CN105004620A - High-frequency fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensation method - Google Patents

High-frequency fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensation method Download PDF

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CN105004620A
CN105004620A CN201510419945.1A CN201510419945A CN105004620A CN 105004620 A CN105004620 A CN 105004620A CN 201510419945 A CN201510419945 A CN 201510419945A CN 105004620 A CN105004620 A CN 105004620A
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dynamic load
testing machine
calibrating sensors
error
sensor
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CN105004620B (en
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高红俐
郑欢斌
姜伟
刘辉
朱亚伦
张兆年
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浙江工业大学
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Abstract

A high-frequency fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensation method includes the following steps: 1) establishing a three-freedom-degree vibration mechanical model having the system with damping, and analyzing relevant factors affecting a dynamic load error; 2) determining a key factor affecting the dynamic load error; 3) making a pasted strain piece of a middle section of a calibration rod into a calibration sensor, and calculating the stiffness by using a finite element method; 4) taking a calibration sensor with known stiffness, fixing the upper end to a testing machine, allowing the lower end to press a standard force sensor, applying a static load, and calibrating by the standard force sensor; 5) calculating the difference between the amplitude of the calibration sensor and the amplitude of the force measuring sensor, and recording the corresponding calibration sensor stiffness; 6) changing the calibration sensors with different stiffness, repeating the step 4) and the step 5), and thus obtaining a relation curve of the error and the sensor stiffness; and 7) carrying out error compensation on a corresponding dynamic load measurement value by the calculated error value. The measuring accuracy of the fatigue testing machine dynamic load is effectively improved.

Description

A kind of dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine

Technical field

The present invention relates to error compensation field, particularly a kind of error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load.

Background technology

Fatigue tester is as the standard device of torture test, and whether its performance quality, directly affects accuracy and the reliability of fatigue test results, and dynamic load error during fatigue tester test is a very important technical indicator.At present, dynamic load for HF fatigue testing machine verifies, most employing static demarcating method, it under quiescent conditions, sensor can obtain higher precision in verification, but in dynamic testing process, due to the inertial force that upper fixture and flange quality produce, can make force cell measured value and the true stress value of test specimen unequal, cause larger measuring error.

In order to improve fatigue tester dynamic force calibration accuracy, some scholars, based on the analysis of fatigue tester mechanical model, draw the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, carry out dynamic load error compensation by it.But institute's Modling model have ignored the impact of damping.As everyone knows, in frequency of operation and the approximately equalised region of system frequency, the amplitude of system obviously reduces along with the increase of damping, and damping to the inhibiting effect of amplitude clearly.Electromagnetic resonance HF fatigue testing machine, under it is operated in resonance state, namely the excited frequency of vibrator is close to the natural frequency of system, when setting up its mechanical model, if do not consider the impact of damping, much larger times of amplitude ratio exciting force amplitude during system resonance, or even infinitely great, obviously this does not tally with the actual situation.And this vibration mechanical model gets through simplification, based on the dynamic load theory of errors expression formula that vibration mechanical model draws, have very large error, dynamic load error compensation effect is poor.

Summary of the invention

In order to overcome existing fatigue tester static demarcating method and the compensation method of dynamic load theory of errors expression formula to the deficiency of dynamic load error compensation weak effect, the invention provides a kind of error compensation respond well, effectively improve the HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method of fatigue tester dynamic load measuring accuracy.

The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:

A kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method, comprises the following steps:

1) structure analysis is carried out to the vibrational system of HF fatigue testing machine, set up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model with damping, solve its differential equation of motion, obtain the displacement expression formula of each mass of vibration block of this system, by to force cell and the truly stressed analysis of test specimen, obtain the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, thus the correlative factor of analyzing influence dynamic load error;

2) according to HF fatigue testing machine real work situation, the key factor affecting dynamic load error is determined;

3) process the calibration rod that a series of rigidity is different, paste foil gauge at the interlude of calibration rod and make calibrating sensors, and calculate its rigidity by Finite Element Method;

4) get the calibrating sensors that a rigidity is known, upper end is fixed on testing machine, lower side pressure one proof force sensor, applies static load, demarcates respectively with proof force sensor to force cell and calibrating sensors;

5) after demarcation terminates, unload the proof force sensor be pressed in below, the lower end of calibrating sensors is also fixed on testing machine simultaneously, open fatigue tester and carry out torture test, extract the amplitude of calibrating sensors and force cell, namely both differences are dynamic load measuring error, and the calibrating sensors rigidity that record is corresponding;

6) change the calibrating sensors of different-stiffness, repeat step 4) to 5), record the dynamic load error that each calibrating sensors rigidity is corresponding, draw the relation curve of error and sensor rigidity;

7) the dynamic load error amount calculated is compensated on corresponding dynamic load measured value, the dynamic load after being compensated.

