CN105004620B - A kind of dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine - Google Patents

A kind of dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine Download PDF

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CN105004620B
CN105004620B CN201510419945.1A CN201510419945A CN105004620B CN 105004620 B CN105004620 B CN 105004620B CN 201510419945 A CN201510419945 A CN 201510419945A CN 105004620 B CN105004620 B CN 105004620B
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dynamic load
calibration
sensor
calibration sensor
rigidity
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CN105004620A (en
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高红俐
郑欢斌
姜伟
刘辉
朱亚伦
张兆年
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浙江工业大学
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Abstract

A kind of dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine, comprises the following steps:1) Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model of the system with damping, the correlative factor of analyzing influence dynamic load error are set up;2) key factor of influence dynamic load error is determined;3) interlude for calibrating rod is pasted into foil gauge and calibration sensor is made, its rigidity is calculated with finite element method;4) calibration sensor known to a rigidity is taken, upper end is fixed on testing machine, and the lower standard force snesor of side pressure one applies static load, demarcated with standard force snesor;5) difference of the amplitude of calibration sensor and force cell is calculated, and records corresponding calibration sensor rigidity;6) calibration sensor of different-stiffness, repeat step 4 are changed) to the relation curve for 5), drawing error and sensor rigidity;7) counted error amount is used tricks to corresponding dynamic load measured value progress error compensation.The present invention is effectively improved the measurement accuracy of fatigue tester dynamic load.

Description

A kind of dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine

Technical field

The present invention relates to error compensation field, more particularly to a kind of error compensation side of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load Method.

Background technology

Fatigue tester is as the standard device of fatigue test, and whether fine or not its performance is, directly affects fatigue test knot The accuracy and reliability of fruit, dynamic load error when fatigue tester is tested is a critically important technical indicator.At present, For HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load verification, mostly using static demarcating method, it under quiescent conditions, sensor exists Higher precision can be obtained in verification, but in dynamic testing process, due to the inertia force that upper fixture and flange quality are produced, Force cell measured value and the true stress value of test specimen can be made unequal, larger measurement error is caused.

In order to improve fatigue tester dynamic force calibration accuracy, point of some scholars based on fatigue tester mechanical model Analysis, draws the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, and dynamic load error compensation is carried out by it.But, set up model and ignore The influence of damping.It is well known that in working frequency and the approximately equalised region of system frequency, the amplitude of system with The increase of damping is obviously reduced, and damps to the inhibitory action of amplitude clearly.Electromagnetic resonance HF fatigue testing machine, its work Make under resonance state, i.e. the excited frequency of vibrator is close to the intrinsic frequency of system, when setting up its mechanical model, if not Consider the influence of damping, amplitude ratio exciting force amplitude during system resonance is many times greater, it is even infinitely great, it is clear that this is not inconsistent simultaneously Close actual conditions.Moreover, the vibration mechanical model is simplified and got, the dynamic load drawn based on vibration mechanical model Error theory expression formula, with very big error, dynamic load error compensation effect is poor.

The content of the invention

In order to overcome existing fatigue tester static demarcating method and dynamic load error theory expression formula compensation method pair The deficiency of dynamic load error compensation effect difference, works well the invention provides a kind of error compensation, effectively improves tired examination Test the HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method of motor-driven state load measurement precision.

The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:

A kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method, comprises the following steps:

1) vibrational system to HF fatigue testing machine carries out structural analysis, sets up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration force with damping Model is learned, its differential equation of motion is solved, the displacement expression formula of each mass of vibration block of the system is obtained, by force cell With the analysis of the true stress of test specimen, the theoretical expression of dynamic load error is obtained, so that analyzing influence dynamic load error Correlative factor;

2) according to HF fatigue testing machine real work situation, it is determined that the key factor of influence dynamic load error;

3) a series of different calibration rod of rigidity is processed, pasting foil gauge in the interlude of calibration rod is made calibration sensing Device, and calculate with finite element method its rigidity;

4) calibration sensor known to a rigidity is taken, upper end is fixed on testing machine, and the lower standard force snesor of side pressure one applies Static load, is demarcated to force cell and calibration sensor respectively with standard force snesor;

5) after demarcation terminates, unload and be pressed in following standard force snesor, while the lower end of calibration sensor is also fixed On testing machine, open fatigue tester and carry out fatigue test, extract the amplitude of calibration sensor and force cell, both it Difference is dynamic load measurement error, and records corresponding calibration sensor rigidity;

6) calibration sensor of different-stiffness, repeat step 4 are changed) to 5), recording each calibration sensor rigidity pair The dynamic load error answered, draws the relation curve of error and sensor rigidity;

7) the dynamic load error amount calculated is compensated onto corresponding dynamic load measured value, it is dynamic after being compensated State load.

