CN104891916B - Gypsum compositions, building block and the high-strength anticracking gypsum lath of steel frame and light - Google Patents

Gypsum compositions, building block and the high-strength anticracking gypsum lath of steel frame and light Download PDF

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CN104891916B
CN104891916B CN201410076379.4A CN201410076379A CN104891916B CN 104891916 B CN104891916 B CN 104891916B CN 201410076379 A CN201410076379 A CN 201410076379A CN 104891916 B CN104891916 B CN 104891916B
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steel
steel skeleton
skeleton
doorframe
main frame
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CN104891916A (en
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邓菊初
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Hubei Shiyu New Building Materials Co ltd
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Dongyang Tianyang Architectural Engineering Design Co Ltd
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Abstract

Disclose a kind of gypsum compositions, pass through the molding building block of pouring gypsum composition in a mold and hardening institute, with by the pouring gypsum composition in the mold for being fitted into the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton with steel wire or glass fiber mesh and harden molding steel skeleton steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum sheet material, especially plank.The gypsum compositions include:Semi-hydrated gypsum, portland cement, flyash, elastomer powder, water-reducing agent, foaming agent and water.The composition may also include SILICA FUME, pulverized slag and/or grain slag powder and antifreeze.The dosage of water should make the wet density of slurry material within the scope of 1.4-1.85 tons/cubic meter.The solid steel skeleton is the steel skeleton of hexahedron, can also be the profiled piece of the part with window frame or doorframe or with window frame or doorframe.

Description

Gypsum compositions, building block and the high-strength anticracking gypsum lath of steel frame and light
Technical field
The present invention relates to gypsum compositions, building block and steel skeleton steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum Plate more particularly to steel skeleton steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum lath.
Background technology
At present in China's materials for wall, tradition wall material is still occupied an leading position, and there are industrial structure backwardness, production energy Consumption is high, pollutes the problems such as environment.In recent years, although there are some insulation blocks, heat-insulating property is not ideal enough, and according to building The characteristics of building material can't reduce material in lightweight, intensity and the side such as easy for construction while providing material heat-insulating property The performance and index in face, since the performances such as wall thermal insulating and its intensity, lightweight are often conflicting, this is to wall thermal insulating material The development of material proposes larger challenge.
The Chinese patent application CN102432262A of the present inventor discloses a kind of Lightweight high-strength composite block, it is used The flyash and 0.1-1.5 of the building gypsum plaster of 10-80 parts by weight, the portland cement of 10-30 parts by weight, 10-40 parts by weight The borax of parts by weight uses 500-1100 kilograms of raw material in every cubic metre of volume, water is added to stir into as primary raw material Slurry stops adding water when slurry reaches 1600-1650kg/ cubic metres.Then, since the loss only by water (is inhaled Receive or maintenance processes in evaporation) form micro-bubble gap so that the dry density for being formed by finished product building block can only be low To 1100kg/m3If further reducing dry density by adding water, find the intensity of building block, water resistance, anti-freezing property, The performances such as softening resistant performance are remarkably decreased, because cement, especially land plaster are all the substances very sensitive to the additive amount of water.
The Chinese patent application 201310524565.5 (CN103553532A) of the present inventor disclose a kind of composite base from Insulation blocks, it is stirred by following components, moulding by casting make its harden and it is molding:240-500 parts of semi-hydrated gypsum;Silicon 80-200 parts of acid salt cement;160-300 parts of flyash;SM8-16 parts of high efficiency water reducing agent;0.5-1.6 parts of foaming agent.However, when logical Moulding by casting is crossed and when hardening forms building block, especially when forming large-scale building block such as plank or large-scale wall plank or large-scale vertical When cube material, from hardening demould after building block according to cast when vertical cross-section on examine, from top to bottom, bubble it is big It is small to be gradually reduced and the density (or quantity) of bubble tapers into (i.e. the distribution density of bubble becomes smaller) in unit volume, into one Step leads to the density difference on the different directions of building block and performance difference.Especially when manufacture cast height big building block or plank When, relying on the effect such as surface tension of foaming agent can not overcome gravity defoaming to act on.
Various gypsum laths is disclosed in the prior art, they generally have the following advantages:In factory's shaping and drying, arrive It building site can fast rapid-result wall after lifting is installed;In process of factory production, can rapid shaping, flash baking, yield is big, is easy to Formation scale;Plaster strip wooden partition is thin, can save wall spatial area, and raising house is practical to utilize area;Gypsum lath have every The multiple functions such as sound, fire prevention can preferably meet wall functional requirement;Gypsum lath has from respiratory function, is a kind of ecology The walling of type;And gypsum lath can be cut, can dig, punch not fragmentation, suitability for secondary processing is superior;
Gypsum lath in the prior art also has many defects, including:Untreated gypsum lath is not water-fast, meets When being impregnated to water, easily feel like jelly, it is fugitive;Intensity is not high, and common intensity only has 2-3.5Mpa, and few is more than the high-strength stone of 3.5Mpa Cream plate;Gypsum lath on the market is hollow bare board, the cracky in carrying, hoisting process;The biggest problems are that:It is all Batten(Either cement plate, plasterboard or other plates), it is easy to crack at temperature and pressure effect, to influence its entrance Market.
Invention content
The object of the present invention is to provide:A kind of gypsum compositions;Gypsum mechanograph, such as building block, especially composite base self-insurance Warm building block and steel skeleton steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking plasterboard more particularly to steel skeleton steel wire (or Glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum lath;And their preparation method.The present invention can improve heat insulation building block Heat-insulating property, guarantee are laid bricks intensity, water-fast, and freeze proof impermeability is good and light-weight, the gas in all directions of building block or plank The Density Distribution uniform in size and bubble of bubble or abscess is uniform.
The present inventor by a large amount of experiment, attempted a large amount of inorganic raw material for example kaolin, bentonite, sepiolite, Float stone, perlite etc. carry out formula design, overcome still unsatisfactoryly in the patent that the present inventor had previously applied The defect (i.e. the non-uniformity problem of bubble or the non-uniformity problem of density) of disclosed building block product.Then it attempts to use Organic material to seek to break through, as a result surprisingly, it is found that, by the disclosed concrete material before the present inventor Elastomer powder or elastomer particles (or, rubber powder or rubber grain) is further used to be used as additive or auxiliary agent, not only significantly The uniformity of the uniform in size and distribution density of bubble or abscess in building block is improved, and improves the even density of bubble Property, collapse is significantly reduced, the inner skeleton structure of building block is changed, same intensity is being realized compared with disclosed building block before this In the case of further mitigate weight (density of building block) or realized under same building block weight (density of building block) higher Intensity, in addition, further improving heat-insulating property and anti-freezing property.At the same time, other performance such as water resistance or anti-is not influenced Softening performance.Adding elastomer powder or in the case of rubber powder, or even foaming agent is not added can obtain high intensity and matter yet Light building block (or laying bricks).It is further preferred that in formula further addition selected from inorganic short fiber reinforced material and organic As filler or additive, rubber powder is combined short fiber reinforced material in short fiber reinforced material with reinforcing fiber, can Intensity is not only improved, but also the proportion or density (or making dry density) of mechanograph (such as building block or plank) can be further improved Uniformity;Organic flock is especially added in formula, further mitigates quality, improves the effect of the uniformity of mechanograph Fruit can be more preferable.
According to the first embodiment of the present invention, a kind of gypsum compositions for building (A) are provided, it includes with the following group Point:
Semi-hydrated gypsum:210-580 parts by weight, preferably 250-540 part, more preferable 270-510 parts by weight;
Portland cement:75-280 parts by weight, preferably 100-250 part, more preferable 120-230 parts by weight;
Flyash:80-380 parts by weight, 110-360 parts by weight, preferably 130-340 part, more preferable 150-320 parts by weight, More preferable 170-300 parts by weight;
Elastomer powder:5-100 parts by weight, preferably 7-90 parts by weight, more preferable 10-80 parts by weight, further preferred 12- 70 parts by weight, still further preferred 15-60 parts by weight, more preferable 20-50 parts by weight;
Water-reducing agent:
1.5-40 parts by weight, preferably 4-30 parts by weight, more preferable 6-20 parts by weight, more preferable 8-16 parts by weight
Foaming agent:
0 parts by weight or 0.1-30 parts by weight, preferably 0.25-28 parts by weight, preferably 0.4-22 parts by weight, more preferable 0.45- 12 parts by weight, further preferred 0.5-7 parts by weight, still further preferably 0.55-6 parts by weight, preferably 0.60-4 parts by weight are more excellent 0.65-3.0 parts by weight are selected, it is 0.7-1.8 parts more preferable;With
Water:In right amount
Wherein (i.e. described is appropriate, such as 750-1300 parts by weight, such as 850-1200 parts by weight or 900- for the dosage of water 1100 parts by weight) the above above-mentioned raw materials component in addition to water should be made to be formed by mixture (i.e. concrete, or slurry with water Material) wet density within the scope of 1.4-1.85 tons/cubic meter, preferably within the scope of 1.5-1.75 tons/cubic meter, preferably exist Within the scope of 1.55-1.70 tons/cubic meter, preferably within the scope of 1.6-1.65 tons/cubic meter.
Preferably, above-mentioned composition further includes:
Short fiber reinforced material 10-200 parts by weight, preferably 30-170 parts by weight, further preferred 50-150 parts by weight, into The preferred 60-130 parts by weight of one step, more preferable 70-110 parts by weight, still more preferable 80-100 parts by weight.
Here the average length of short fiber reinforced material is 100um (micron) -5.0mm, preferably 150um-4.0mm, more It is preferred that 200um-3.0mm, still further 250um-2.0mm, more preferable 300um-1.5mm, still more preferable 350um- 1.0mm, more preferable 400um-800um.
Staple fiber plays a part of cloth muscle and reduces micro-crack.Generally, short fiber reinforced material is selected from inorganic staple fiber Reinforcing material and organic short fiber reinforcing material.From mitigate quality and improve mechanograph so-called uniformity consider, it is preferable to use Organic short fiber reinforcing material.Preferably, organic short fiber reinforcing material is selected from plant fiber or synthetic polymer staple fiber. Wherein, plant fiber is selected from lignocellulosic, wood powder, flaxen fiber (powder), palm fibre (powder) or other similar plant fibers. The synthetic polymer staple fiber is selected from polyamide, polyester etc., more preferably using the polyamides of the waste of polymeric fiber of recycling such as recycling Amine or polyester.These staple fibers have average length defined above.
It is further preferred that above-mentioned composition further includes:
SILICA FUME 10-300 parts by weight, preferably 20-250 parts by weight, further preferred 30-200 parts by weight, further preferably 35-150 parts by weight, more preferable 40-120 parts by weight, still more preferable 50-80 parts by weight.
It is further preferred that above-mentioned composition further includes:
Antifreezing agent 1-100 parts by weight, preferably 3-80 parts by weight, more preferable 5-60 parts by weight, further preferred 7-50 weight Part, it is still preferred that 8-40 parts by weight, most preferably 9-20 parts by weight, still further preferably 8-12 parts.