Further, described step 2) in, according to the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, affect dynamic load error because have specimen stiffness, force cell rigidity and upper fixture flange quality etc.In fatigue crack propagation test, force cell rigidity and upper fixture flange quality can not change substantially, and specimen stiffness can constantly be expanded along with crackle and change, therefore determine that specimen stiffness is the key factor affecting dynamic load error.

Further again, described step 3) its shape of alignment rod is cylindrical, sticks four tearing strain sheets at the interlude of cylindrical calibration rod and connects into full-bridge circuit, to eliminate the error that temperature factor causes.

Further, described step 4) in the scaling method step of force cell and calibrating sensors as follows:

(4.1) be arranged on fatigue tester by calibrating sensors, the center line that testing machine is exerted a force and the center line of calibrating sensors coincide, and can not change the position of calibrating sensors in the process applying different loads;

(4.2) better for the transducer range center section linearity, initial part and the slightly poor situation of decline linear degree, adopt the method for sectional linear fitting, by 0-20KN, 0-50KN, 0-100KN tri-ranges are divided into 12 sections, and center section is evenly got a little, and initial part and decline get a comparatively dense.

(4.3) respectively calibrating sensors is applied to the static load of step (4.2) one of them range described, read pressure value accurately from standard pressure transducer, then read the magnitude of voltage corresponding to force cell and calibrating sensors.Namely set up the corresponding relation of two sensor voltage and pressure respectively, and data are stored.

(4.4) being calculated slope and the intercept of calibration curve by linear interpolation algorithm segmentation, and these two groups of data are stored, in order to using in measuring process, namely completing the static demarcating process to force cell and calibrating sensors.

(4.5) repeat step (4.3) to (4.4), complete the static demarcating of all the other two ranges.

Described step 5) in, through demarcating, the voltage signal of two sensor outputs is all converted to load signal.The load value that calibrating sensors exports is the true suffered load value of test specimen, force cell output loads value is dynamic load measured value, both are amplitude, phase place difference, the sinusoidal signal that frequency is identical, described error compensation, both are become the sinusoidal signal that amplitude is identical, frequency is identical, both numerical value of phase differential on dynamic load error does not affect.

Described step 5) in, use the application software based on Labview platform to extract the amplitude of calibrating sensors and force cell.

Beneficial effect of the present invention is mainly manifested in: set up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model of vibrational system with damping, determine the theoretical expression of comparatively accurate dynamic load error, fully analyze the impact of each factor on dynamic load error, according to actual condition, determine that specimen stiffness is the principal element affecting dynamic load error, by calculating the actual error between the cylindrical calibration sensor of different-stiffness and force cell, compensate the dynamic load error of HF fatigue testing machine, effectively improve the measuring accuracy of fatigue tester dynamic load.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is a kind of basic procedure schematic diagram of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method.

Fig. 2 is electromagnetic resonance fatigue tester (PLG-100) structural drawing in a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method, wherein, 1 represents force snesor, 2 represent lower clamp, and 3 represent worktable, and 4 represent magnet coil, 5 represent exciting vibration spring, 6 represent direct current generator and gear train, and 7 represent ball-screw, and 8 represent damping spring, 9 represent upper fixture, 10 represent CT test specimen, and 11 represent electromagnet armature, and 12 represent main vibration spring, 13 represent Balance Iron, 14 represent moving beam, and 15 represent guide upright post, 16 representational framework open frames.

Fig. 3 is the vibration mechanical model of system in a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method.

Fig. 4 is the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model figure of the band damping in a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method.

Fig. 5 is the paste position figure of resistance strain gage on a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment rod.

Fig. 6 is resistance strain gauge bridge connection layout on a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment rod.

Fig. 7 is a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment sensor mounting location schematic diagram, and wherein 17 represent frame, and 18 represent force cell, 19 represent upper fixture and flange, 20 represent calibrating sensors, and 21 represent proof force sensor, and 22 represent lower clamp.

Fig. 8 is the graph of relation of a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment sensor rigidity and error.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.

