return loss provide a new drilling technology.

[0012] 2、本发明对是否在环空灌注泥浆没有特殊要求。 [0012] 2, the present invention is in the annulus mud perfusion no special requirements. 在地层漏失严重(比如溶洞)、井内缺水或者井内泥浆液面过低的情况下,依然可以实现反循环钻井。 Severe leakage in the formation (such as cave), a case where the well or borehole mud water level is too low, reverse circulation drilling can still be achieved. 若井内灌注泥浆,对本发明实施反循环钻井也有积极作用。 If mud well perfused, reverse circulation drilling embodiment of the present invention has a positive effect.

[0013] 3、本发明是全井段的气体反循环钻井。 [0013] 3, the present invention is a gas the whole interval of reverse circulation drilling. 即全部采用双壁钻具,钻进时井底岩肩全部从双壁钻具中心排砂通道排至地表,避免了气流在携带岩肩上返的过程中对井壁造成冲蚀,有利于防止复杂地层钻进过程中井壁扰动性坍塌的发生。 All double wall drill i.e., all of the drilling from the bottom double wall drill rock shoulder sand discharge passage discharging the center to the surface, to avoid the erosion caused by the air flow to the borehole wall during return of the shoulder to carry the rock, facilitate complex formation prevent disturbance of the borehole wall during a collapse.

[0014] 4、双壁钻具中心排砂通道过流断面积较井壁与钻柱之间环状断面积小的多。 [0014] 4, the center of the double wall drill sand discharge passage sectional area than the flow through the annular wall between the drill string breaking small area more. 因此,全井段气体反循环钻井所需压缩空气体积流量相对较小,特别是在大直径井段钻进时,更为明显。 Thus, the whole reverse circulation drilling interval required gas volume flow of compressed air is relatively small, especially when drilling large diameter hole section, becomes more apparent. 这有利于减少设备投入、减小场地占用面积、降低对动力和钻井液的需求量、节省燃油消耗。 This helps to reduce equipment investment, reducing the space occupied area, reduce the demand for power and drilling fluid, save fuel consumption.

[0015] 5、处理地层出水能力较正循环气体钻井强。 [0015] 5, the processing capability more positive formation water circulating gas drilling. 正循环气体钻井时,如果地层出水量达到足以使岩肩粘结成团,则在井内环状间隙内聚集、沉降、形成泥饼环,导致井眼净化效果差。 When the positive cycle gas drilling, if the amount of water sufficient to cause the formation rock shoulder bonded into a group, it is well within the annular gap aggregation, sedimentation, cake form a ring, resulting in poor hole cleaning. 如不及时加以处理,最终将引发卡钻事故,威胁井下安全。 If not addressed in a timely manner, it will eventually lead to stuck pipe incidents, threats mine safety. 全井段反循环气体钻井,岩肩沿钻具中心通道上返,且中心排砂通道上返气流速度较高,净化井眼效果好,有利于减少泥包的发生。 Whole Well reverse circulation drilling, rock back on the shoulder along the drill center channel, and a higher gas flow velocity central exhaust passage back to the sand, wellbore purification effect, help reduce the incidence balling.