The average particle size that the elastomer powder or elastomer particles (or, rubber powder or rubber grain) used in application has For:1.25um to 600um, preferably 1.5um to 550um, preferably 5um to 500um, further preferred 8um to 450um, more preferably 12um to 420um, still more preferable 15um to 400um, preferably 20um to 380um, particularly preferred 25um to 350um, more preferably 30um to 320um, more preferable 40um to 280um, more preferable 50um to 250um, such as 100um, 150um, 200um.
Above-mentioned composition can be used to form gypsum mechanograph (B):Such as gypsum block or lay bricks, as composite base self-heat conserving is built Block is laid bricks;Or such as gypsum sheet material, such as steel skeleton steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum lath.The stone Cream mechanograph (such as building block lay bricks or plank) be after being mixed by the composition pour into a mould and harden and it is molding.More It says to body, it is to be poured into a mould and hardened after being mixed with water by the raw material components in composition in addition to water and molding.Usually Cast and hardening in mold (or mould tire).The mechanograph (such as building block) be rendered as cuboid, the square bodily form, cylindrical, (it includes tri-prismoid, four prisms cylinder, pentagonal prism body, hexagonal prism, seven prisms, eight prisms, nine prisms to the prism bodily form Body, ten prisms, etc.).The mechanograph can also be rendered as the form of plank, such as rectangular item is presented in two principal planes The square plank of square is presented in plank or two principal planes.Both planks are also referred to as the building block of broad sense.Size is less Building block can be rendered as the form of laying bricks, and larger-size building block can be rendered as broad form.
Therefore, according to the second embodiment of the present invention, a kind of building block (B) is provided, such as gypsum block or is laid bricks, such as Composite base heat insulation building block is laid bricks;The building block is cast (such as pouring into a mould in a mold) after being mixed by above-mentioned composition With hardening and it is molding.More specifically, which is that the above-mentioned raw materials component by water with more than in addition to water is mixed It is molding with being then poured into mold and hardening.
In the present invention, the wet density (i.e. the ratio of mud) for limiting mixture (or concrete) is in order to ensure taking into account molding The Lightness and high intensity of product.By exploring, the rational ratio of mud requires the wet density of each cubic meter of concrete in 1.4- Within the scope of 1.85 tons/cubic metre.Excessive water is added, and mechanograph (such as building block) intensity will be made to significantly reduce, and very few water is added, Mechanograph can not ensure Lightness requirement.
" elastomer " is used interchangeably with " rubber " in this application.
There is no particular/special requirement, elastomer described here for the type of elastomer powder or rubber powder used herein It is the upperseat concept of rubber.That is, should " elastomer " refer to synthesis rubber (such as butadiene rubber, isoprene rubber, EP rubbers, butyl rubber etc.), synthetic elastomer (such as polyurethane elastomer) or natural rubber and its mixture.From cost Consider, it is preferred that elastomer powder selects the particulate matter or powder of scrap rubber or useless elastomer.For example, rubber powder is from waste and old wheel The scrap rubber of tire is process.Alternatively, rubber powder from rubber or tyre production leftover pieces or waste material prepare.Or rubber powder It is process from the scrap rubber of waste and old daily necessities.
In general, in the said combination composition formula of the present invention, be more than when the additive amount of elastomer powder or rubber powder or When equal to 10 parts by weight, foaming agent can be added or not add even, and when the additive amount of elastomer powder or rubber powder is in 5-10 weights When measuring within the scope of part, it is necessary to add foaming agent and can be only achieved ideal Lightness wanted with what ideal intensity was taken into account simultaneously It asks, preferably adds the foaming agent of 0.25-28 parts by weight.In addition, when addition more than or equal to 5 parts by weight elastomer powder or When rubber powder, preferable antifreezing effect can be also obtained in the case where not adding antifreezing agent, and works as elastomer powder or rubber powder Additive amount be greater than or equal to 10 parts by weight when, ideal antifreezing effect can be obtained in the case where not adding antifreezing agent.Such as Fruit needs, and can not only reduce the dosage of foaming agent by adding elastomer powder or rubber powder, therefore reduce foaming agent for mould The influence of certain performances of product (such as building block), and the dosage of flyash can be reduced, if such as using 1 parts by weight elasticity Body powder or rubber powder can then reduce the flyash dosage of (or corresponding to) 5-7 parts by weight (such as 6 parts by weight).
According to the third embodiment the present invention, it provides a kind of from above-mentioned gypsum compositions preparation building block for building (B) method, this method include:The formula of composition according to the invention, by water and other raw material components (examples in addition to water Such as it is added in mixing arrangement or equipment) it is stirred mixing, gained mixture is cast in die for molding and hardens one section It time (such as 2-10 minutes), then demoulds and obtains building block, i.e.,:
In mixing apparatus water (i.e. described is appropriate, such as 750-1300 parts by weight, such as 850-1200 parts by weight, or The water-reducing agent and foaming agent of above-mentioned dosage are added in 900-1100), semi-hydrated gypsum, the silicate of above-mentioned dosage is then added Cement, flyash and elastomer powder, stirring, cast (such as being poured into mold) are molded and make its hardening, then demould, obtain The mechanograph;
Wherein the dosage of water should make above-mentioned raw materials and water be formed by the wet density of mixture 1.4-1.85 ton/stand Within the scope of square rice, preferably within the scope of 1.5-1.75 tons/cubic meter, preferably within the scope of 1.55-1.70 tons/cubic meter, preferably Within the scope of 1.6-1.65 tons/cubic meter.
Preferably, the short fiber reinforced material of above-mentioned dosage is also added before stirring.
In the above-mentioned methods, it is preferred that also add the SILICA FUME of above-mentioned dosage before stirring.
In the above-mentioned methods, it is preferred that also add the antifreezing agent of above-mentioned dosage before stirring.
Preferably, drying or natural curing are further carried out after the hardening, obtain building block of the present invention (B), Such as composite base heat insulation building block.
4th embodiment according to the present invention provides a kind of from above-mentioned gypsum compositions (A) preparation for building Steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C), wherein plank (C) is that rectangular plank is presented in opposite two principal planes (a and b) (such as the high-strength anticracking gypsum lath of steel skeleton steel wire net light or steel skeleton glass fiber mesh high-strength light anticracking plaster strip Plate) or opposite two principal planes (a and b) square plank (such as the high-strength anticracking of steel skeleton steel wire net light of square is presented Gypsum pros plank or steel skeleton glass fiber mesh high-strength light anticracking gypsum pros plank), it is through the following steps that prepare 's:(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold (or mould tire), (2) are each by above-mentioned composition (A) A component is stirred mixing (such as be added in mixer and be stirred mixing), obtains slurry or wet mixture;Then (3) gained slurry or wet mixture are poured into above-mentioned mold and allow slurry hardening a period of time (such as 2-10 minutes or 3-6 Minute or 3-5 minutes), it then demoulds, obtains steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C) product.
5th embodiment according to the present invention provides a kind of from above-mentioned gypsum compositions (A) preparation for building The method of steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C), wherein plank (C) are that rectangular item is presented in opposite two principal planes (a and b) Plank (such as the high-strength anticracking gypsum lath of steel skeleton steel wire net light or steel skeleton glass fiber mesh high-strength light anticracking gypsum Batten) or opposite two principal planes (a and b) the square plank of square is presented (such as steel skeleton steel wire net light is high-strength anti- Split gypsum pros plank or steel skeleton glass fiber mesh high-strength light anticracking gypsum pros plank), this method includes following step Suddenly:(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold (or mould tire), (2) are by each of above-mentioned composition Component, which is added in mixer, to be stirred, and slurry or wet mixture are obtained;(3) gained slurry or wet mixture are poured into It placed in the above-mentioned mold of steel skeleton and allow slurry hardening a period of time (such as 2-10 minutes or 3-6 minutes or 3-5 minutes), (4) it demoulds, obtains steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C) product.
When the addition elastomer powder (or rubber powder) in composition (A) and short fiber reinforced material, molding can be improved The intensity of product, while by elastomer powder (or rubber powder) relaxation plank internal stress being conducive to that plate surface generation is avoided to split Line.
6th embodiment according to the present invention provides the reinforcing bar prepared from a kind of gypsum compositions for building (A ') Frame plaster mold panel (C '), the composition (A ') include:
Semi-hydrated gypsum 210-580 parts by weight, preferably 250-540 parts, more preferable 270-510 parts by weight;
Portland cement 75-280 parts by weight, preferably 100-250 parts, more preferable 120-230 parts by weight;
Flyash 110-380 parts by weight, preferably 150-340 parts, more preferable 170-320 parts by weight;
Water-reducing agent
1.5-40 parts by weight, preferably 4-30 parts by weight, more preferable 6-20 parts by weight, more preferable 8-16 parts by weight
Foaming agent
0.25-28 parts by weight, preferably 0.4-22 parts by weight, more preferable 0.45-12 parts by weight, further preferred 0.5-7 weights Amount part, still further preferably 0.55-6 parts by weight, preferably 0.60-4 parts by weight, more preferable 0.65-3.0 parts by weight, more preferably 0.7-1.8 parts;With
Water:In right amount
The dosage (i.e. described is appropriate, such as 750-1200 parts by weight, such as 850-1000 parts by weight) of wherein water should make It obtains the above above-mentioned raw materials component in addition to water and is formed by the wet density of mixture (i.e. concrete or slurry) in 1.4- with water Within the scope of 1.85 tons/cubic metre, preferably within the scope of 1.5-1.75 tons/cubic meter, preferably in 1.55-1.70 tons/cubic meter model In enclosing, preferably within the scope of 1.6-1.65 tons/cubic meter;
Wherein plank (C ') is that rectangular plank (such as steel skeleton steel wire is presented in opposite two principal planes (a and b) Net (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum lath) or opposite two principal planes (a and b) presentation squares are just Square plate material, it through the following steps that prepare:(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold (or mould Tire) in, each component of above-mentioned composition (A ') is added in mixer by (2) to be stirred, and slurry or wet mixture are obtained; (3) gained slurry or wet mixture are poured into above-mentioned mold and allow slurry hardening a period of time (such as 2-10 minutes or 3-6 Minute or 3-5 minutes), and (4) demoulding, obtain steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C ') product.
Preferably, above-mentioned composition (A ') further includes:
Above-described short fiber reinforced material:10-200 parts by weight, preferably 30-170 parts by weight, further preferred 50- 150 parts by weight, further preferred 60-130 parts by weight, more preferable 70-110 parts by weight, still more preferable 80-100 parts by weight.
When the addition short fiber reinforced material in composition (A '), the intensity of plank (C ') can be improved, while one Determine to advantageously reduce the crackle on the surface plank (C ') in degree.Staple fiber plays a part of cloth muscle and reduces micro-crack.