With reference to Fig. 1 ~ Fig. 8, a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method, comprises the following steps:

1) structure analysis is carried out to the vibrational system of HF fatigue testing machine, set up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model with damping, solve its differential equation of motion, obtain the displacement expression formula of each mass of vibration block of this system.By to force cell and the truly stressed analysis of test specimen, the theoretical expression of dynamic load error can be obtained, thus the correlative factor of analyzing influence dynamic load error;

2) according to HF fatigue testing machine real work situation, the key factor affecting dynamic load error is determined;

3) process the calibration rod that a series of rigidity is different, paste foil gauge at the interlude of calibration rod and make calibrating sensors, and calculate its rigidity by Finite Element Method;

4) get the calibrating sensors that a rigidity is known, upper end is fixed on testing machine, lower side pressure one proof force sensor, applies static load, demarcates respectively with proof force sensor to force cell and calibrating sensors;

5) after demarcation terminates, unload the proof force sensor be pressed in below, the lower end of calibrating sensors is also fixed on testing machine simultaneously, open fatigue tester and carry out torture test, extract the amplitude of calibrating sensors and force cell, namely both differences are dynamic load measuring error, and the calibrating sensors rigidity that record is corresponding;

6) change the calibrating sensors of different-stiffness, repeat step 4) to 5), record the dynamic load error that each calibrating sensors rigidity is corresponding, draw the relation curve of error and sensor rigidity;

7) the dynamic load error amount calculated is compensated on corresponding dynamic load measured value, obtain dynamic load comparatively accurately.

Be described for electromagnetic resonance HF fatigue testing machine PLG-100, the dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine, comprises the following steps:

1) first the structure of the electromagnetic resonance fatigue tester shown in Fig. 2 is analyzed.Servomotor, turbine and worm gear train m 6with moving beam m 4by guide upright post and type rack m 5be connected, frame is by four damping spring k 5be connected with the earth.Balance Iron and magnet coil are by exciting vibration spring k 3be connected with worktable, electromagnet armature, lower clamp and worktable are by main vibration spring k 4be connected with moving beam.Upper fixture and flange m 1by force snesor k 1be connected with frame, test specimen k 2be connected with lower clamp with upper fixture respectively by pin.Main quality and the exciting quality of shaking is the key factor affecting main frame resonance performance, and wherein master shakes quality m 2comprise the quality of flange on electromagnet armature, worktable and worktable and lower clamp, exciting quality m 3comprise Balance Iron and magnet coil.By connection and the interaction of each mechanical part of Study system, establish system vibration mechanical model, result consults Fig. 3.Due to the quality m of support 4, m 5and m 6the master being far longer than system shakes quality m 2with exciting quality m 3, and the rigidity of damping spring is far smaller than the rigidity of other spring of system, therefore system can be reduced to the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model with damping, and result consults Fig. 4.C in figure 1, c 2, c 3, c 4for system damping coefficient.For being positive dirction under this model orientation, according to Newton second law and Three Degree Of Freedom quality---spring system free vibration model is set up Equation of Motion and is:

Wherein F e=F 0sinwt, F 0for electro-magnetic exciting force amplitude, ω is electro-magnetic exciting force frequency.

The steady state solution of this vibration equation is made to be:

By displacement x in formula (2) 1, x 2, x 3and their single order, second derivative substitute in formula (1), arrange (3) through abbreviation:

For making formula (3) identical, the coefficient of sinwt and coswt must be zero, then build following system of equations (4):

According to system of equations (4), can in the hope of six unknown number A 1s, A 1c, A 2s, A 2c, A 3sand A 3c.At this moment, upper fixture and flange displacement x 1, main mass (worktable) displacement x of shaking 2with exciting mass displacement x 3can be expressed as:

In formula, A 1, A 2, A 3with be respectively fixture and flange, the main mass that shakes,

The amplitude of exciting mass and phase angle.

In process of the test, the true stress value of test specimen is:

And force cell indicating value is:

F pass=k 1x 1(9)

When fatigue tester is in dynamic load duty, due to upper fixture and flange mass m 1the existence of inertial force, the power that test specimen is actual to be subject to and the indicating value of fatigue tester force snesor unequal, the dynamic force error expression between fatigue tester force snesor and test specimen can be calculated as follows:

Formula (5) is substituted into formula (10), arranges also abbreviation and can obtain the time dependent expression formula of load error.This dynamic load error delta and force cell rigidity k 1, specimen stiffness k 2, exciting vibration spring rigidity k 3, main vibration spring rigidity k 4, upper fixture and flange quality m 1, the main quality m that shakes 2, exciting quality m 3relevant and excited frequency ω is relevant.

2) in fatigue crack propagation test, the quality of force cell rigidity, exciting vibration spring rigidity, main vibration spring rigidity, upper fixture and flange, main quality and the exciting quality of shaking change hardly, along with the expansion of specimen crack length, specimen stiffness also can change thereupon, thus cause excited frequency also to change, therefore can determine that specimen stiffness is the key factor affecting dynamic load error.

