CN104881027A - Autonomic barrier-crossing system for wheel-track transformer station inspection robot and control method thereof - Google Patents

Autonomic barrier-crossing system for wheel-track transformer station inspection robot and control method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104881027A
CN104881027A CN201510220735.XA CN201510220735A CN104881027A CN 104881027 A CN104881027 A CN 104881027A CN 201510220735 A CN201510220735 A CN 201510220735A CN 104881027 A CN104881027 A CN 104881027A
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robot
control
arm
support arm
sensor
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CN104881027B (en
Inventor
栾贻青
郝永鑫
李丽
王海鹏
肖鹏
慕世友
任杰
傅孟潮
王滨海
李建祥
赵金龙
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State Grid Intelligent Technology Co Ltd
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd
Shandong Luneng Intelligence Technology Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses an autonomic barrier-crossing system for a wheel-track transformer station inspection robot and a control method thereof. The system includes a chassis and a control system. The chassis includes a robot control box body, a crawler belt running unit, a wheel running unit, a barrier-crossing supporting arm unit, and a drive motor set. The crawler belt running unit includes a left running crawler belt and a right running crawler belt. The left running crawler belt and the right running crawler belt are fixed at the two sides of the control box body respectively, and are separately connected to drive motors. The wheel running unit includes a left running wheel and a right running wheel. The running wheels are connected to supporting arm drive motors. The left running wheel and the right running wheel are fixed at the two sides of the control box body respectively. The control system includes an industrial control computer and a sensor set connected therewith. The industrial control computer is connected to multiple motor drivers, and each motor driver is connected to one corresponding drive motor. The autonomic barrier-crossing system can be automatically switched to a wheel type running mode or a crawler belt type running mode on the basis of needs, thereby satisfying inspection demands of a transformer station in different road conditions.

Description

Wheel-track combined Intelligent Mobile Robot active obstacle system and control method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of wheel-track combined Intelligent Mobile Robot active obstacle system and control method.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the development of science and technology, utilize Intelligent Mobile Robot automatically to complete the work such as transformer station's everyday devices tour, infrared measurement of temperature, equipment state inspection, become the important supplementary means of inspecting substation equipment.But there is following problem in current Intelligent Mobile Robot:
1, Intelligent Mobile Robot is is mainly patrolled and examined in roadway area, is difficult to carry out omnibearing detection to power transformation station equipment;
2, in general transformer station, battery limits and road be not usually on a surface level, and battery limits are generally destructuring road surface, as meadow, stone road surface etc., robot will run from main roads access arrangement district and patrol and examine, then need robot independently can cross kerb, access arrangement district runs, for wheeled robot platform, due to himself, robot cannot run in access arrangement district.
More existing caterpillar robots, comprise the caterpillar robot with two swing arms, as the patent of invention " a kind of mobile robot and obstacle surmounting method thereof " that publication number is CN101492072A, and with the caterpillar robot of four swing arms, as the utility model patent " composite moving mechanism of independent barrier-surpassing robot " that the patent No. is ZL200520075351.5, although robot has certain obstacle climbing ability, but all do not mention the realization of active obstacle system and active obstacle method, thus active obstacle cannot be carried out, and due to independent caterpillar type robot operational efficiency low, be difficult to meet the requirement that robot efficiently patrols and examines to roadway area in transformer station.Because the particular/special requirement to power equipment safety of transformer station and Intelligent Mobile Robot are to the requirement of autonomous operation, positioning precision and operational reliability, existing track machines robot system all cannot directly be applied on Intelligent Mobile Robot.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is in order to solve the problem, propose a kind of wheel-track combined Intelligent Mobile Robot active obstacle system and control method, this system globe area laser sensor, GPS sensor, binocular vision sensor, the multi-sensor informations such as attitude sensor, crusing robot ontology information and ambient condition information are accurately detected, and a kind of active obstacle control method of serializing is proposed based on above-mentioned information, achieve the active obstacle of Intelligent Mobile Robot, and achieve the automatic switchover of Intelligent Mobile Robot running on wheels mode and crawler-type traveling mode, solve robot region-wide difficult problem of patrolling and examining in transformer station.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of wheel-track combined Intelligent Mobile Robot active obstacle system, comprise chassis and control system, wherein, chassis comprises robot controlling casing, crawler travel unit, running on wheels unit, obstacle detouring props up arm unit and drive motor group, crawler travel unit comprises left and right traveling crawler, left and right traveling crawler is fixed on and controls casing both sides, left and right traveling crawler connects a drive motor separately, running on wheels unit comprises left and right sides road wheel, road wheel props up arm unit connecting support arm drive motor by obstacle detouring, left and right sides road wheel is separately fixed at and controls casing both sides, the sensor group that control system comprises industrial computer and is attached thereto, industrial computer connects multiple motor driver, each motor driver connects corresponding drive motor respectively.