Preferably, the composition (A ') further includes:SILICA FUME 10-300 parts by weight, preferably 20-250 parts by weight, into one Walk preferred 30-200 parts by weight, further preferred 35-150 parts by weight, more preferable 40-120 parts by weight, still more preferable 50-80 Parts by weight.
Preferably, the composition (A ') further includes:Antifreezing agent 1-100 parts by weight, preferably 3-80 parts by weight, more preferable 5- 60 parts by weight, further preferred 7-50 parts by weight, it is still preferred that 8-40 parts by weight, most preferably 9-20 parts by weight, further excellent Select 8-12 parts.
The inventors discovered that among the composite formula range of the present invention, mechanograph (such as building block or plank) is being improved Intensity and water resistance, anti-freezing property, softening resistant performance etc., the dosage of the SILICA FUME of a parts by weight be equivalent to 4-6 weights Measure the dosage of the portland cement of part (such as about 5 parts by weight).
There is no particular/special requirement, the prior art for the antifreezing agent used in all embodiments of above and below in the present invention The middle antifreezing agent used is used equally in the present invention.Such as it is divided into freezing point reduction type and surfactant type, Hunan pioneer's building materials The XF types antifreezing agent (tripartite confrontation board) of Co., Ltd's production, the model of Shandong Province Accessories during Binzhou Bincheng District Xin Yuan Chemical Co., Ltd.s production For the antifreezing agent of SC_2008AR or PG-Z type early strength antifreezing agents.The K-15 types of Beijing Huaqian New Technology Co., Ltd.'s production are prevented Freeze agent (magnificent thousand boards).
The present inventor only adds foaming agent on the basis of CN102432262A and generates a large amount of bubble in building block, hair The dry density of existing building block can further decrease, and achieve the purpose that quality is lighter, still, intensity, water resistance, the frost resistance of building block The performances such as energy, softening resistant performance are still unsatisfactory.
A kind of building block is disclosed in 201310524565.5 (CN103553532A) of the present inventor, wherein is not made In the case of with borax, specific water-reducing agent and specific foaming agent are used cooperatively, can realize ideal reaction condition, and And lead to the internal structure of mixture and the optimization formed (by obtained after raw material plus water mixing).
Then, the experiment that thousands of times or more are passed through on the basis of CN103553532A, for a large amount of raw material and its use Amount is selected, and elastomer powder or rubber powder are further used, in obtained mechanograph (such as building block) bubble or abscess Evenly, the performance of mechanograph further increases, and especially also adds short fiber reinforced material together for size and density (or quantity), The uniformity for further improving the proportion and density (dry density) of mechanograph, especially when preparing large-sized plank.One Aspect, the wet density that raw material is formed by mixture (i.e. slurry) with water arrive 1600-1650kg/ cubic metres without stringent control, It can further expand, even up to 1.4-1.85 tons/square metre range;On the other hand, mechanograph (refers to:Building block or plank Non-metallic part) dry density (or proportion) 300-1050kg/m can be further reduced to3, it is preferably decreased to 350- 1000kg/m3, more preferably it is reduced to 400-950kg/m3, it is, however, still able to maintain high performance, such as intensity, water resistance, The performances such as anti-freezing property, softening resistant performance are held at ideal level.
The mechanograph obtained by the embodiments above of the present invention (refers to:The non-metallic part of plank) or building block pressure resistance Degree is able to maintain that in 5-20Mpa, preferably 6-18Mpa, preferably 7-16Mpa, more preferable 8-14Mpa, more preferable 9-13Mpa, more excellent Select 10-12Mpa ranges.In addition, the thermal coefficient of mechanograph (such as building block, such as composite base heat insulation building block) is 0.05-0.2 Watt/square metre is spent;Preferably 0.06-0.18 watts/square metre degree, more preferable 0.07-0.16 watts/square metre of degree are more excellent 0.08-0.14 watts/square metre of degree is selected, more preferable 0.085-0.13 watts/square metre is spent, more preferable 0.09-0.12 watts/square Meter Du.The thermal coefficient of mechanograph can be adjusted according to specific needs.
The mechanograph of the present invention (refers to:The non-metallic part of plank) or the proportion of building block be 300-1050kg/m3, preferably 350-1000kg/m3, preferably 400-950kg/m3, more preferable 450-900kg/m3, more preferable 500-850kg/m3, more preferably 550-800kg/m3, further preferred 600-750kg/m3
When preparing steel skeleton steel wire gypsum sheet material (mechanograph), mechanograph of the invention (refers to:The non-metal portion of plank Point) density or dry density can be further decreased, such as in 200-700kg/m3, 300-600kg/m3Or 350-500kg/m3's Range, although compression strength may be decreased to 8-13.0Mpa, 9-12.5Mpa or 10-12.0Mpa, heat-insulating property is but shown It writes and improves, such as thermal coefficient is 0.015-0.09 watts/square metre of degree;Preferably 0.02-0.08 watts/square metre degree, more It is preferred that 0.03-0.075 watts/square metre of degree, more preferable 0.035-0.075 watts/square metre of degree, more preferable 0.04-0.07 watts/ Square metre degree, it is more preferable 0.045-0.065 watts/square metre degree.
In addition, especially also being made together by the way that water-reducing agent and foaming agent to be used cooperatively with elastomer powder in composition (A) With short fiber reinforced material, or even without using antifreeze, mechanograph that the present invention obtains has good freeze proof Performance, wherein frost resistance sufficiently achieve:Can resist 20 more than period freeze thawing, preferably 30 more than the period, more preferably above 40 A period, the further preferred freeze thawing more than 50 periods.If adding antifreeze in the feed, can further increase most The anti-freezing property of finished product building block.
The selection of foaming agent for being used in the above and below embodiment of the present invention is not particularly restricted, It can use and have those of function of foaming or generate foam foaming agent, such as can generally use surfactant or dioxygen Water, which is to be selected from anion surfactant, in cationic surfactant and nonionic surfactant One or two or more.Preferably these surfactants have the function of foaming.As foaming agent, from cost consideration Or consider from cost performance, it is preferable to use anion surfactant, such as lauryl sodium sulfate or neopelex.
Use surfactant or hydrogen peroxide as foaming agent in the raw material of the present invention, they all have the work(to foam Energy.The presence of these foaming agents may change the surface tension of paste-like mixture (or wet mixture), enhance material The ability for shifting (mass transfer) or permeating or spreading each other, allows active material to be filled with the lattice defect in semi-hydrated gypsum or sky Gap excites the reactivity between various raw materials.The wet mixture (slurry material) that the present invention obtains is after cast through too short Short 2-3 minutes achieve that initial solidification, can fully be demoulded by 3-8 minutes or 4-7 minutes.So short solidification when Between so that the invention is particularly suited to large-scale industrial production light gypsum mechanographs, such as building block or such as reinforcing bar Frame steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) high-strength light anticracking gypsum lath or plank.
Selection for the water-reducing agent used in the above and below embodiment of the present invention, can use and be selected from sulfonation Melamine formaldehyde polymer resin type(SM)One or both of water-reducing agent, naphthalene water reducer or polycarboxylate water-reducer or More kinds of (such as three kinds).
Mechanograph of the present invention long-term (such as -5 years 1 month) impregnates not to soften in water.The mechanograph of the present invention Xuan≤0.8 softening system Shuo≤0.7, You.
Preferably, the semi-hydrated gypsum used in the present invention derives from the phosphorus obtained as waste residue when processing phosphorus ore Gypsum or industrial residue-desulfurated plaster of thermal power plant.
In this application, the wet density (i.e. the ratio of mud) for limiting mixture (or concrete), is in order to ensure taking into account lightweight Property and high intensity.By exploring, the rational ratio of mud requires the wet density of each cubic meter of concrete in 1.4-1.85 tons/cube In rice range.Excessive water is added, and block strength will be made to significantly reduce, and very few water is added, and building block can not ensure Lightness want It asks.
In any of the above described technical solution of the application, it is preferred that prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is that appearance profile is presented A kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton of hexahedron, the skeleton have opposite two main planar portions (a ' and b '), the two principal planes Rectangle or square is presented.Any one principal plane be by with four edges rectangular main frame or with the rectangular of four edges What steel framework was constituted.At least one of the two main planar portions (a ' and b ') of steel skeleton (such as a ' and/or b ') is by side The main frame (there is vertical edge S1 and horizontal edge S2) and crosspiece 3 (horizontal bar 3) and/or stud (vertical muscle) of shape and optional diagonal brace 3 (oblique muscle) are constituted, or by rectangular main frame (having vertical edge S1 and horizontal edge S2) and diagonal brace 3 (oblique muscle) and optional cross 3 (horizontal bars) of shelves and/or optional stud 3 (vertical muscle) are constituted, or only (have vertical edge S1 and horizontal edge by rectangular main frame S2 it) forms.Generally, it can be arranged or be not provided with crosspiece (horizontal bar) and/or stud in the non-master surface portion of three-dimensional steel skeleton (vertical muscle) and optional diagonal brace (oblique muscle).
In the context of this application, it is " optional " statement be with or without, indicate carry out or without." main frame " with " steel framework " is used interchangeably.
Preferably, in respectively constitute opposite two main planar portions (a ' and b ') two of prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton Steel wire or glass fibers are laid on the inside of at least one of a main frame (or steel framework) main frame (or steel framework) or inner surface Tie up net.Generally, any one layer of steel wire or glass fiber mesh clamped by one or more pairs of steel clamp bars (3) or clamp, And these clamp bars are welded on the inside or side for the rectangular main frame for constituting steel skeleton principal plane a ' or b ', in addition, steel wire It can also be directly welded on the inside or side of main frame (or steel framework).Generally, as clamp bar (3), using thin round steel Or band steel, it is preferred to use thin round steel (such as diameter 2-4mm).Therefore, by the mould that placed prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton Pouring gypsum composition in tool, is hardened, and demoulding, has obtained steel skeleton steel wire or glass fiber mesh high-strength light anticracking Gypsum sheet material (C) product.Wherein steel wire or glass fiber mesh is embedded in two main surfaces of plank and at least one of works as it It is interior.Clamp bar described here can also be regarded as crosspiece or horizontal bar, or be regarded as diagonal brace or oblique muscle.
In this application, steel wire is not particularly limited, such as 20-100 steel wires can be used, such as 30 Silk, 40,50,60,70 or 80 steel wires are, it is preferable to use 50 and 60 steel wires.
In the steel skeleton of above-described hexahedron, the seamed edge of the hexahedral main frame generally uses angle steel bar Material, round steel web or band steel web.Preferably, which uses angle steel web.