3) process the cylindrical calibration rod that a series of rigidity is different in advance, make their rigidity different by the difference of its material, be used for the imitation specimen situation that rigidity is different when producing the crackle of different length.Stick four tearing strain sheets (with reference to Fig. 4) at the interlude of calibration rod, and connect into full-bridge circuit (with reference to Fig. 5), be made into calibrating sensors, adopt the method for ANSYS finite element analysis, calculate the rigidity value of each calibrating sensors.

4) get the calibrating sensors that a rigidity is known, shown in Fig. 6, calibrating sensors upper end is fixed on testing machine, lower side pressure one proof force sensor, apply static load, demarcate force cell and calibrating sensors respectively with proof force sensor, demarcating steps is specific as follows:

(4.1) be arranged on fatigue tester by calibrating sensors, the center line that testing machine is exerted a force and the center line of calibrating sensors coincide, and can not change the position of calibrating sensors in the process applying different loads

(4.2) input/output relation of sensor is ideally straight line, but in practical situations both, the sensor center section linearity is better, initial part and decline linear degree slightly poor, therefore adopt the method for sectional linear fitting, by 0-20KN, 0-50KN, 0-100KN tri-ranges are divided into 12 sections, and center section is evenly got a little, and initial part and decline get a comparatively dense.

(4.3) respectively calibrating sensors is applied to the static load of step (4.2) one of them range described, read pressure value accurately from standard pressure transducer, then read the magnitude of voltage corresponding to force cell and calibrating sensors.Namely set up the corresponding relation of two sensor voltage and pressure respectively, and data are stored.

(4.4) being calculated slope and the intercept of calibration curve by linear interpolation algorithm segmentation, and these two groups of data are stored, in order to using in measuring process, namely completing the static demarcating process to force cell and calibrating sensors.

(4.5) repeat step (4.3) to (4.4), complete the static demarcating of all the other two ranges.

5), after demarcation terminates, carry out dynamic load error measure experiment, concrete steps are as follows:

(5.1) unload the proof force sensor be pressed in below, between upper lower clamp calibrating sensors known for a rigidity being fixed on fatigue tester, the two paths of signals that force cell and calibrating sensors export is accessed computing machine.

(5.2) load certain static load and dynamic load, start torture test.The voltage signal of force cell and calibrating sensors is converted to load signal by demarcating module, load on calibrating sensors is the true dynamic load value of test specimen, force cell display load is dynamic load measured value, both are amplitude, phase place difference, the sinusoidal signal that frequency is identical, both are become the sinusoidal signal that amplitude is identical, frequency is identical by described error compensation, and both numerical value of phase differential on dynamic load error does not affect.Therefore both amplitudes are subtracted each other, calculate the dynamic load error under this specimen stiffness.

(5.3) specimen stiffness and dynamic load error is recorded.

(5.4) change the calibrating sensors of different-stiffness, repeat step (5.1) to (5.3), record the dynamic error value that the calibrating sensors of different-stiffness is corresponding, concrete data are with reference to table 1.According to table 1 data, the graph of relation of calibrating sensors rigidity and error can be drawn, with reference to Fig. 8.

Table 1

6) according to the relation curve of calibrating sensors rigidity and dynamic load error, the experiment of dynamic load error compensation is carried out.Concrete steps are as follows:

(6.1) test specimen is installed on fatigue tester on request, starts to carry out torture test.

(6.2) measured value and the waveform thereof of dynamic load is demonstrated.

(6.3) learn according to fatigue crack on-line detecting system the crack length that test specimen is present, and obtain the rigidity of test specimen according to the relation of crack length and specimen stiffness, specimen stiffness is inputted, the error amount of present dynamic load can be calculated.

(6.4) error amount calculated is compensated on the measured value of dynamic load, the dynamic load value after can being compensated.

Finally illustrate, above embodiment is only for patent spirit of the present invention explanation for example.Patent person of ordinary skill in the field of the present invention can make various amendment or supplements or adopt similar method to substitute to described specific embodiment, but can't depart from the spirit of patent of the present invention or surmount the scope that appended claims defines.