Described obstacle detouring props up arm unit and comprises two front arms being arranged on and controlling casing front end and two back arms being arranged on control box back.
Described drive motor group comprises left and right two travel driving motor and forward and backward support arm drive motor, wherein, left travel driving motor drives left traveling crawler, right travel driving motor drives right traveling crawler, front arm drive motor drives two front arms, and back arm drive motor drives two back arms.
Described forward and backward support arm drive motor output shaft is connected with forward and backward support arm driving shaft respectively by gear, and forward and backward support arm driving shaft passes from crawler driving whell center.
The length of described front and rear support arm is slightly less than the half of robot body total length, described robot front and rear support arm respectively with support arm bull wheel axle center for axle 360 degree of continuous rotations.
Described sensor group, comprise GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, binocular vision sensor, range sensor and obliquity sensor, wherein, described laser navigation sensor is arranged on robot front-end bracket, by the distance determination robot current position in transformer station of detection with surrounding objects, described binocular vision sensor is arranged on robot front-end bracket, by the road environment modeling method based on field method vector, extract robot road ahead Edge Distance, the level in height and region to be sailed into and area information; Described range sensor is arranged on robot controlling casing front end, the distance of accurate robot measurement distance preceding object thing; Described obliquity sensor is arranged on bottom robot interior, the inclination angle in robot measurement roll and pitching both direction.
Described GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, range sensor, obliquity sensor are crossed CAN with four motor drivers and are connected.
Described binocular vision sensor connects industrial computer by IEEE1394 bus.
Described control system, also comprise two support arm zero position switchs, described zero position switch is arranged on support arm driving shaft, is connected with motor driver, for demarcating the back to zero position of support arm.
Described control system, also comprises four scramblers, and described scrambler is arranged on on travel driving motor and support arm drive motor respectively, and scrambler is connected by RS422 with motor driver; Connect displacement and the translational speed of the scrambler calculating robot of travel driving motor; The scrambler of connecting support arm drive motor is for calculating the anglec of rotation and the rotational speed of support arm.
Based on the control method of above-mentioned obstacle detouring system, comprise following control mode:
(1), when robot patrols and examines under transformer station's roadway area hard surface environment, it is parallel with road surface that control support arm rotates to downside crawler belt, the road wheel of the robot left and right sides contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to running on wheels mode;
(2) when robot patrols and examines under the road environments such as substation equipment district sandstone, meadow, control support arm and close at control casing both sides, and control support arm rotate to upside crawler belt parallel with road surface, the traveling crawler of the robot left and right sides is contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to crawler travel mode;
(3) during robot climbing, control support arm and launch forwards, backwards, make the driving force that Robot arm crawler belt and traveling crawler are all climbed to increase robot with earth surface, lengthen robot length simultaneously and topple in climbing process to prevent robot;
(4), when robot patrols and examines from access arrangement district of conventional road district of transformer station, if need throwing over barrier, active obstacle control method is taked.