Constitute two main frames of opposite two main planar portions (a ' and b ') each other by it is multiple (such as 4-16, 6-12) connecting component (7) connects.The connecting component (7) can be, such as:A) have with the steel of main frame it is identical or The connection of different size and shape steel (such as angle steel, round steel or piece steel), preferably thinner steel bar, b) timber item or Wooden sheet or b) plastic strip or piece, including engineering plastic material strip or piece.The connection type of connecting component (7) and main frame include but It is not limited to:1) connecting component is inserted in the casing that is welded on main frame (round, square or three is for example presented in casing tube internal hole section It is angular) in, optionally it can also further be reinforced to prevent connecting component from set with screw or tenon or snap close piece or bolt or fastener It is detached from the endoporus of pipe;2) through-hole in connecting component is aligned with the through-hole on main frame, two is fixed using nut and screw Person;3) connection is soldered to the both ends of steel (especially thinner steel bar) on the corresponding position of two main frames respectively.
Under normal circumstances, the difference between combination of the above object (A) and composition (A ') or the main distinction are that the former uses Elastomer powder or rubber powder.
When in two main frames in opposite two main planar portions (a ' and b ') of composition of prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton At least one main frame or steel framework inside or inner surface on be laid with steel wire or when glass fiber mesh, although in the above A kind of gypsum compositions for building (A ') in without using elastomer powder or rubber powder, still, due to from the composition Steel wire or glass fiber mesh are embedded in the main surface of the steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C ') of preparation, which has very Good Anti-cracking effect.Moreover, the intensity of plank is significantly improved.
Length and width of the length of dies cavity with wide size slightly larger than steel skeleton, are advisable with just accommodating steel skeleton.It is preferred that , in molding gypsum sheet material, the main frame of steel skeleton or the four edges of steel framework constitute the four edges of plank.If made Angle steel is used with the main frame of steel skeleton or the four edges of steel framework, then the angle steel of the four edges of main frame or steel framework constitutes plank Four seamed edges or four sides for having corner angle.
The mold or mould tire that use in this application are not required particularly, such as can be bimodulus lobeds, it is such as right Open form.
In the present invention, as three-dimensional steel skeleton, the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton that hexahedron is presented in appearance profile can be commonly used, The skeleton has opposite two main planar portions (a ' and b ').The skeleton is:
1) rectangular three-dimensional steel skeleton is presented in two opposite principal planes.It is used to form plank.Three-dimensional steel skeleton Thickness t=3-40cm, preferably t=3.5-30cm, more preferable 4-20cm, such as 8,12,16cm.The length l=of three-dimensional steel skeleton 0.5-7m, preferably l=1.0-5m, more preferable l=1.5-4m, further preferably=2.5-3.5 meters, it is 2.7-3.0 meters more preferable.It is three-dimensional Width w=0.2-3m of steel skeleton, preferably w=0.3-2.5m, more preferable w=0.4-2.0m, more preferable w=0.45-1.5m, more preferably W=0.5-1.2m, preferably 0.6-1.0m.
2) the three-dimensional steel skeleton of square is presented in two opposite principal planes.It is used to form square plank.Three-dimensional reinforcing bar Thickness t=3-40cm of frame, preferably t=3.5-30cm, more preferable 4-20cm, such as 8,12,16cm.The square of three-dimensional steel skeleton Length of side l=w=0.5-7m of principal plane, preferably l=1.0-5m, more preferable l=1.5-4m, further preferably=2.5-3.5 meters, it is more excellent Select 2.7-3.0 meters.
In the present invention, plank C or C ' has two main surfaces of a and b.The plank is:
C1:Plank
It is investigated from the principal plane of plank, the length l=0.5-7m of plank, preferably l=1.0-5m, more preferable l=1.5- 4m, further preferably=2.5-3.5 meters, it is 2.7-3.0 meters more preferable.Width w=0.2-3m, the preferably w=0.3-2.5m of plank, More preferable w=0.4-2.0m, more preferable w=0.45-1.5m, more preferable w=0.5-1.2m, preferably 0.6-1.0m.Plate thickness (i.e. wall thickness) t=3-40cm, preferably t=3.5-30cm, more preferable 4-20cm, such as 8,12,16cm.
C2:The plank of square is presented in two opposite principal planes
Length of side l=w=0.5-7m of plank principal plane, preferably l=1.0-5m, more preferable l=1.5-4m, further preferably= 2.5-3.5 rice, 2.7-3.0 meters more preferable.Plate thickness (i.e. wall thickness) t=3-40cm, preferably t=3.5-30cm, more preferable 4- 20cm, for example, 8,12,16cm.
In terms of the principal plane of plank mechanograph, the trace of steel wire can be seen or not see, this is embedded depending on steel wire Depth.
When erectting placement, the three-dimensional steel skeleton of a plank mechanograph is used to form with the main frame for including four edges. Can also have horizontal bar and/or vertical muscle, or there is diagonal bar, or there is oblique muscle, these oblique muscle construct diamond shape grid.
In casting and constructing, steel skeleton is positioned in mold.Such as the processing for plank:Steel skeleton is positioned over In mold, wherein vertically, the length and thickness direction of steel skeleton are horizontally oriented the width of steel skeleton.Steel wire Or glass fiber mesh is located within side.Slurry is poured into a mould from the top of mold or from the top of steel skeleton.
In this application, usually releasing agent is coated in mould inner surface before casting.It is de- for what is used in mold Mould agent does not have particular/special requirement, and the releasing agent used in the prior art can be used in the present invention, such as SOFT SOAP releasing agent.
In situations where it is preferred, further including in combination of the above object (A) or composition (A '):
Pulverized slag 20-200 parts by weight, preferably 40-150 parts by weight, more preferable 60-120 parts by weight.
Can also include in combination of the above object (A) or composition (A '):
Grain slag powder 20-200 parts by weight, preferably 40-150 parts by weight, more preferable 60-120 parts by weight.
In situations where it is preferred, the plank of the present invention is that have steel skeleton watch box, there is steel wire (or glass fiber mesh) mask, With a kind of anticracking gypsum sheet material or batten for having appropriate fiber cloth muscle.
7th embodiment according to the present invention provides above-mentioned steel skeleton plaster mold panel (C or C ') as building The purposes of object interior wall or exterior wall.
When the plank of the present invention is used for interior wall or exterior wall, when particularly for exterior wall, which can be made profiled piece.Make For profiled piece, which includes window frame or doorframe, or the part (such as half) including window frame or doorframe or the plank are simultaneously Including window frame and doorframe, or include a part (such as half) and doorframe for window frame simultaneously, or includes window frame and door simultaneously A part (such as half) for frame.The plank of profiled piece form be by placing a kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton in mold, it is then past Above-mentioned gypsum compositions are poured into a mould in mold and are hardened and molding, wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or there is window A part (such as half) for frame or a part (such as half) for doorframe or the solid steel skeleton have window frame and door simultaneously Frame, or there is the part (such as half) and doorframe of window frame simultaneously, or there is the part (such as one including doorframe simultaneously Half) and window frame.When in use, such as in the building course of building, a part for a window frame and the one of another window frame Part constitutes a complete window frame each other by welding;Alternatively, one of a part for a doorframe and another doorframe Divide and constitutes a complete doorframe each other by welding.
When the plank of the present invention is used for exterior wall, two main frames of steel skeleton pass through multiple thinner steel fasteners or wood Material connector or plastic fastening (such as engineering plastics connector) connect.Connection type is as previously discussed.
In this application, " building block " is used interchangeably with " laying bricks "." antifreeze " is used interchangeably with " antifreezing agent ".
Each component has as follows in mechanograph (such as building block, such as composite base heat insulation building block, or such as plank) of the present invention Effect and effect:
1) a variety of powders are compound, are conducive to have complementary advantages.After being converted to dihydrate gypsum after semi-hydrated gypsum chance water, due to lattice Coarse, there are many holes in microstructure, its advantage is that thermal coefficient is low, good heat insulating.But the disadvantage is that water be easy from Molded article surface is penetrated into, and leads to that mechanograph intensity is low, coefficient of softing is low, frost resistance is poor.To improve the intensity of mechanograph and freeze proof Property, portland cement and flyash are added in formula, after above-mentioned substance is added, particle enters gypsum gap, and overall structure is made to become Relatively compact, the water absorption rate decline of mechanograph is obtained, and integral strength improves, and is produced inside mechanograph when intensity resists frost enough When raw swelling stress, mechanograph shows as frost resistance and greatly improves.The proportion of various formulas is controlled, adjusting that can be different is produced The intensity and quality of product.
2) water-reducing agent is added in mixed process, can effectively activate the active matter in cement, flyash and SILICA FUME Matter is conducive to improve its intensity.Water-reducing agent can effectively improve the structure of the formed mechanograph of mixed slurry simultaneously, it is made to become To densification, intensity higher, the amount that water-reducing agent is added is different, and the structure laid bricks also can be different, and intensity changes correspondingly.
3) foaming substance and rubber powder are added in mixed process, mixed slurry can be promoted to be formed a large amount of mutual indepedent Microbubble, function in addition to mitigate mechanograph unit weight other than, also can further improve the heat-insulating property of mechanograph.In existing skill In art, be when conserving dry the evaporation of water by the microscopic bubble gap that occurs.Foaming substance is added, thus it is possible to vary lay bricks Internal structure can preferably achieve the effect that high intensity and light with lesser amount of water, so as to just solve light weight and High intensity this to antagonism.The amount of foaming agent is different, and the bubble laid bricks is also different.
Such as using lauryl sodium sulfate as foaming agent:0.1-30 parts by weight;It is preferred that 0.25-28 parts by weight;Into one Walk preferred 0.3-22 parts by weight;Still further preferably 0.4-16 parts by weight;Still more preferably 0.4-10 parts by weight;Most preferably 0.5-4 parts by weight.If using hydrogen peroxide as foaming agent, during the reaction, the bubble of generation is more uniform, can use more A small amount of water, and the intensity laid bricks can be improved, dosage is:0.1-30 parts by weight, preferably 0.25-28 parts by weight, preferably 0.4-22 parts by weight, more preferable 0.45-12 parts by weight, further preferred 0.5-7 parts by weight, still further preferably 0.55-6 weight Part, preferably 0.60-4 parts by weight, more preferable 0.65-3.0 parts by weight are 0.7-1.8 parts more preferable;
4) it is to ensure that Lightness and high intensity, the rational ratio of mud are most important.In the prior art, excessive water adds Enter, a large amount of foam is will produce during production, while also affecting the proportioning and induration of component, mechanograph will be made Intensity significantly reduces, and very few water is added, and just must be added to the raw material dry powder more crossed, and mechanograph can not ensure Lightness requirement. By exploring, reasonably the ratio of mud requires the wet density of each cubic meter of concrete in 1.4-1.85t, preferably 1.45-1.8t into One step preferred 1.5-1.75t, still further preferably 1.55-1.7t, still more preferably 1.6-1.65t.