Claims (6)

1. a HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
1) structure analysis is carried out to the vibrational system of HF fatigue testing machine, set up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model with damping, solve its differential equation of motion, obtain the displacement expression formula of each mass of vibration block of this system, by to force cell and the truly stressed analysis of test specimen, obtain the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, thus the correlative factor of analyzing influence dynamic load error;
2) according to HF fatigue testing machine real work situation, the key factor affecting dynamic load error is determined;
3) process the calibration rod that a series of rigidity is different, paste foil gauge at the interlude of calibration rod and make calibrating sensors, and calculate its rigidity by Finite Element Method;
4) get the calibrating sensors that a rigidity is known, upper end is fixed on testing machine, lower side pressure one proof force sensor, applies static load, demarcates respectively with proof force sensor to force cell and calibrating sensors;
5) after demarcation terminates, unload the proof force sensor be pressed in below, the lower end of calibrating sensors is also fixed on testing machine simultaneously, open fatigue tester and carry out torture test, extract the amplitude of calibrating sensors and force cell, namely both differences are dynamic load measuring error, and the calibrating sensors rigidity that record is corresponding;
6) change the calibrating sensors of different-stiffness, repeat step 4) to 5), record the dynamic load error that each calibrating sensors rigidity is corresponding, draw the relation curve of error and sensor rigidity;
7) the dynamic load error amount calculated is compensated on corresponding dynamic load measured value, the dynamic load after being compensated.
2. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described step 2) in, according to the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, the factor affecting dynamic load error comprises specimen stiffness, force cell rigidity and upper fixture flange quality; In fatigue crack propagation test, force cell rigidity and upper fixture flange quality can not change, and specimen stiffness can constantly be expanded along with crackle and change, therefore determine that specimen stiffness is the key factor affecting dynamic load error.
3. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: in described step 3), the shape of described calibration rod is cylindrical, sticks four tearing strain sheets and connect into full-bridge circuit at the interlude of cylindrical calibration rod.
4. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: in described step 4), the scaling method step of force cell and calibrating sensors is as follows:
(4.1) be arranged on fatigue tester by calibrating sensors, the center line that testing machine is exerted a force and the center line of calibrating sensors coincide, and can not change the position of calibrating sensors in the process applying different loads;
(4.2) better for the transducer range center section linearity, initial part and the slightly poor situation of decline linear degree, adopt the method for sectional linear fitting, by 0-20KN, 0-50KN, 0-100KN tri-ranges, center section is evenly got a little, and initial part and decline get a comparatively dense;
(4.3) respectively calibrating sensors is applied to the static load of step (4.2) one of them range described, pressure value is accurately read from standard pressure transducer, read the magnitude of voltage corresponding to force cell and calibrating sensors again, namely set up the corresponding relation of two sensor voltage and pressure respectively, and data are stored;
(4.4) calculated slope and the intercept of calibration curve by linear interpolation algorithm segmentation, and these two groups of data stored, namely complete the static demarcating process to force cell and calibrating sensors;
(4.5) repeat step (4.3) to (4.4), complete the static demarcating of all the other two ranges.
5. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: in described step 5), through demarcating, the voltage signal of two sensor outputs is all converted to load signal, the load value that calibrating sensors exports is the true suffered load value of test specimen, force cell output loads value is dynamic load measured value, and both are the different and sinusoidal signal that frequency is identical of amplitude, phase place.
6. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, is characterized in that: in described step 5), uses the application software based on Labview platform to extract the amplitude of calibrating sensors and force cell.
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CN106873638A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-20 南通大学 Double testing head Automatic Alignment System based on laser displacement sensor
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CN106353179A (en) * 2016-09-28 2017-01-25 北京强度环境研究所 Resonant three-point-bending high-temperature fatigue testing machine
CN106873638A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-20 南通大学 Double testing head Automatic Alignment System based on laser displacement sensor
CN106873638B (en) * 2017-02-17 2020-11-10 南通大学 Double-measuring-head automatic alignment system based on laser displacement sensor
CN108031642A (en) * 2017-12-03 2018-05-15 北京航空航天大学 A kind of more excitation systems and its power output adjusting method for modal test
CN108760545A (en) * 2018-07-12 2018-11-06 浙江工业大学 A kind of resonant mode fatigue tester average load loading error compensation method
CN108827804A (en) * 2018-07-12 2018-11-16 浙江工业大学 A kind of resonant mode fatigue tester dynamic load error online compensation method
CN108627333A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-10-09 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 Fatigue test electromagnetic exciting loading device
CN108663208A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-10-16 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 Fatigue test dynamic load loading device
CN108844736A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-11-20 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 dynamic load loading control system
CN108844737A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-11-20 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 Screw element Fatigue Testing Loads loading device
CN108918140A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-11-30 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 Dynamic load loads anti-deviation device
CN108918138A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-11-30 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 dynamic load loading device with frequency modulation function
CN108918139A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-11-30 中国人民解放军陆军装甲兵学院 Dynamic load loading device with safety protection function

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