[0016] 6、全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井,钻具全部为双壁钻具,同时采用反循环破岩工具(反循环空气锤、反循环牙轮钻头、反循环roc钻头),气体和岩肩基本不会进入环空,因此在裂隙发育地层钻进时,能够避免和减少严重漏失。 [0016] 6, the whole interval self-priming reverse circulation drilling, drilling all of a double-walled drill, while using reverse circulation rock breaking tool (hammer reverse circulation, reverse circulation rock bit, reverse circulation drills roc), rock shoulder and the gas does not substantially into the annulus, and therefore when the fractured formation drilling, and reducing the severity leakage can be avoided. 特别是水层、漏层同时存在的时候,若采用正循环气体钻井或者充气钻井,容易出现井漏失返、漏水不漏砂的情况,难以建立正常循环。 In particular the aqueous layer, while the drain layer when present, the use of positive gas circulating aerated drilling or drilling, back leakage prone wells, water leakage does not leak sand, it is difficult to establish normal cycle. 而采用全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井,则能有效解决这个问题。 The use of self-priming the whole interval of reverse circulation drilling, is able to effectively solve the problem. 同时,本发明对井口处是否需要对环空进行密封没有特别要求,即使不用井口密封装置密封环空,在具有自密封作用的反循环破岩工具的帮助下依然可以形成反循环。 Meanwhile, if the present invention at a wellhead annulus seals need no special requirements, even without wellhead annulus sealing means for sealing, it can still be formed with the help of reverse circulation reverse circulation rock-breaking tool having a self-sealing action. 当然,如果对井口实施密封,对本发明实施反循环钻井也有积极作用。 Of course, if the wellhead seal embodiment, reverse circulation drilling embodiment of the present invention has a positive effect.

[0017] 7、在出现井下复杂时,可以随时切换为正循环气体钻井和常规泥浆钻井。 [0017] 7, in the event of underground complex, can always switch to the positive cycle gas drilling and conventional drilling mud.

[0018] 8、低压或欠压储层常被常规泥浆钻井、泡沫钻井、高压空气钻井损害。 [0018] 8, often a low pressure reservoir or undervoltage conventional mud drilling, foam drilling, the high pressure air drilling damage. 而采用全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统,气体和岩肩不会进入地层,对低压、低渗透储层无污染、零伤害。 The use of self-priming the whole interval of reverse circulation drilling system gas, the gas will not enter the shoulder and the rock formation, low pressure, low permeability reservoir pollution, zero injuries. 同时,上返气流流速高,岩肩上返滞后时间短,不会因与井壁地层接触而被污染,可及时、准确掌握地层信息,发现低压、低渗透储层。 Meanwhile, the high-velocity gas flow back, shoulders back rock lag time is short, in contact with the borehole wall will not be contaminated by the formation, timely, accurate knowledge of the formation of information, found low pressure, low permeability reservoirs. 因此,采用全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统对易伤害、低压、低渗地层(一些页岩气、煤层气储层等,也包括某些衰竭性储层)比正循环气体钻井和常规泥浆钻井更具优势。 Thus, a fully self-priming interval gas reverse circulation drilling system is easy to damage, a low pressure, low permeability formation (Some shale gas, coalbed methane reservoir, but also including some failure reservoir) than the positive cycle gas drilling and conventional drilling mud advantage. 另外,从长远来看,我国拥有大量的低压、低渗透石油天然气资源、煤层甲烷资源,这些资源的勘探开发为全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井工艺的应用提供了广阔的空间。 In addition, in the long run, our country has a large number of low-voltage, low-permeability oil and gas resources, coal bed methane resources, exploration and development of these resources apply self-priming process of reverse circulation drilling gas wells whole segment provides a broad space.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0019] 下面将结合说明书附图和具体实施方式对本发明作进一步的详细说明,其中: [0019] The following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in further detail, in which:

图1为本发明应用于全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统结构示意图; FIG. 1 is applied to the whole interval from a schematic view of a drilling system configuration of the recycle gas suction trans present invention;

图2为钻井气体循环路径图。 FIG 2 is a gas circulation path of drilling FIG.

[0020] 图中标记: [0020] FIG labeled:

1.注气单元2.泄压单元3.流量计4.地面注气管汇5.高压注气软管6.配气接头7.双壁上旋塞8.双壁方钻杆9.双壁下旋塞10.旋转防喷器11.井口12.套管13.双壁钻杆14.双壁钻铤15.环形止回阀16.气体反循环破岩工具17.水龙头或顶驱18.耐冲蚀鹅颈管19.高压反循环排砂软管20.地面反循环排砂管线21.取样短节22.降尘水短节23.正循环气体钻井排砂管线24.泥浆栗25.节流管汇26.沉砂池27.气体来自高压注气软管28.气体排至高压排砂软管29.双壁钻具外管30.双壁钻具内管和外管环状间隙31.双壁钻具内管32.中心排砂通道。 Gas injection unit 1. 2. 3. flowmeter relief unit 4. The ground sinks injection tube HPAI hose 6. Valve 7. The double wall of the plug connector 8. The double-walled at a double-walled drill pipe 9. 10. A rotary plug 11. The BOP wellhead 13. The double-wall sleeve 12. The drill pipe 14. The drill collars 15. The double-walled annular gas reverse circulation valve 16. The rock-breaking tool 17. A top drive 18. faucet or high impact 19. A high pressure etch gooseneck sand discharge hose 20. A reverse circulation ground sand discharge line 21. The reverse circulation sampling nipple 23. The nipple 22. The dust positive water circulation gas line 24. The drilling mud sand discharge orifice tube 25. Li 26. the sand basin sink 27. insufflation gas from the high pressure hose into the gas exhaust 30. 28. A double wall drill high-pressure discharge hose 29. the outer sand double wall drill tube and outer tube 31. the annular gap bis 32. the center of the inner wall of the pipe string sand discharge passage.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0021] 实施例1 [0021] Example 1

作为本发明的另一较佳实施方式,其包括水龙头或顶驱17、配气接头6、双壁上旋塞7、双壁方钻杆8、双壁下旋塞9、旋转防喷器10、套管12、双壁钻杆13、双壁钻铤14、环形止回阀15和气体反循环破岩工具16,其中: As a further preferred embodiment of the present invention, which comprises a top drive or a faucet 17, gas distribution joint 6, a double wall plug 7, 8 kelly double-walled, double-walled lower plug 9, rotating blowout preventor 10, sets tube 12, a double-walled drill pipe 13, a double-walled drill collar 14, check valve 15 and the annular gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16, wherein:

耐冲蚀鹅颈管18与水龙头或顶驱17连接,高压注气软管5与配气接头6相连,正循环气体钻井排砂管线23与旋转防喷器10壳体侧出口连接; Erosion resistance gooseneck faucet 18 or the top drive 17 is connected, is connected to a high-pressure gas injection hose fitting 5 and valve 6, positive cycle gas drilling sand discharge line 23 is connected to the outlet side of the housing 10 rotating blowout preventor;

所述水龙头的下端通过螺纹与配气接头6连接,配气接头6下端通过螺纹与双壁上旋塞7连接,双壁上旋塞7下方连接双壁方钻杆8,双壁方钻杆8下方连接双壁下旋塞9和双壁钻杆13 ;或者顶驱下端通过正扣直接连接双壁钻杆13 ; The lower end of the faucet valve is connected by a threaded joint 6, with lower gas fitting 6 by a threaded connection with a double wall plug 7, the plug 7 is connected to the bottom double wall kelly 8 double-walled, double-walled kelly below 8 9 and double-walled connecting the double wall drill pipe plug 13; the lower end of the top drive or a double-walled drill pipe 13 is directly connected via a positive snap;

双壁钻杆13下方依次连接双壁钻铤14、环形止回阀15和气体反循环破岩工具16 ; Double wall drill pipe 13 below the drill collar 14 in turn connected to a double-walled, annular check valve 15 and gas reverse circulation rock breaking tool 16;

所述套管12位于井口11下方,井口11的上方连接旋转防喷器10,旋转防喷器10上端连接双壁下旋塞9。 The sleeve 12 is located below the wellhead 11, the wellhead 11 is connected to the upper rotating blowout preventor 10, 10 connected to the upper end of a double-walled lower rotating blowout preventor tap 9.

[0022] 气体反循环破岩工具采用常规反循环工具即可。 [0022] The gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool can be a conventional reverse circulation tool.