Further, the step 2) in, it can be seen from the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, influence dynamic load error Factor have specimen stiffness, force cell rigidity and upper fixture flange quality etc..In fatigue crack propagation test, dynamometry is passed Sensor rigidity and upper fixture flange quality will not change substantially, and specimen stiffness can become as crackle constantly extends Change, therefore determine key factor of the specimen stiffness for influence dynamic load error.

Further, the step 3) alignment rod its be shaped as cylinder, sticked in the interlude of cylindrical calibration rod Four tensile strain pieces simultaneously connect into full-bridge circuit, to eliminate error caused by temperature factor.

Further, the step 4) in force cell and calibration sensor scaling method step it is as follows:

(4.1) calibration sensor is arranged on fatigue tester, makes center line and calibration sensor that testing machine exerts a force Center line coincide, and apply different loads during can not change the position of calibration sensor;

(4.2) for the transducer range center section linearity preferably, initial part and decline linear degree are slightly worse Situation, using the method for sectional linear fitting, by 0-20KN, 0-50KN, tri- ranges of 0-100KN are divided into 12 sections, pars intermedia Divide and uniformly take a little, initial part and decline take a comparatively dense.

(4.3) static load of step (4.2) described one of range is applied to calibration sensor respectively, from standard pressure Accurate pressure value is read on force snesor, then reads force cell and the magnitude of voltage corresponding to calibration sensor.Divide The corresponding relation of two sensor voltages and pressure is not set up, and data are stored.

(4.4) slope and intercept for calculating calibration curve are segmented by linear interpolation algorithm, and this two groups of data are carried out Storage, in case being used in measurement process, that is, completes the static demarcating process to force cell and calibration sensor.

(4.5) repeat step (4.3) to (4.4), complete the static demarcating of other two range.

The step 5) in, by demarcation, the voltage signal of two sensor outputs is converted into load signal.Calibration is passed The load value of sensor output is the true suffered load value of test specimen, and force cell output loads value is dynamic load measured value, Both are amplitude, phase is different, frequency identical sinusoidal signal, described error compensation, and both are changed into amplitude is identical, frequency Identical sinusoidal signal, both phase differences do not influence on the numerical value of dynamic load error.

The step 5) in, extract calibration sensor and force cell with the application software based on Labview platforms Amplitude.

Beneficial effects of the present invention are mainly manifested in:Set up Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanics mould of the vibrational system with damping Type, it is determined that the theoretical expression of more accurate dynamic load error, fully analyzes each factor to dynamic load error Influence, according to actual condition, determines principal element of the specimen stiffness for influence dynamic load error, by calculating different-stiffness Actual error between cylindrical calibration sensor and force cell, to compensate the dynamic load mistake of HF fatigue testing machine Difference, effectively improves the measurement accuracy of fatigue tester dynamic load.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is a kind of basic procedure schematic diagram of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method.

Fig. 2 is the electromagnetic resonance fatigue tester in a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method (PLG-100) structure chart, wherein, 1 represents force snesor, and 2 represent lower clamp, and 3 represent workbench, and 4 represent electromagnet coil, 5 Exciting vibration spring is represented, 6 represent direct current generator and transmission mechanism, and 7 represent ball-screw, and 8 represent damping spring, and 9 represent upper fixture, 10 represent CT test specimens, and 11 represent electromagnet armature, and 12 represent main vibration spring, and 13 represent Balance Iron, and 14 represent moving beam, and 15 represent Guide upright post, 16 representational framework open frames.

Fig. 3 is a kind of vibration mechanical model of system in HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method.

Fig. 4 is a kind of Three Degree Of Freedom vibration force of the band damping in HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method Learn illustraton of model.

Fig. 5 is a kind of stickup of resistance strain gage on HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment rod The location drawing.

Fig. 6 is that resistance strain gage electric bridge connects on a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment rod Map interlinking.

Fig. 7 is a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment sensor mounting location signal Figure, wherein 17 represent frame, 18 represent force cell, and 19 represent upper fixture and flange, and 20 represent calibration sensor, and 21 represent Standard force snesor, 22 represent lower clamp.