5) it is the intensity and frost resistance for improving mechanograph, portland cement and flyash is added in formula, can also be added micro- Silica flour, after above-mentioned substance is added, particle enters gypsum gap, and overall structure is made to become relatively compact, under the water absorption rate of mechanograph Drop, and integral strength improve, when intensity enough resists frost when mechanograph inside generate swelling stress when, and rubber powder with have The addition of machine staple fiber can also eliminate microcosmic internal stress, and mechanograph shows as frost resistance and greatly improves.The addition of SILICA FUME It can be 10-300 parts;It is preferred that 20-250 parts by weight, further preferred 30-200 parts by weight, further preferred 35-150 weight Part, still more preferable 40-80 parts by weight;
6) anti-freezing property that antifreezing agent can preferably improve mechanograph or lay bricks is added in mixed process.Control appropriate The proportion of antifreezing agent processed can improve resistance to frost in the case where not influencing the performance of intensity and lightweight.By exploring, antifreezing agent is added Amount is 1-100 parts by weight;It is preferred that 3-80 parts by weight, more preferable 5-60 parts by weight, further preferred 7-50 parts by weight, it is still preferred that 8-40 parts by weight, most preferably 9-20 parts by weight;
7) elastomer powder or rubber powder are added before various raw materials are stirred, mix, in particular, addition short fiber reinforced Material such as lignocellulosic, the two be combined so that when composition is cast in the vertical direction of mechanograph bubble size Uniformly and the density (quantity) of bubble is also uniform, overcomes slurry bottom defoaming phenomenon when only using foaming agent and significantly lacks It falls into.The anti-freezing property of mechanograph can also be improved by adding elastomer powder or rubber powder in the composition.Staple fiber plays cloth muscle Act on and reduced together with elastomer powder the generation of micro-crack.
8) using in the main frame of at least one of opposite two main frames of two main planar portions (a ' and b ') of composition The prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of steel wire or glass fiber mesh is laid on the inside or inner surface of frame or steel framework, by placed this Any of the above described a kind of composition of cast in the mold of steel skeleton, can prepare plank mechanograph, and the latter has excellent cracking resistance Energy and intensity.Web plays a part of the thick crackle of control.
9) plank of the invention has the characteristics that:
(1) in the corner in six faces of gypsum lath, provided with the steel skeleton being welded into angle steel, which mainly has three Big function:
A) prevent overlapping part from cracking, the overlap joint of conventional gypsum batten overlaps in such a way that birch wedge mutually agrees with, overlapping the slot Binding material is generally completely different with the material of plate, when there is temperature stress, easily cracks along the both sides of overlapping the slot.Steel is arranged to reinforce Afterwards, the connection between two plates be steel skeleton to steel skeleton, after mutually drawing close, only need spot welding.
B) prevent from hanging, transport, fill during collide with caused by unfilled corner lack side, make the forming after wall on batten.
C) certifiable quick for installation, after two plate splits, spot welding can position.
(2) it has been laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh in the inside of steel skeleton, two of gypsum lath can be effectively prevented Interarea cracks.The probability of cracking declines 90% or more.
(3) lignocellulosic is added in formula, increases the suppleness in plate, further reduce batten cracking can It can property.
(4) it uses our company to be used for the above-mentioned gypsum compositions formula of heat insulation building block, can reach:
A) enhanced water resistance(Batten test block can long period of soaking in water dissipate do not feel like jelly, coefficient of softing is up to 80% or more.
B) high epistasis(The compression strength of batten test block is up to 10-12Mpa)
C) Lightness, general control dry density is in 800kg/m3Left and right, that is, 72kg/ ㎡ or so.If it is necessary, also controllable System is in 600kg/m3That is, 54kg/ ㎡ or so.
D) high heat insulating ability, thermal coefficient after testing is in 0.09w/ ㎡ k or so.With good energy-saving effect.
E) solid slab is used, it can be ensured that its soundproof effect is first-class.
F) fire resistance is up to A grades, generally, can adhere at a high temperature of 1200 DEG C 2.5-3 hours.
(5) this product has good suitability for secondary processing(It can cut, can dig, punch not fragmentation).
(6) this product can ensure that house does not damage metope in secondary decoration with preheating embedding line, switch card.
(7) this product absorbs moisture content in dry weather moment releasing moisture content, wet weather, that is, has from work of breathing Can, so for a kind of environmental walling, this lays the first stone to build green, ecology, livable house.
(8) since two interareas of batten or square plank are extremely bright and clean, it can be coloured directly on mounted metope and be Decorative pattern processed, plays decorative effect, simplifies indoor secondary renovation process.
(9) the maximum advantage of this product be can Fast Installation, form the built speed to match with industrialized house.
The present invention prevents simple the defects of gypsum crystallization, structure is made to tend to by the microstructure of improvement mechanograph Densification, meanwhile, and try to allow it there are countless uniform microbubbles, improve its self-heat conserving performance.Seem contradictory two kinds of trend It is unified in a mixture, makes its heat insulating ability, Lightness, frost resistance, fire resistance and compression strength that can control at one In the range of meeting high-quality mechanograph performance indicator, successfully solves fine and close and loose critical point, properties of product is made to have approached It is beautiful.
The preparation method of mechanograph provided by the invention, with chemical gypsums such as trade waste-desulfurated plaster, ardealites or Semi-hydrated gypsum and cement of the natural gypsum after calcining, flyash etc. are raw material, by adding multiple additives, water mixing are added to stir Rear moulding by casting is mixed, sintering, the steam curing process of traditional building block (belonging to mechanograph) are eliminated.(such as lightweight is multiple for mechanograph obtained Close the non-metallic part of base heat insulation building block or above-mentioned gypsum sheet material) light-weight (300-1050kg/m3, preferably 350- 1000kg/m3, preferably 400-950kg/m3, more preferable 450-900kg/m3, more preferable 500-850kg/m3, more preferable 550- 800kg/m3, further preferred 600-750kg/m3), compression strength it is high (in 5-20Mpa, preferably 6-18Mpa, preferably 7-16Mpa, More preferable 8-14Mpa, more preferable 9-13Mpa, more preferable 10-12Mpa ranges.), frost resistance is good(20 periods can be resisted(According to GB/T17671-1999《Cement mortar strength test method (ISO methods)》), preferably 25 periods, further preferred 30 periods, The freeze thawing in still more preferably 40 periods), heat insulation effect is good, and (thermal coefficient is 0.05-0.2 watts/square metre of degree;Preferably 0.06-0.18 watts/square metre of degree, more preferable 0.07-0.16 watts/square metre of degree, more preferable 0.08-0.14 watts/square Meter Du, more preferable 0.085-0.13 watts/square metre of degree, more preferable 0.09-0.12 watts/square metre of degree.), fire resistance rating It is high(A grades), water resistance is strong(Can pass through 1 month, preferably 1 year, further preferred 5 years, still further preferably 10 years, more into one Step preferably 20 years, more preferable 30 years, most preferably 70 years, immersion do not soften in water), and coefficient of softing is high(≤ 0.7, You Xuan≤ 0.8, Jin mono- Xuan≤0.9 step You), thus be a kind of excellent building energy conservation materials for wall.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of the double frame-types used in the embodiment of the present invention 1-25.
Fig. 2 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of the double frame-types used in the embodiment of the present invention 1-25.
Fig. 3 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of the double frame-types used in the embodiment of the present invention 1-25.
Fig. 4 is vertical view (or the top view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of the double frame-types used in the embodiment of the present invention 1-25 Figure) and (when steel skeleton when standing upright).
Fig. 5 is the partial enlarged view of the vertical view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is that there are one the front schematic views of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of main frame (i.e. single main frame type) for tool.
Fig. 7 be tool there are one main frame three-dimensional steel skeleton vertical view (or top view) (when steel skeleton when standing upright).
Fig. 8 is the partial enlarged view of the top view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of Fig. 7.
Fig. 9 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton with window frame.
Figure 10 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of the half with window frame.
Figure 11 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton with doorframe.
Figure 12 is the front schematic view of the three-dimensional steel skeleton of the half with doorframe.
Figure 13 is the vertical view that the only one side used in embodiment 33 has double frame-type solid steel skeletons of steel wire.
Figure 14 is the close-up schematic view of Figure 13.
Reference numeral:
1:Main frame;2:Steel wire, 3 and 3 ' indicate:Clamp bar or crosspiece or diagonal brace for clamped wire net;4:Reinforce Muscle;5:The fixed steel bars of window frame or doorframe;6:The steel wire of steel wire;7:Connecting component;8:Window frame;9:Doorframe;S1:Main frame Long side, S2:The short side of main frame;a':Principal plane, b ':Another principal plane;l:Length;w:Width;t:Thickness.
Specific implementation mode
In the following embodiments, if the wet density for measuring slurry during stirring material is higher, can pass through Increase water to adjust.
The prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton used in embodiment is:(i) there are one rectangular main frame or rectangular steel frameworks for tool Three-dimensional steel skeleton;(ii) profiled piece based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (i), wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or door Frame, or the part or the solid steel skeleton of the part with window frame or doorframe have window frame and doorframe simultaneously, or have simultaneously There are the part and doorframe of window frame, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;(iii) there are two rectangular main frames for tool Or a kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton of rectangular steel framework and appearance profile presentation hexahedron, the steel skeleton are flat with two opposite masters Face part, rectangle or square is presented in the two principal planes, and any one principal plane is by with the rectangular of four edges What main frame or rectangular steel framework with four edges were constituted;Alternatively, (iv) is different based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (iii) Type part, wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or the part or the three-dimensional steel of the part with window frame or doorframe Skeleton has window frame and doorframe simultaneously, or has the part and doorframe of window frame simultaneously, or has one including doorframe simultaneously Point and window frame.
In the above steel skeleton, for the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of (i) or (ii), in main frame or the principal plane one of steel framework Side is laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh;Or, for the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of (iii) or (iv), in prefabricated three-dimensional reinforcing bar One or two of two main frames for respectively constituting two opposite main planar portions of frame or steel framework main frame or steel framework Inside or inner surface on be laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh.
If using angle steel using the main frame of steel skeleton or the four edges of steel framework, the four edges of main frame or steel framework Angle steel constitute plank four seamed edges or four sides for having corner angle.In comparative example 1 and embodiment 1-30, the master of steel skeleton The four edges of frame or steel framework all use angle steel.In embodiment 31, the main frame of steel skeleton or the side of steel framework profiled piece are all adopted Use round steel.In embodiment 32, the main frame of steel skeleton or the side of steel framework profiled piece all use band steel.