[0023] 实施例2 [0023] Example 2

在上述实施例的基础上,所述井口11的一侧设有节流管汇25。 On the basis of the above-described embodiment, the side of the wellhead 11 is provided with a choke manifold 25. 正循环气体钻井排砂管线23通过阀门F与旋转防喷器10壳体侧出口连接。 N-circulation gas drilling sand discharge outlet side line 23 is connected through a valve housing 10 F and the rotating blowout preventor. 所述的高压是指不低于21 MPa的压强。 The high pressure means a pressure not lower than 21 MPa.

[0024] 实施例3 [0024] Example 3

本发明的具体应用实例:一种全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统由以下设备和工具构成:注气单元1、泄压单元2、流量计3、地面注气管汇4、高压注气软管5、配气接头6、双壁上旋塞7、双壁方钻杆8、双壁下旋塞9、双壁钻杆10、双壁钻铤11、环形止回阀12、反循环破岩工具(反循环空气锤、反循环牙轮钻头或者反循环PDC钻头)13、双壁钻杆14、井口装置15、旋转防喷器16、水龙头(或顶驱)17、耐冲蚀鹅颈管18、高压反循环排砂软管19、地面反循环排砂管线20、取样短节21、降尘水短节22、正循环气体钻井排砂管线23、至泥浆栗24、至节流管汇25,同时还包括一系列相配套的阀门和短节。 Specific application examples of the present invention: a fully self-priming interval gas reverse circulation drilling system consists of the following equipment and tools: a gas injection unit, pressure relief unit 2, a flow meter 3, the ground sinks injection tube 4, a high-pressure gas injection 5 the hose, valve joint 6, a double wall plug 7, 8 kelly double-walled, double-walled lower plug 9, a double-walled drill pipe 10, a double-walled drill collar 11, an annular check valve 12, reverse circulation rock breaking tool (hammer reverse circulation, reverse circulation or reverse circulation rock bit PDC bits) 13, a double-walled drill pipe 14, the wellhead 15, rotating blowout preventor 16, a faucet (or top drive) 17, anti-erosion gooseneck 18, a high pressure reverse circulation of sand discharge hose 19, the ground reverse circulation of sand discharge line 20, a sampling nipple 21, a short section of water, dust 22, the positive cycle gas drilling sand discharge line 23, to the mud Li 24, 25 to the choke manifold and also includes a series of supporting the valve and nipple.