Fig. 8 is the pass of a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method alignment sensor rigidity and error It is curve map.

Embodiment

The invention will be further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

A kind of 1~Fig. 8 of reference picture, HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method comprises the following steps:

1) vibrational system to HF fatigue testing machine carries out structural analysis, sets up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration force with damping Model is learned, its differential equation of motion is solved, obtains the displacement expression formula of each mass of vibration block of the system.By to force cell With the analysis of the true stress of test specimen, the theoretical expression of dynamic load error is can obtain, so that analyzing influence dynamic load error Correlative factor;

2) according to HF fatigue testing machine real work situation, it is determined that the key factor of influence dynamic load error;

3) a series of different calibration rod of rigidity is processed, pasting foil gauge in the interlude of calibration rod is made calibration sensing Device, and calculate with finite element method its rigidity;

4) calibration sensor known to a rigidity is taken, upper end is fixed on testing machine, and the lower standard force snesor of side pressure one applies Static load, is demarcated to force cell and calibration sensor respectively with standard force snesor;

5) after demarcation terminates, unload and be pressed in following standard force snesor, while the lower end of calibration sensor is also fixed On testing machine, open fatigue tester and carry out fatigue test, extract the amplitude of calibration sensor and force cell, both it Difference is dynamic load measurement error, and records corresponding calibration sensor rigidity;

6) calibration sensor of different-stiffness, repeat step 4 are changed) to 5), recording each calibration sensor rigidity pair The dynamic load error answered, draws the relation curve of error and sensor rigidity;

7) by the dynamic load error amount calculated compensation to corresponding dynamic load measured value, obtain accurately Dynamic load.

Illustrated by taking electromagnetic resonance HF fatigue testing machine PLG-100 as an example, the dynamic load of HF fatigue testing machine Lotus error compensating method, comprises the following steps:

1) structure first to the electromagnetic resonance fatigue tester shown in Fig. 2 is analyzed.Servomotor, turbine snail Bar transmission mechanism m6With moving beam m4Pass through guide upright post and type rack m5It is connected, frame passes through four damping spring k5 It is connected with the earth.Balance Iron and electromagnet coil pass through exciting vibration spring k3It is connected with workbench, electromagnet armature, lower clamp and work Platform passes through main vibration spring k4It is connected with moving beam.Upper fixture and flange m1Pass through force snesor k1It is connected with frame, test specimen k2It is logical Pin is crossed respectively with upper fixture and lower clamp to be connected.It is main shake quality and exciting quality be influence main frame resonance performance it is key because Element, wherein the main quality m that shakes2Including the flange and the quality of lower clamp on electromagnet armature, workbench and workbench, exciting quality m3Including Balance Iron and electromagnet coil.By studying the connection and interaction of each mechanical part of system, system is established Vibration mechanical model, as a result refering to Fig. 3.Due to the quality m of support4、m5And m6The master for being far longer than system shakes quality m2With swash Quality of shaking m3, and the rigidity of the other springs of the rigidity of damping spring far smaller than system, therefore system can be reduced to carry The Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanical model of damping, as a result refering to Fig. 4.C in figure1, c2, c3, c4For system damping coefficient.For this mould It is positive direction that type orientation is lower, according to Newton's second law and Three Degree Of Freedom quality --- spring system free vibration model sets up system System the equation of motion be:

Wherein Fe=F0Sinwt, F0For electro-magnetic exciting force amplitude, ω is electro-magnetic exciting force frequency.

The steady state solution for making the vibration equation is:

By displacement x in formula (2)1, x2, x3And they single order, second dervative substitute into formula (1), arranged (3) through abbreviation:

To make formula (3) identical, sinwt and coswt coefficient must be zero, then build below equation group (4):

, can be in the hope of six unknown number A according to equation group (4)1s、A1c、A2s、A2c、A3sAnd A3c.At this moment, upper fixture and method Blue displacement x1, main mass (workbench) displacement x of shaking2With exciting mass displacement x3It can be expressed as:

In formula, A1, A2, A3WithRespectively upper fixture and flange, lead the mass that shakes,

The amplitude and phase angle of exciting mass.