Comparative example 1
A) the preparation of building block
Building block is prepared according to the method similar with the embodiment 1 of CN103553532A, the dosage of component changes, in addition not Add antifreezing agent.820kg water is added in agitator, water-reducing agent (SM) 12kg, lauryl sodium sulfate 1.5kg is then added, Then the mixed powder of semi-hydrated gypsum 350kg, Portland cement (425 type) 220kg and flyash 280kg is added.At a high speed Stirring, speed of agitator 400-800rpm.Mixing time 20-30s.Measure slurry material (or concrete) wet density be 1.63 tons/ Cubic meter.Then respectively in two kinds of various sizes of building block moulds that inner surface is coated with SOFT SOAP releasing agent, and inside Surface has had been coated with SOFT SOAP releasing agent and has had been charged into board mould (Double-disc type) (the thickness t=12cm, length l of three-dimensional steel skeleton =3.0 meters, width w=0.6m, wherein vertically, the length and thickness direction of steel skeleton are in water to the width of steel skeleton Square to.The steel skeleton has by rectangular main frame or two opposite principal planes for constituting of rectangular steel framework including four edges. Without arrangement steel wire or glass fibre on steel skeleton.Slurry is poured into a mould from the top for the steel skeleton so placed i.e. width direction) The middle above-mentioned slurry material of cast.Two kinds of building block products and a kind of plate product demould after being separately formed hardening about 6-8min, the first The size of gypsum block is 40cm (width) × 60cm (length) × 14cm (thickness) and the size of second of gypsum block is 50cm (width) The size of × 100cm (length) × 14cm (thickness), gypsum sheet material are 3.0 meters of (length) × 0.6m (width) × 12cm (thickness).It is de- Building block and plank after mould are pushed into low temperature drying room respectively(Temperature is about 60-80 DEG C)Drying obtains building block or plank after 15 hours Finished product is sent into stockyard.Building block or plank after demoulding also can natural curing, curing time 7d or so obtains building block or plate respectively Material finished product.
After maintenance, upper and lower position when being cast according to building block, from the surface portion of the first building block after hardening With the separately sampled 8cm in bottom3Cube is weighed, and the density (i.e. surface layer density) of surface sample is 750kg/m3, bottom sample Density (i.e. bottom density) is 881kg/m3.As it can be seen that the density of upper and lower parts is non-uniform, illustrate at the bottom of when pouring into a mould building block Portion's material has significant defoaming phenomenon, is unevenly distributed above and below bubble in material.
The index of the first building block obtained is:Dry density 817kg/m3, compression strength 11.2Mpa, thermal coefficient 0.11w/ ㎡ DEG C, freeze proof period >=20, A grades of fire resistance rating, coefficient of softing 0.81, water resistance >=10 year can be steeped through the several years Do not soften in water.
The first smaller building block of size, second of gypsum block of large-size and gypsum sheet material place 1 indoors Year undergoes Four seasons change.Then the respective main surface of three is observed with hand magnifier, is found at second There is fine crack in the main surface of building block, apparent crackle is generated on gypsum sheet material, and is not produced in the first building block Raw crackle.This explanation inhomogeneities of cell density in the mechanograph of large-size can cause undergoing one section of longer time Molded article surface cracks after (such as 1 year).This is particularly with larger (the i.e. cast height of area for manufacturing those main surfaces It is larger) mechanograph such as plank be inappropriate.
Embodiment 1
A) gypsum block and the preparation of gypsum sheet material
820kg water is added in agitator, water-reducing agent (SM) 12kg, lauryl sodium sulfate 1.5kg is then added, then Semi-hydrated gypsum 350kg, Portland cement (425 type) 220kg, flyash 280kg and polybutadiene rubber (PBR) powder is added The mixed powder of end (200um average particle sizes) 6Kg.High-speed stirred, speed of agitator 400-800rpm.Mixing time 20-30s.It surveys The wet density for obtaining slurry material (or concrete) is 1.63 tons/cubic metre.Then SOFT SOAP releasing agent is coated in inner surface respectively Building block mould in and had been coated with SOFT SOAP releasing agent in inner surface and have been charged into three-dimensional steel skeleton (thickness t=12cm, it is long L=3.0 meters, width w=0.6m of degree, wherein vertically, the length and thickness direction of steel skeleton are in the width of steel skeleton Horizontal direction, two layers of steel wire (50) are located within two main frames (or steel framework) for constituting two opposite principal planes Side.Steel wire is clamped by two pairs of round steel clamp bar (3), and clamp bar is welded on and constitutes the rectangular of principal plane a ' and/or b ' The inside or side of main frame.From the top for the steel skeleton so placed i.e. width direction pour into a mould slurry) board mould (bivalve Formula) in the above-mentioned slurry material of cast.Demoulded after two kinds of formed products hardening about 6-8min, the size of gypsum block be 40cm (width) × The size of 60cm (length) × 14cm (thickness), gypsum sheet material are 3.0 meters of (length) × 0.6m (width) × 12cm (thickness).After demoulding Building block and plank be pushed into low temperature drying room respectively(Temperature is about 60-80 DEG C)Drying obtained after 15 hours building block or plank at Product are sent into stockyard.Building block or plank after demoulding also can natural curing, curing time 7d or so, acquisition building block or plank finished products.
B) the performance indicator of gypsum block and gypsum sheet material
1) index of building block finished product made from is:Dry density 807kg/m3, compression strength 14.2Mpa, thermal coefficient 0.09w/ ㎡ DEG C, freeze proof period >=25, A grades of fire resistance rating, coefficient of softing 0.83, water resistance >=10 year can be steeped through the several years Do not soften in water.
2) upper and lower position when being cast according to building block or plank, from the surface of building block finished product or plank finished product after hardening With the separately sampled 8cm in bottom3Cube is weighed, and is measured:The density (i.e. surface layer density) of the surface sample of building block is 791kg/m3, The density (i.e. bottom density) of the bottom sample of building block is 820kg/m3;The density (i.e. surface layer density) of the surface sample of plank is 788kg/m3, the density (i.e. bottom density) of the bottom sample of building block is 824kg/m3.As it can be seen that the density of upper and lower parts is to compare Uniformly, illustrate that bottom does not defoam phenomenon significantly when pouring into a mould building block or plank.In embodiment 1, in addition rubber powder In the case of, although not adding antifreezing agent, the resistance to frost of building block or plank is still more satisfactory.
3) finish of plank and aging crackle:Steel wire is embedded within main surface, the main surface of plank finished product Finish is very good;Plank finished product is placed 1 year time indoors, is undergone Four seasons change, is then visually observed the main table of plank Face is observed with hand magnifier, all without finding apparent crackle or cracking.Meanwhile the board samples of another part are in outdoor It is outdoor to place 1 year, Four seasons change is undergone, the main surface of plank is then visually observed or is observed with hand magnifier, all do not sent out Now apparent crackle or cracking.As it can be seen that compared with the gypsum lath of the common cracks of the prior art, this hair of steel wire has been embedded Isotropic disk material significantly reduces the possibility of crackle or cracking.
Embodiment 2
A) gypsum block and the preparation of gypsum sheet material:Embodiment 1 is repeated, only the additive amount of water is 860kg and into one Step also adds the lignocellulosic of 100kg before stirring.The wet density of slurry material (or concrete) is 1.58 tons/cubic metre.
B) the performance indicator of gypsum block and gypsum sheet material
The index of building block finished product obtained is:Dry density 801kg/m3, compression strength 16.3Mpa, thermal coefficient 0.09w/ ㎡ DEG C, freeze proof period >=30, A grades of fire resistance rating, coefficient of softing 0.81, water resistance >=10 year can duck in drink through the several years Do not soften.
Upper and lower position when being cast according to building block or plank, from the surface of building block finished product or plank finished product after hardening and The separately sampled 8cm in bottom3Cube is weighed, and is measured:The density (i.e. surface layer density) of the surface sample of building block is 798kg/m3, build The density (i.e. bottom density) of the bottom sample of block is 812kg/m3;The density (i.e. surface layer density) of the surface sample of plank is 795kg/m3, the density (i.e. bottom density) of the bottom sample of plank is 816kg/m3
Embodiment 3
Embodiment 1 is repeated, only the additive amount of polybutadiene rubber (PBR) powder is 10Kg, and SDS dosages are 0.1Kg.
Embodiment 4
Embodiment 1 is repeated, only the additive amount of polybutadiene rubber (PBR) powder is 20Kg, does not use foaming agent.
Embodiment 5
Embodiment 2 is repeated, only the additive amount of polybutadiene rubber (PBR) powder is 50Kg.
Embodiment 6
Above example 5 is repeated, only two layers of steel wire (50) is substituted by layer glass web.Each layer of glass Web is clamped by three pairs of round steel clamp bar (3), and these clamp bars are welded on the main frame for constituting steel skeleton principal plane The inside of (or steel framework).
The building block of above example and the result of plank are listed in the table below 1.
Table 1:
" NA " expression is not tested.
Embodiment 1 can be seen that the addition of elastomer powder (or rubber powder) can significantly improve mechanograph compared with comparative example 1 Dry density (or cell density) uniformity when it is poured into a mould in vertical direction, to improve performance, such as compression strength, thermal insulation Performance, anti-freezing property.It can be seen that compared with the result of embodiment 1 from embodiment 2, elastomer and short fiber reinforced material are (such as Lignocellulosic) it is combined, capable of further increasing dry density of the mechanograph when it is poured into a mould in vertical direction, (or abscess is close Degree) uniformity, while compression strength, heat-insulating property, anti-freezing property are also further improved, illustrate that the composition is suitble to manufacture to mould Product are especially suitable for manufacturing the mechanograph such as plank of the area larger (i.e. cast height is larger) of those main surfaces.Embodiment 3 and reality It applies example 1 to compare, when the additive amount of elastomer powder reaches 10 parts by weight (10kg), adds minimal amount of foaming agent or do not add even Add surfactant, can also obtain more satisfactory performance, only dry density is little higher.The plank of the present invention is suitable for Interior wall or exterior wall.
Embodiment 7
Embodiment 2 is repeated, only the additive amount of water is 880kg, further adds the SILICA FUME of 50kg.
Embodiment 8
Embodiment 2 is repeated, only the additive amount of water is 870kg, and the dosage of portland cement is 120kg, also in addition addition The SILICA FUME of 50kg and the antifreezing agent (the XF type antifreezing agents of Hunan pioneer's building materials Co., Ltd production, tripartite confrontation board) of addition 8kg.
Embodiment 9
Embodiment 2 is repeated, only the additive amount of water is 880kg, also adds the antifreezing agent of the SILICA FUME and addition 8kg of 30kg (the XF type antifreezing agents of Hunan pioneer's building materials Co., Ltd production, tripartite confrontation board), the pulverized slag of 60kg.
Embodiment 10
Embodiment 2 is repeated, only the additive amount of water is 910kg, also adds the antifreezing agent of the SILICA FUME and addition 8kg of 30kg (the XF type antifreezing agents of Hunan pioneer's building materials Co., Ltd production, tripartite confrontation board), the pulverized slag of 60kg and the grain slag powder of 60kg.SDS Additive amount change into the additive amount of 2kg and PBR powder and change into 20kg.
Embodiment 11
Embodiment 10 is repeated, only the dosage of flyash is 360kg and the dosage of foaming agent is 2.5kg, while increasing water Amount make the wet density of slurry material remain within 1.63 (tons/rice 3).
Embodiment 12
Embodiment 10 is repeated, only the dosage of flyash is 360kg, and the dosage of semi-hydrated gypsum is 470kg, portland cement Dosage be 80kg and the dosage of foaming agent is 2.5kg, while the amount for increasing water makes the wet density of slurry material remain within 1.63 (tons/rice3)。
The building block of above example and the result of plank are listed in the table below 2.