[0025] 注气单元I由空压机和增压机组成,具体多少设备应当根据工程实际来定。 [0025] The gas injection unit I and a booster compressor compositions, particularly how the device should be determined according to engineering practice. 通常444.5mm井眼100m以内需要2台空压机并备用I台增压机。 444.5mm wellbore generally requires 2 to 100m air compressors and standby I turbochargers. 注气单元I提供钻井必需的压缩气体。 I insufflation unit necessary to provide compressed gas drilling. 注气单元I与泄压单元2通过高压管线(通常不低于21MPa)连接。 Gas injection unit I and unit 2 are connected by a high-pressure relief line (usually not less than 21MPa). 泄压单元2由一系列阀门、消声设备、压力仪表等组成,属于安全装置,用于释放系统压力和调节进入系统的气量。 A series of pressure relief valve unit 2, the muffler device, pressure gauge etc., a security device for releasing and regulate the system pressure in the air system. 泄压单元2出口设置流量计3,用于计量进入系统内的实际气量。 Relief outlet unit 2 is provided a flow meter 3, for the actual amount of gas metered into the system. 地面注气管汇4为高压管汇(通常不低于21MPa),由一系列的高压硬管线、高压软管线、转换接头等通过由壬连接形成。 Ground sinks injection tube 4 high pressure manifold (usually not less than 21MPa), a series of hard-line high-pressure, high-pressure hose line, adapters and the like is formed by connecting union. 高压注气管线在井架上的部分可采用软管线,也可采用硬管线,这由现场实际情况而定。 High-pressure gas injection line may be employed in a portion on the hose line mast, hard line may also be employed, which depends from the actual situation. 与配气接头6相连接的高压注气软管5压力级别通常不低于21MPa,二者通过由壬连接。 HPAI level pressure hose 5 and 6 valve connected to the joint is usually not less than 21MPa, both by union connection. 配气接头6为双壁结构,其上端与水龙头(或顶驱)相连,下端与双壁方钻杆(或双壁钻杆)相连。 Valve joint 6 as a double-walled structure, the upper end of the faucet (or top drive) connected to the lower end of the double-walled kelly (or double-walled drill pipe) is connected. 配气接头6的作用是将来自高压注气软管5的高压气体分配到双壁钻具的内管和外管的环状间隙中。 6 role of gas distribution from the linker is a high-pressure gas injection tube assigned to a high pressure gas 5 double-walled annular gap between the inner drill tube and the outer tube. 配气接头6上部连接水龙头(或者顶驱)17,若连接水龙头17,则为反扣连接;若连接顶驱,则为正扣连接。 Valve upper header 6 taps (or the top drive) 17, when the faucet 17 is connected, for the connection Flip; if the top drive is connected, at a positive snap connection. 水龙头(或顶驱)17上面的鹅颈管为耐冲蚀鹅颈管18,该鹅颈管转弯处有缓冲区域,可有效降低高速流体对鹅颈管的冲蚀,且该耐冲蚀鹅颈管18属于可更换部件。 Faucet (or top drive) 17 The above erosion resistant gooseneck gooseneck 18, which has a gooseneck bend buffer area, which can effectively reduce the erosion of high velocity fluid gooseneck, and the erosion resistance goose 18 belong to the neck member can be replaced. 配气接头6下部连接双壁上旋塞7,该上旋塞为双壁结构,可以对双壁钻具环空实现密封。 Valve lower connection joint 6 double wall plug 7, the cock of the double-walled structure, for sealing double-walled drill string annulus. 双壁上旋塞7下面连接双壁方钻杆8,双壁方钻杆8通常为六棱双壁方钻杆。 The following double wall plug 7 is connected kelly 8 double-walled, double-walled drill pipe 8 is typically a double-walled drill pipe has a hexagonal side. 双壁方钻杆8下端连接双壁下旋塞9。 8 double-walled kelly cock 9 at the lower end connected to a double-walled. 双壁下旋塞9为正扣,双壁上旋塞7为反扣。 9 is a double-walled lower cock positive snap, double wall plug 7 is buckle. 若使用顶驱,则可以不使用双壁上旋塞7、双壁方钻杆8和双壁下旋塞9。 The use of top drive, may not be used a double wall plug 7, 8 and the double-walled double-walled lower kelly cock 9. A井钻具组合从上至下为:双壁钻杆13、双壁钻铤14、环形止回阀15和气体反循环破岩工具16。 A top to bottom as well BHA: double wall drill pipe 13, a double-walled drill collar 14, check valve 15 and the annular gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16. 双壁钻杆13、双壁钻铤14的外管为常规钻杆,内部通过创新设计加入内管。 13 double wall drill pipe, drill collar double-walled outer tube 14 of conventional drill pipe, through the inside of the inner tube was added innovative design. 双壁钻杆13和双壁钻铤14的规格尺寸与常规钻杆相同。 Double-walled and double-walled drill collars 13 14 Size of the conventional drill same. 环形止回阀15为近钻头的内防喷工具,可有效防止井内流体回灌进入双壁钻具的内、外管环状间隙中。 An annular check valve 15 to the BOP tool near the drill bit, which can effectively prevent the wellbore fluid into the double wall drill recharge, the outer tube an annular gap. 气体反循环破岩工具16包括反循环空气锤、反循环牙轮钻头和反循环PDC钻头。 Gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16 includes a reverse circulation hammer, reverse circulation and reverse circulation rock bit PDC bit. 本发明所设计的反循环破岩工具具有自密封环空功能。 Reverse circulation rock breaking tool of the present invention is designed with self-sealing function annulus. 在自密封的作用下,高压气体经过该反循环破岩工具16后直接进入到中心排砂通道(图2所示),同时反循环破岩工具16对井底有一定的抽吸作用(即形成自吸),对反循环的形成有积极的作用。 In the self-sealing effect, through which high-pressure gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16 directly after entering a certain center sand discharge suction channel (FIG. 2), while the reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16 with a bottom hole (i.e. forming self-priming), have a positive effect on the formation of reverse circulation. 本发明涉及到的井口装置11由单四通、双四通、升高短节、单闸板防喷器、双闸板防喷器、环形防喷器等装置构成。 The present invention relates to a wellhead 11, double crosses, increased short section of single ram BOP, BOP double plate, the annular blowout preventer and other means consists of a single four-way. 该井口装置11的具体要求应当根据钻井设计来定。 The specific requirements wellhead apparatus 11 should be determined according to well design. 本发明所涉及的全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井系统及工艺方法对井口装置11没有特别要求。 Whole Well present invention relates to a self-priming of reverse circulation drilling system and process for gas is not particularly required for the wellhead apparatus 11. 对于旋转防喷器10,安装在常规井口装置11之上,一方面可密封环空,在反循环钻井需要密封环空的时候提供帮助;另一方面,在转换为正循环气体钻井的时候,旋转防喷器10是必不可少的装置。 For the rotating blowout preventor 10, mounted on a conventional wellhead 11, the annulus can be sealed on the one hand, reverse circulation drilling need help seal ring when empty; on the other hand, in the circulation gas into positive drilling time, rotating blowout preventor 10 is indispensable apparatus. 高压反循环排砂软管19与耐冲蚀鹅颈管18通过由壬连接,且压力级别不应低于35MPa,长度也应当根据井架高度合理选择。 Reverse circulation high pressure discharge hose 19 and sand erosion resistant gooseneck 18 by a union connection and the pressure level of not less than 35MPa, the length should be reasonably selected according to the height of the derrick. 地面反循环排砂管线20压力级别也不能低于35MPa,且远端与正循环气体钻井排砂管线23并在一根排砂通道上,一同接出至沉砂池。 Ground line 20 reverse circulation of sand discharge pressure level not less than 35MPa, the recycle gas and the distal end to the positive line 23 and drilling sand discharge in a discharge passage of sand, grit chamber to take out together. 正循环气体钻井排砂管线23的压力级别不低于7MPa,通常为10"管线。 Positive pressure circulation gas drilling level sand discharge line 23 is not less than 7MPa, usually 10 "line.