In process of the test, the true stress value of test specimen is:

And force cell indicating value is:

FPass=k1x1 (9)

When fatigue tester is in dynamic load working condition, due to upper fixture and flange mass m1The presence of inertia force, examination The actual power being subject to of part and the indicating value of fatigue tester force snesor are unequal, between fatigue tester force snesor and test specimen Dynamic force error expression can be calculated as follows:

Formula (5) is substituted into formula (10), arranges and abbreviation can obtain the expression formula that load error is changed over time.The dynamic load Error delta and force cell rigidity k1, specimen stiffness k2, exciting vibration spring rigidity k3, main vibration spring rigidity k4, upper fixture and flange Quality m1, the main quality m that shakes2, exciting quality m3Relevant and excited frequency ω is relevant.

2) in fatigue crack propagation test, force cell rigidity, exciting vibration spring rigidity, main vibration spring rigidity, upper folder Tool and the quality of flange, lead and shake quality and exciting quality is hardly to change, with the extension of specimen crack length, test specimen Rigidity can also change therewith, so as to cause excited frequency also to change, therefore can determine that specimen stiffness is influence dynamic The key factor of load error.

3) a series of different cylindrical calibration rod of rigidity is processed in advance, and their rigidity is made by the difference of its material It is different, rigidity different situation when producing the crackle of different length for imitation specimen.Sticked in the interlude of calibration rod Four tensile strain pieces (reference picture 4), and full-bridge circuit (reference picture 5) is connected into, calibration sensor is made into, is had using ANSYS The method of finite element analysis, calculates the rigidity value of each calibration sensor.

4) calibration sensor known to a rigidity is taken, according to shown in Fig. 6, calibration sensor upper end is fixed on testing machine On, the lower standard force snesor of side pressure one applies static load, force cell and calibration sensor is entered respectively with standard force snesor Rower is determined, and demarcating steps are specific as follows:

(4.1) calibration sensor is arranged on fatigue tester, makes center line and calibration sensor that testing machine exerts a force Center line coincide, and apply different loads during can not change the position of calibration sensor

(4.2) input/output relation of sensor is ideally straight line, but in practical situations both, sensor Preferably, initial part and decline linear degree are slightly worse for the center section linearity, therefore the method for using sectional linear fitting, will Tri- ranges of 0-20KN, 0-50KN, 0-100KN are divided into 12 sections, and center section uniformly takes a little, and initial part and decline take a little Comparatively dense.

(4.3) static load of step (4.2) described one of range is applied to calibration sensor respectively, from standard pressure Accurate pressure value is read on force snesor, then reads force cell and the magnitude of voltage corresponding to calibration sensor.Divide The corresponding relation of two sensor voltages and pressure is not set up, and data are stored.

(4.4) slope and intercept for calculating calibration curve are segmented by linear interpolation algorithm, and this two groups of data are carried out Storage, in case being used in measurement process, that is, completes the static demarcating process to force cell and calibration sensor.

(4.5) repeat step (4.3) to (4.4), complete the static demarcating of other two range.

5) after demarcation terminates, dynamic load error measure experiment is carried out, is comprised the following steps that:

(5.1) unload and be pressed in following standard force snesor, calibration sensor known to a rigidity is fixed on tired examination Between the upper lower clamp for testing machine, the two paths of signals that force cell and calibration sensor are exported accesses computer.

(5.2) certain static load and dynamic load is loaded, starts fatigue test.Force cell and calibration sensor The load that is converted to by demarcating module in load signal, calibration sensor of voltage signal be the true dynamic load of test specimen Value, force cell shows that load is dynamic load measured value, and both are amplitude, phase difference, frequency identical sine letter Number, both are changed into that amplitude is identical, frequency identical sinusoidal signal by described error compensation, and both phase differences are to dynamic The numerical value of state load error does not influence.Therefore subtract each other both amplitudes, calculate the dynamic load error obtained under the specimen stiffness.

(5.3) record specimen stiffness and dynamic load error.

(5.4) calibration sensor of different-stiffness is changed, repeat step (5.1) to (5.3) records the calibration of different-stiffness The corresponding dynamic error value of sensor, specific data are with reference to table 1.According to the data of table 1, it can be deduced that calibration sensor rigidity and mistake The graph of relation of difference, reference picture 8.

Table 1

6) according to the relation curve of calibration sensor rigidity and dynamic load error, dynamic load error compensation is carried out real Test.Comprise the following steps that:

(6.1) test specimen is installed on fatigue tester on request, proceeds by fatigue test.

(6.2) measured value and its waveform of dynamic load are shown.