Table 2:
Embodiment 7 can be seen that compared with Example 6, adds SILICA FUME, can reduce the dosage of portland cement, remain able to Reach ideal performance.The result of embodiment 9 and 10 is compared with Example 7 compared with adding pulverized slag and/or grain slag powder can also subtract The dosage of few cement.Embodiment 11 and 12 compared with Example 10, if increasing the dosage of flyash, or if increases fine coal Ash, semi-hydrated gypsum and foaming agent dosage and reduce portland cement simultaneously, then can further decrease dry density, that is, mitigate mould The quality of product.The plank of the present invention is suitable for interior wall or exterior wall.
Embodiment 13-18
Embodiment 2 is repeated respectively, only substitutes PBR powder, and embodiment 13 uses the polybutadiene rubber from damaged tire reuse Powder (R-PBR powder) (400um average particle sizes), embodiment 14 use the butyl rubber powder (R-BR for inner tube of a tyre reuse of giving up from tire Powder) (450um), the waste polyurethane elastomer powder (PUR powder) (50um) of the use recycling of embodiment 15, the use second third of embodiment 16 Rubber powder (EPR powder) (220um), embodiment 17 use polyisoprene rubber powder (PIPR powder) (360um), embodiment 18 Use the natural rubber powder (N-R powder) (430um) of recycling.The variation of the amounts of components of each embodiment is referring to table 3.
The building block of above example and the result of plank are listed in the table below 3.
Table 3:
Above example 13-18's the result shows that, various other elastomers are used in combination with short fiber reinforced material, It can significantly improve the density uniformity of mechanograph.
Embodiment 19 (present invention)
Comparative example 1 is repeated, only uses in embodiment 1 and arranges the steel skeleton of steel wire, and only prepare plank. It samples and is analyzed from 5 different parts of plank, is averaged.
Embodiment 20-25 (present invention)
Embodiment 19 is repeated respectively, and the amounts of components of each embodiment see the table below 4.
The result of the plank of above example 19-25 is listed in the table below 4.
Table 4:
Above example 19-25's the result shows that, although when preparing gypsum sheet material not use elastomer powder or rubber Powder, still, if using the steel skeleton for arranging steel wire, the knot of surface smoothness and the observation of aging crackle for plank Fruit all shows well.Thermal coefficient (watt/meter of embodiment 212Degree) down to 0.015, still there is higher intensity.Implement Example 20 illustrates to use short fiber reinforced material in the composition, can avoid generation that from can not visually seeing compared with embodiment 19 Micro-crack.
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 26- present invention
Embodiment 2 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame.(referring to Fig. 9)
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 27- present invention
Embodiment 6 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has doorframe.(referring to Figure 11)
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 28- present invention
Embodiment 21 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has the half of window frame.(referring to Figure 10)
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 29- present invention
Embodiment 22 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has the half of doorframe.(referring to Figure 12)
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 30- present invention
Embodiment 23 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has the half of window frame and complete doorframe.
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 31- present invention
Embodiment 24 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has the half of doorframe and complete window frame.The main frame of steel skeleton Or the side of steel framework all uses round steel.
The profiled piece plank of the embodiment 32- present invention
Embodiment 25 is repeated, only three-dimensional steel skeleton has the half of doorframe and complete window frame.The main frame of steel skeleton Or the side of steel framework all uses band steel.
The plank with double steel skeletons and single steel wire of the embodiment 33- present invention
Embodiment 21 is repeated, only uses and is only laid with the double of steel wire shown in Figure 13 and 14 on a main frame Frame-type solid steel skeleton prepares gypsum sheet material.The finish of two main surfaces a and b of plank are all good.By 1 year After placement, main surface (b) visual inspection for being laid with steel wire does not find thick crackle, is not sent out with hand magnifier inspection yet Existing micro-crack.Main surface (a) visual inspection for not being laid with steel wire does not find thick crackle, but is checked with hand magnifier It was found that a small amount of micro-crack, in terms of illustrating that steel wire not only reduces thick crackle, but also as short fiber reinforced material, is being reduced It also works in terms of hair check.Although being only laid with a face steel wire, the crackle for reducing another principal plane is also contributed to.
The plank with single steel skeleton and single layer of wires net of the embodiment 34- present invention
Embodiment 21 is repeated, only prepares plasterboard using single frame type solid steel skeleton shown in Fig. 7 and 8 Material.The finish of two main surfaces a and b of plank are all good.After placement in 1 year, it is laid with the main surface of steel wire (a) visual inspection does not find thick crackle, is checked with hand magnifier without finding micro-crack yet.There is no steel skeleton, have yet Main surface (b) visual inspection of steel wire does not find thick crackle, but finds a small amount of micro-crack with hand magnifier inspection, says In terms of clear steel wire not only reduces thick crackle, but also as short fiber reinforced material, also acted as in terms of reducing hair check With.
The result of above example 26-32 is listed in the table below 5.
Table 5:

Claims (54)

1. a kind of steel skeleton plaster mold panel C, wherein plank C, which are two opposite principal planes, is presented rectangular plank, Or the square plank of square or the Special-shaped Plates of above-mentioned plank or above-mentioned square plank are presented in two opposite principal planes Material, it through the following steps that prepare:(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold or mould tire, (2) composition A is mixed, obtains slurry or wet mixture;Then gained slurry or wet mixture are poured by (3) It states in mold and slurry is allowed to harden, demoulding obtains steel skeleton plaster mold panel C products;
Wherein prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is:(i) there are one rectangular main frame or the three-dimensional steel skeletons of rectangular steel framework for tool;(ii) with Profiled piece based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (i), wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or one with window frame A part or the solid steel skeleton for part or doorframe has window frame and doorframe simultaneously, or have simultaneously the part of window frame with Doorframe, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;(iii) there are two rectangular main frame or rectangular steel frameworks and outer for tool A kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton of hexahedron is presented in shape profile, which has two opposite main planar portions, the two masters Plane is presented rectangle or square, and any one principal plane be by with four edges rectangular main frame or with four What the rectangular steel framework on side was constituted;Alternatively, the profiled piece of (iv) based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (iii), wherein three-dimensional steel Skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or the part or the solid steel skeleton of the part with window frame or doorframe have window simultaneously Frame and doorframe, or there is the part and doorframe of window frame simultaneously, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;
Wherein:The composition A includes following components:
Wherein the dosage of water should make the above above-mentioned raw materials component in addition to water mix being formed by mixture with water Wet density within the scope of 1.4-1.85 tons/cubic meter.
2. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 1, wherein for the prefabricated three-dimensional reinforcing bar of (i) or (ii) Frame is laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh in the principal plane side of main frame or steel framework;Or, for the prefabricated of (iii) or (iv) Three-dimensional steel skeleton, in two main frames or steel framework for respectively constituting two opposite main planar portions of prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton One or two of main frame or steel framework inside or inner surface on be laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh.
3. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 1 or 2, wherein main frame or steel framework further include crosspiece and/ Or stud and diagonal brace, or further include diagonal brace and crosspiece and/or stud.
4. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in the non-main surface portion of three-dimensional steel skeleton Set up separately and sets or be not provided with crosspiece.
5. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 2, the steel wire or glass fiber mesh of one layer of any of which Clamped by one or more pairs of steel clamp bars or clamp, and these clamp bars are welded on the rectangular master for constituting steel skeleton principal plane The inside or side of frame or any one layer of steel wire are directly welded on the inside or side of main frame or steel framework.
6. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 3, the steel wire or glass fiber mesh of one layer of any of which Clamped by one or more pairs of steel clamp bars or clamp, and these clamp bars are welded on the rectangular master for constituting steel skeleton principal plane The inside or side of frame or any one layer of steel wire are directly welded on the inside or side of main frame or steel framework.
7. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 4, the steel wire or glass fiber mesh of one layer of any of which Clamped by one or more pairs of steel clamp bars or clamp, and these clamp bars are welded on the rectangular master for constituting steel skeleton principal plane The inside or side of frame or any one layer of steel wire are directly welded on the inside or side of main frame or steel framework.
8. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to any one of claim 5-7, wherein clamp bar is used as, using thin Round steel or band steel.
9. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to any one of claim 2 or 5-7 makes wherein being used as steel wire With 20-100 steel wires.
10. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 3 uses 20-100 steel wherein being used as steel wire Silk screen.
11. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 4 uses 20-100 steel wherein being used as steel wire Silk screen.
12. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 8 uses 20-100 steel wherein being used as steel wire Silk screen.
13. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to any one of claim 1-2,5-7 or 10-12, wherein main frame The seamed edge of frame or steel framework uses angle steel web, round steel web or band steel web.
14. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 3, the wherein seamed edge of main frame or steel framework use angle steel Web, round steel web or band steel web.
15. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to any one of claim 1-2,5-7 or 10-12, wherein constituting Two main frames or steel framework of two opposite main planar portions of steel skeleton are connected each other by multiple connecting components.
16. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 15, the wherein connecting component are:A) have and main frame The connection steel of the identical or different size and shape of steel of frame, b) timber item or wooden sheet or b) plastic strip or piece.
17. the company of steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 15, wherein connecting component and main frame or steel framework The mode of connecing includes:1) connecting component is inserted in the casing welded on main frame, with screw or tenon or snap close piece or bolt or fastener Further reinforce to prevent connecting component to be detached from from the endoporus of casing;It 2) will be logical on the through-hole and main frame in connecting component Both hole is aligned, fixed using nut and screw;3) both ends as the connection of connecting component steel are soldered to two respectively On the corresponding position of a main frame.
18. the company of steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 16, wherein connecting component and main frame or steel framework The mode of connecing includes:1) connecting component is inserted in the casing welded on main frame, with screw or tenon or snap close piece or bolt or fastener Further reinforce to prevent connecting component to be detached from from the endoporus of casing;It 2) will be logical on the through-hole and main frame in connecting component Both hole is aligned, fixed using nut and screw;3) both ends as the connection of connecting component steel are soldered to two respectively On the corresponding position of a main frame.
19. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 17 or 18, wherein connection with steel are diameters or equivalent The steel bar of a diameter of 1.5mm-2cm.
20. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C according to claim 19, wherein the length l=0.5-7m of plank, and/ Or, the width w=0.2-3m of plank;And/or the thickness t=3-40cm of plank;Or, the principal plane of wherein square plank Length of side l=w=0.5-7m;And/or square plate thickness t=3-40cm.