[0026] 全井段自吸式反循环气体钻井的实施过程如下:关闭D、B、F阀门,打开A、C、E阀门。 [0026] Whole Well Self-priming gas reverse circulation drilling embodiment as follows: off D, B, F valve open A, C, E valves. 压缩气体由注气单元I产生,流经泄压单元2、流量计3、地面注气管汇4、高压注气软管5到达配气接头6。 The compressed gas generated by the insufflation unit I, flowing through the pressure relief unit 2, flow meters 3, the ground sinks injection tube 4, a high-pressure gas injection valve 5 to the hose joint 6. 在配气接头6的作用下,压缩气体进入到双壁钻具(双壁方钻杆8、双壁钻杆13、双壁钻铤)的内、外管环状间隙中并顺着环状间隙下行,通过环形止回阀15后到达气体反循环破岩工具16处。 The valve under the action of the joint 6, the compressed gas into the double-walled drill (8 double-walled drill pipe, drill pipe 13 double-walled, double-walled drill collar), the outer tube and the annular gap along the annular downlink gap, through the check valve 15 to the annular gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16 at. 在气体反循环破岩工具16的破岩、自密封环空、反循环排砂三大作用下,压缩气体携带岩肩顺着双壁钻具内管的中心排砂通道上返,经过水龙头(或顶驱)17、耐冲蚀鹅颈管18、高压反循环排砂软管19、地面反循环排砂管线20、取样短节21和降尘水短节22,最终排至沉砂池。 In the gas reverse circulation rock breaking rock-breaking tool 16, the self-sealing annulus, three reverse circulation of sand under the action of the discharge, the compressed gas carrying the rock shoulder along the center of the inner double wall drill pipe back to the sand discharge passage, through the faucet ( or top drive) 17, anti-erosion gooseneck 18, a high pressure reverse circulation of sand discharge hose 19, the ground reverse circulation of sand discharge line 20, a sampling nipple 21 and the nipple 22 water dust, grit chamber to a final discharge.