(6.3) the present crack length of test specimen is learnt according to fatigue crack on-line detecting system, and according to crack length with The relation of specimen stiffness obtains the rigidity of test specimen, and specimen stiffness is inputted, you can calculate the error amount for obtaining present dynamic load.

(6.4) by the error amount calculated compensation to the measured value of dynamic load, you can the dynamic load after being compensated Charge values.

Finally illustrate, above example is only for patent of the present invention spirit explanation for example.Patent of the present invention Person of ordinary skill in the field can make various modifications or supplement to described specific embodiment or use class As method substitute, but spirit without departing from patent of the present invention or surmount scope defined in appended claims.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method, it is characterised in that:Comprise the following steps:
1) vibrational system to HF fatigue testing machine carries out structural analysis, sets up the Three Degree Of Freedom vibration mechanics mould with damping Type, solves its differential equation of motion, the displacement expression formula of each mass of vibration block of the system is obtained, by force cell and examination The analysis of the true stress of part, obtains the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, so that the correlation of analyzing influence dynamic load error Factor;
2) according to HF fatigue testing machine real work situation, it is determined that the key factor of influence dynamic load error;
3) a series of different calibration rod of rigidity is processed, pasting foil gauge in the interlude of calibration rod is made calibration sensor, and Its rigidity is calculated with finite element method;
4) calibration sensor known to a rigidity is taken, upper end is fixed on testing machine, and the lower standard force snesor of side pressure one applies quiet Carry, force cell and calibration sensor are demarcated respectively with standard force snesor;The force cell and calibration are passed The scaling method step of sensor is as follows:
(4.1) calibration sensor is arranged on fatigue tester, made in the center line and calibration sensor that testing machine exerts a force Heart line coincides, and can not change the position of calibration sensor during different loads are applied;
(4.2) for the transducer range center section linearity preferably, initial part and the slightly worse feelings of decline linear degree Condition, using the method for sectional linear fitting, by 0-20KN, 0-50KN, tri- ranges of 0-100KN, center section uniformly takes a little, just Initial portion and decline take a comparatively dense;
(4.3) apply the static load of step (4.2) described one of range to calibration sensor respectively, passed from normal pressure Accurate pressure value is read on sensor, then reads force cell and the magnitude of voltage corresponding to calibration sensor, i.e., is built respectively The corresponding relation of two sensor voltages and pressure is found, and data are stored;
(4.4) slope and intercept for calculating calibration curve are segmented by linear interpolation algorithm, and this two groups of data are stored, Complete the static demarcating process to force cell and calibration sensor;
(4.5) repeat step (4.3) to (4.4), complete the static demarcating of other two range;
5) after demarcation terminates, unload and be pressed in following standard force snesor, while the lower end of calibration sensor is also secured at into examination Test on machine, open fatigue tester and carry out fatigue test, extract the amplitude of calibration sensor and force cell, both differences are It is dynamic load measurement error, and records corresponding calibration sensor rigidity;
6) calibration sensor of different-stiffness, repeat step 4 are changed) to 5), recording, each calibration sensor rigidity is corresponding Dynamic load error, draws the relation curve of error and sensor rigidity;
7) by the dynamic load error amount calculated compensation to corresponding dynamic load measured value, the dynamic after being compensated is carried Lotus.
2. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described Step 2) in, it can be seen from the theoretical expression of dynamic load error, influence dynamic load error factor include specimen stiffness, Force cell rigidity and upper fixture flange quality;In fatigue crack propagation test, force cell rigidity and upper fixture method Blue quality will not change, and specimen stiffness can change as crackle constantly extends, therefore determine that specimen stiffness is shadow The key factor of sound of movement state load error.
3. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: The step 3) in, the calibration rod is shaped as cylinder, in the interlude of cylindrical calibration rod sticks four tensile strain pieces simultaneously Connect into full-bridge circuit.
4. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: The step 5) in, by demarcation, the voltage signal of two sensor outputs is converted into load signal, calibration sensor output Load value be the true suffered load value of test specimen, force cell output loads value is dynamic load measured value, and both is shake Width, phase difference and frequency identical sinusoidal signal.
5. a kind of HF fatigue testing machine dynamic load error compensating method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: The step 5) in, the amplitude of calibration sensor and force cell is extracted with the application software based on Labview platforms.
CN201510419945.1A 2015-07-16 2015-07-16 A kind of dynamic load error compensating method of HF fatigue testing machine CN105004620B (en)

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