21. the method for preparing a kind of steel skeleton plaster mold panel C described in any one of claim 1-20, this method packet It includes:
(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold or mould tire, (2) mix composition A, obtain Obtain slurry or wet mixture;Then gained slurry or wet mixture are poured into above-mentioned mold and slurry are allowed to harden by (3), take off Mould obtains steel skeleton plaster mold panel C products,
Wherein prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is:(i) there are one rectangular main frame or the three-dimensional steel skeletons of rectangular steel framework for tool;(ii) with Profiled piece based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (i), wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or one with window frame A part or the solid steel skeleton for part or doorframe has window frame and doorframe simultaneously, or have simultaneously the part of window frame with Doorframe, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;(iii) there are two rectangular main frame or rectangular steel frameworks and outer for tool A kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton of hexahedron is presented in shape profile, which has two opposite main planar portions, the two masters Plane is presented rectangle or square, and any one principal plane be by with four edges rectangular main frame or with four What the rectangular steel framework on side was constituted;Alternatively, the profiled piece of (iv) based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (iii), wherein three-dimensional steel Skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or the part or the solid steel skeleton of the part with window frame or doorframe have window simultaneously Frame and doorframe, or there is the part and doorframe of window frame simultaneously, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;
Wherein:The composition A includes following components:
Wherein the dosage of water should make the above above-mentioned raw materials component in addition to water mix being formed by mixture with water Wet density within the scope of 1.4-1.85 tons/cubic meter.
22. according to the method for claim 21, wherein for the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of (i) or (ii), in main frame or The principal plane side of steel framework is laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh;Or, for the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of (iii) or (iv), Two main frames for respectively constituting two opposite main planar portions of prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton or one or two in steel framework Steel wire or glass fiber mesh are laid on the inside or inner surface of a main frame or steel framework.
23. a kind of steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ', wherein plank C ', which are two opposite principal planes, is presented rectangular batten Material or opposite two principal planes present square square plank or above-mentioned plank or above-mentioned square plank it is different Based plate, it through the following steps that prepare:
(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold or mould tire,
(2) a kind of composition A ' is mixed, obtains slurry or wet mixture, wherein the composition A ' includes:
Wherein the dosage of water should make the above above-mentioned raw materials component in addition to water mix being formed by mixture with water Or the wet density of slurry is within the scope of 1.4-1.85 tons/cubic meter;
With
(3) gained slurry or wet mixture are poured into above-mentioned mold and slurry is allowed to harden, demoulding obtains steel skeleton plaster mold Panel C products,
Wherein prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is:(i) there are one rectangular main frame or the three-dimensional steel skeletons of rectangular steel framework for tool;(ii) with Profiled piece based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (i), wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or one with window frame A part or the solid steel skeleton for part or doorframe has window frame and doorframe simultaneously, or have simultaneously the part of window frame with Doorframe, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;(iii) there are two rectangular main frame or rectangular steel frameworks and outer for tool A kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton of hexahedron is presented in shape profile, which has two opposite main planar portions, the two masters Plane is presented rectangle or square, and any one principal plane be by with four edges rectangular main frame or with four What the rectangular steel framework on side was constituted;Alternatively, the profiled piece of (iv) based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (iii), wherein three-dimensional steel Skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or the part or the solid steel skeleton of the part with window frame or doorframe have window simultaneously Frame and doorframe, or there is the part and doorframe of window frame simultaneously, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously.
24. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 23, wherein for the prefabricated solid of (i) or (ii) Steel skeleton is laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh in the principal plane side of main frame or steel framework;Or, for (iii) or (iv) It is prefabricated solid steel skeleton, prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton two main frames for respectively constituting two opposite main planar portions or Steel wire or glass fiber mesh are laid on the inside or inner surface of one or two of steel framework main frame or steel framework.
25. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 23 or 24, wherein
The dosage of semi-hydrated gypsum is 250-540 parts by weight;
The dosage of portland cement is 100-250 parts;
The dosage of flyash is 150-340 parts;
The dosage of water-reducing agent is 4-30 parts by weight;And/or
The dosage of foaming agent is 0.4-22 parts by weight.
26. steel skeleton plaster mold the panel C ', wherein composition A ' according to claim 23 or 24 further include:It is average long Degree is the short fiber reinforced material of 100um-5.0mm:10-200 parts by weight.
27. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 25, wherein composition A ' further include:
Average length is the short fiber reinforced material of 100um-5.0mm:10-200 parts by weight.
28. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 26, wherein short fiber reinforced material are selected from inorganic Short fiber reinforced material or organic short fiber reinforcing material.
29. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 28, wherein short fiber reinforced material is wood fibre Element or wood powder.
30. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 27, wherein short fiber reinforced material are selected from inorganic Short fiber reinforced material or organic short fiber reinforcing material.
31. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 30, wherein short fiber reinforced material is wood fibre Element or wood powder.
32. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to any one of claim 23-24 or 27-31, feature exist Further include in composition A '
SILICA FUME:10-300 parts by weight;
Pulverized slag 20-200 parts by weight;And/or
Grain slag powder 20-200 parts by weight.
33. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 25, it is characterised in that composition A ' further includes
SILICA FUME:10-300 parts by weight;
Pulverized slag 20-200 parts by weight;And/or
Grain slag powder 20-200 parts by weight.
34. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to any one of claim 23-24,27-31 or 33, feature It is that composition A ' further includes antifreezing agent:1-100 parts by weight.
35. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 25, it is characterised in that composition A ' further includes antifreeze Agent:1-100 parts by weight.
36. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to any one of claim 23-24,27-31,33 or 35, In any one layer of steel wire or glass fiber mesh clamped by one or more pairs of steel clamp bars or clamp, and these clamp bar quilts The inside or side or any one layer of steel wire for being welded on the rectangular main frame for constituting steel skeleton principal plane are directly welded at On the inside or side of main frame or steel framework.
37. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 25, the steel wire or glass fibers that one layer of any of which Dimension net clamped by one or more pairs of steel clamp bars or clamps, and these clamp bars are welded on the side for constituting steel skeleton principal plane The inside or side of shape main frame or any one layer of steel wire are directly welded at the inside or side of main frame or steel framework On.
38. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 36, wherein be used as clamp bar, using thin round steel or flat Steel.
39. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel according to any one of claim 23-24,27-31,33,35,37 or 38 The seamed edge of C ', wherein main frame or steel framework use angle steel web, round steel web or band steel web.
40. the steel skeleton plaster mold panel according to any one of claim 23-24,27-31,33,35,37 or 38 C ', wherein two main frames or steel framework of two opposite main planar portions of composition steel skeleton are each other by multiple connecting components To connect.
41. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 40, the wherein connecting component are:A) have and main frame The connection steel of the identical or different size and shape of steel of frame, b) timber item or wooden sheet or b) plastic strip or piece.
42. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 40, wherein connecting component and main frame or steel framework Connection type includes:1) connecting component is inserted in the casing welded on main frame, with screw or tenon or snap close piece or bolt or is buckled Part is further reinforced to prevent connecting component to be detached from from the endoporus of casing;It 2) will be on the through-hole and main frame in connecting component Both through-hole is aligned, fixed using nut and screw;3) both ends as the connection of connecting component steel are soldered to respectively On the corresponding position of two main frames.
43. steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' according to claim 41, wherein connecting component and main frame or steel framework Connection type includes:1) connecting component is inserted in the casing welded on main frame, with screw or tenon or snap close piece or bolt or is buckled Part is further reinforced to prevent connecting component to be detached from from the endoporus of casing;It 2) will be on the through-hole and main frame in connecting component Both through-hole is aligned, fixed using nut and screw;3) both ends as the connection of connecting component steel are soldered to respectively On the corresponding position of two main frames.
44. the steel skeleton gypsum according to any one of claim 23-24,27-31,33,35,37-38 or 41-43 moulds Plank C ', wherein the length l=0.5-7m of plank, and/or, the width w=0.2-3m of plank;And/or plank Thickness t=3-40cm;Or, the length of side l=w=0.5-7m of the principal plane of wherein square plank;And/or square plate thickness t= 3-40cm。
45. the method for preparing the steel skeleton plaster mold panel C ' described in any one of claim 23-44, this method packet It includes:
(1) prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is put into plate forming mold or mould tire,
(2) a kind of composition A ' is mixed, obtains slurry or wet mixture, wherein the composition A ' includes:
Wherein the dosage of water should make the above above-mentioned raw materials component in addition to water and water be formed by mixture or slurry Wet density is within the scope of 1.4-1.85 tons/cubic meter;
With
(3) gained slurry or wet mixture are poured into above-mentioned mold and slurry is allowed to harden, demoulding obtains steel skeleton plaster mold Panel C ' products,
Wherein prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton is:(i) there are one rectangular main frame or the three-dimensional steel skeletons of rectangular steel framework for tool;(ii) with Profiled piece based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (i), wherein three-dimensional steel skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or one with window frame A part or the solid steel skeleton for part or doorframe has window frame and doorframe simultaneously, or have simultaneously the part of window frame with Doorframe, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously;(iii) there are two rectangular main frame or rectangular steel frameworks and outer for tool A kind of three-dimensional steel skeleton of hexahedron is presented in shape profile, which has two opposite main planar portions, the two masters Plane is presented rectangle or square, and any one principal plane be by with four edges rectangular main frame or with four What the rectangular steel framework on side was constituted;Alternatively, the profiled piece of (iv) based on the three-dimensional steel skeleton of above-mentioned (iii), wherein three-dimensional steel Skeleton has window frame or doorframe, or the part or the solid steel skeleton of the part with window frame or doorframe have window simultaneously Frame and doorframe, or there is the part and doorframe of window frame simultaneously, or there is a part and window frame including doorframe simultaneously.
46. according to the method for claim 45, wherein for the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of (i) or (ii), in main frame or The principal plane side of steel framework is laid with steel wire or glass fiber mesh;Or, for the prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton of (iii) or (iv), Two main frames for respectively constituting two opposite main planar portions of prefabricated three-dimensional steel skeleton or one or two in steel framework Steel wire or glass fiber mesh are laid on the inside or inner surface of a main frame or steel framework.
47. the method according to claim 45 or 46, wherein composition A ' further include:
Average length is the short fiber reinforced material of 100um-5.0mm:10-200 parts by weight.
48. according to the method for claim 47, wherein short fiber reinforced material selected from inorganic short fiber reinforced material or Organic short fiber reinforcing material.
49. according to the method for claim 48, wherein short fiber reinforced material is lignocellulosic or wood powder.
50. according to the method described in any one of claim 45-46 or 48-49, it is characterised in that composition A ' further includes
SILICA FUME:10-300 parts by weight;
Pulverized slag 20-200 parts by weight;And/or
Grain slag powder 20-200 parts by weight.
51. according to the method for claim 47, it is characterised in that composition A ' further includes
SILICA FUME:10-300 parts by weight;
Pulverized slag 20-200 parts by weight;And/or
Grain slag powder 20-200 parts by weight.
52. according to the method described in any one of claim 45-46,48-49 or 51, it is characterised in that composition A ' is also wrapped Include antifreezing agent:1-100 parts by weight.
53. according to the method for claim 47, it is characterised in that composition A ' further includes antifreezing agent:1-100 parts by weight.
54. according to the method for claim 50, it is characterised in that composition A ' further includes antifreezing agent:1-100 parts by weight.
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