[0027] 当井下出现复杂,需要用正循环气体钻井处理复杂或转换为正循环气体钻井工艺实施钻井时:关闭A、D、E阀门,打开B、C、F阀门。 [0027] When the downhole appears complex and requires a well treatment with n-circulating gas is converted to a complex embodiment of drilling or n-circulation gas drilling process: Close A, D, E valve, open B, C, F valves. 注气单元I产生高压气体后,气体经过泄压单元2和流量计3,通过B阀门进入到地面反循环排砂管线20中。 After the gas injection means I generate a high-pressure gas, a gas pressure relief means through the flowmeter 2 and 3, the ground reverse circulation into a sand discharge line 20 through valve B. 压缩气体经过地面反循环排砂管线20、高压反循环排砂软管19、耐冲蚀鹅颈管18、水龙头(或顶驱)17,直接进入到配气接头6、双壁钻具(双壁方钻杆8、双壁钻杆13、双壁钻铤14、气体反循环破岩工具16 )的中心排砂通道中,并顺着中心排砂通道下行至井底,携带井底岩肩沿双壁钻具与井壁之间的环空上返,在旋转防喷器10的作用下,通过阀门F、正循环地面排砂管线23、取样短节21、降尘水短节22,最终排至沉砂池。 After the compressed gas discharging ground sand reverse circulation line 20, a high pressure reverse circulation of sand discharge hose 19, the erosion resistance gooseneck 18, a faucet (or top drive) 17, directly into the valve joint 6, a double-walled drill (bis kelly wall 8, a double-walled drill pipe 13, a double-walled drill collar 14, gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16) in the center of the sand discharge channel, and along the central passage down to the bottom row of sand, rock bottom shoulder carrying between the double wall drill along the back wall on the annulus, under the action of the rotating blowout preventor 10, through valve F, Normal, sand discharge cycle ground line 23, a sampling nipple 21, a short section of water, dust 22, the final row to grit.

[0028]当井下出现复杂,需要用常规泥浆钻井处理复杂或转换为常规泥浆钻井工艺实施钻井时:关闭A、B、E、F阀门,打开D、C阀门。 [0028] When the downhole appears complicated and requires complex drilling muds or treated with a conventional conversion to the practice of the conventional drilling mud drilling process: Close A, B, E, F valve opening D, C of the valve. 来自泥浆栗24的泥浆(或其它钻井液),通过D阀门、C阀门、地面反循环排砂管线20、高压反循环排砂软管19、耐冲蚀鹅颈管18、水龙头(或顶驱)17,直接进入到配气接头6、双壁钻具(双壁方钻杆8、双壁钻杆13、双壁钻铤14、气体反循环破岩工具16 )的中心排砂通道中,并顺着中心排砂通道下行至井底,携带井底岩肩沿双壁钻具与井壁之间的环空上返到井口,由于旋转防喷器10处的F阀门关闭,从井底上返到井口的泥浆将进入节流管汇25,最终回收至泥浆循环系统中。 Li mud from the mud 24 (or other drilling fluid) through valve D, C of the valve, the ground reverse circulation of sand discharge line 20, a high pressure reverse circulation of sand discharge hose 19, the erosion resistance gooseneck 18, a faucet (or top drive ) 17, directly into the valve joint 6, a double-walled drill center (8 double-walled drill pipe, drill pipe 13 double-walled, double-walled drill collar 14, gas reverse circulation rock-breaking tool 16) of the sand discharge passage, and along the central passage down to the bottom row of sand, rock bottom to carry back to the shoulder along the annulus between the wellhead double wall drill the borehole wall, because of the rotary valve F BOP 10 is closed, from the bottom on returning to the mud will enter the wellhead choke manifold 25, the final recycled to the mud circulation system.

Claims (4)

  1. 1.一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构,其特征在于:包括水龙头或顶驱(17)、配气接头(6)、双壁上旋塞(7)、双壁方钻杆(8)、双壁下旋塞(9)、旋转防喷器(10)、套管(12)、双壁钻杆(13)、双壁钻铤(14)、环形止回阀(15)和气体反循环破岩工具(16),其中: 耐冲蚀鹅颈管(18)与水龙头或顶驱(17)连接,高压注气软管(5)与配气接头(6)相连,正循环气体钻井排砂管线(23)与旋转防喷器(10)壳体侧出口连接; 所述水龙头的下端通过螺纹与配气接头(6)连接,配气接头(6)下端通过螺纹与双壁上旋塞(7)连接,双壁上旋塞(7)下方连接双壁方钻杆(8),双壁方钻杆(8)下方连接双壁下旋塞(9)和双壁钻杆(13);或者顶驱下端通过正扣直接连接双壁钻杆(13); 双壁钻杆(13)下方依次连接双壁钻铤(14)、环形止回阀(15)和气体反循环破岩工具(16); 所述套管(12)位于井口(11)下方,井口(11)的上方连接旋转防喷器( A gas reverse circulation drilling assembly structure comprising: a top drive or a faucet (17) with gas connection (6), a double wall plug (7), double-walled kelly (8), the double wall plug (9), rotating blowout preventor (10), the sleeve (12), a double-walled drill pipe (13), a double-walled drill collar (14), an annular valve (15) and a gas reverse circulation break rock tool (16), wherein: the erosion resistance gooseneck (18) and the tap or the top drive (17) connected to a high-pressure gas injection hose (5) and the valve fitting (6) is connected to the positive cycle gas drilling sand discharge line (23) and the rotating blowout preventor (10) connected to the housing-side outlet; lower end of the faucet valve is connected to the connector by a screw (6) with gas fitting (6) and the lower end of the double wall by a threaded plug (7 ) is connected, double wall plug (7) connected to the lower double-walled kelly (8), a double-walled kelly (8) is connected below the lower double wall plug (9) and double wall drill pipe (13); or the top drive positive snap connection directly to the lower end of the double wall drill pipe (13); double wall drill pipe (13) connected in sequence below the double-walled drill collar (14), an annular valve (15) and a gas reverse circulation rock breaking tool (16); said sleeve (12) is located in the wellhead (11), above and below the wellhead (11) connected to the rotating blowout preventor ( 1 ),旋转防喷器(10)上端连接双壁下旋塞(9)。 1), rotating blowout preventer (10) connected to the upper end of the double wall plug (9).
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构,其特征在于:所述井口(11)的一侧设有节流管汇(25)。 The circulating gas of said an anti claimed in claim 1, the drilling assembly configuration, wherein: one side of the wellhead (11) is provided with a choke manifold (25).
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构,其特征在于:正循环气体钻井排砂管线(23)通过阀门F与旋转防喷器(10)壳体侧出口连接。 3. an anti-circulation gas drilling assembly structure according to claim 1, wherein: the positive cycle gas drilling sand discharge line (23) connected to the housing through the outlet side of the rotary valve F blowout preventer (10) .
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的一种反循环气体钻井钻具组合结构,其特征在于:所述的高压是指不低于21 MPa的压强。 The circulating gas of said an anti claimed in claim 1, the drilling assembly configuration, wherein: said high pressure means a pressure not lower than 21 MPa.
CN 201510653001 2015-10-10 2015-10-10 Reverse circulation gas drilling tool combination structure CN105134114A (en)

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