Described active obstacle control method, comprises the following steps:
Step one, the information gathered according to GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, by global path planning method, control moves in the action setting range of barrier, and is right against barrier;
Step 2, pass through binocular vision sensor, gather ambient image, based on 3 D stereo reconfiguration technique, extract robot and the distance of barrier, the height of barrier, and the area information of plane to be sailed into, judge whether robot can walk around this barrier, if can walk around, robot cut-through thing; Otherwise, judge whether robot can cross this barrier, if can cross, enters step 3; Otherwise robot stops and reports to the police, wait for staff's process;
Step 3, by the horizontal range of the accurate robot measurement of range sensor to barrier, the distance of control and barrier is in safe range;
Step 4, control front arm rotate forward, until the downside crawler belt of front arm and new planar horizontal, control back arm simultaneously and rotate backward, until back arm crawler belt downside and ground level, in the process, the angle on robot body and ground increases gradually;
Step 5, obtain the level inclination of robot and side direction inclination angle by obliquity sensor, the speed of control both sides Athey wheel makes to travel forward, and control lateral tilt does not occur simultaneously;
Step 6, control back arm rotate backward, until robot both sides traveling crawler is parallel to the ground;
Step 7, control travel forward, until robot center of gravity is all fallen on new plane of movement; Pack up the forward and backward support arm of robot, select running on wheels mode or crawler travel mode according to surface conditions.
The concrete grammar of described step 2 is: pass through binocular vision sensor, based on 3 D stereo reconfiguration technique, extract robot and the distance of barrier, the height of barrier, and the area information of plane to be sailed into, and judge that can robot cross this barrier in conjunction with the model of robot self.
In described step one, action setting range maximal value is 1m.
In described step 3, safe range maximal value is 5cm.
In described step 5, its concrete grammar is: the level inclination and the side direction inclination angle that are obtained robot by obliquity sensor, and the speed of control both sides Athey wheel makes to travel forward, and control lateral tilt does not occur simultaneously; Control back arm rotates forward, with ensure back arm crawler belt downside all the time with ground level, prevent robot from sliding backward; In the process, robot body and ground level inclination angle increase gradually, when level inclination reaches critical value, and control stop motion; This angle is determined jointly by the height of robot centre of gravity place and barrier, should ensure that robot does not occur to topple forward or backward in advance process.
In described step 6, its concrete grammar is: control back arm rotates backward, until robot both sides traveling crawler is parallel to the ground, if when obstacle height is greater than back arm length, robot both sides traveling crawler cannot reach parallel with ground, then control back arm and rotate to maximum position; Control front arm rotates, backward until front arm downside is parallel to the ground simultaneously.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) can automatically switch wheeled or crawler travel mode as required, the demand of patrolling and examining under meeting the different road conditions of transformer station;
(2) barriers such as transformer station's kerb, cable duct can independently be crossed by robot, thus achieve the region-wide autonomous operation of robot in power transformation;
(3) adopt GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor combined positioning and navigating mode, the coordinate position of robot in transformer station can be obtained accurately, solve the problem that single navigate mode lost efficacy in certain circumstances;
(4) utilize the support arm anglec of rotation by scrambler as feedback signal, make the control of the support arm anglec of rotation more accurate, support arm can close at robot body both sides, compact conformation completely;
(5) each sensor in sensor group is linked together by CAN, is convenient to the expansion of system.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is robot chassis structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is robot sensor installation site schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is robot control system architecture schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 (a) is robot running on wheels mode athletic posture schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 (b) is robot crawler travel mode athletic posture schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 (c) is robot climbing walking manner athletic posture schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is robot autonomous obstacle detouring process flow diagram;
Fig. 6 (a) is robot autonomous obstacle detouring process steps 1 schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 (b) is robot autonomous obstacle detouring process steps 4 schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 (c) is robot autonomous obstacle detouring process steps 5 schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 (d) is robot autonomous obstacle detouring process steps 6 schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 (e) is robot autonomous obstacle detouring process steps 7 schematic diagram.
Wherein, 1. left row travelling wheel, 2. back arm drive motor, 3. back arm motor driver, 4. traveling crawler on the left of, 5. obliquity sensor, 6. movable motor driver on the left of, 7. travel driving motor on the left of, 8. front arm, 9. scrambler, 10. front arm drive motor, 11. back to zero switches, travel driving motor on the right side of in the of 12., 13. back arms, 14. front arm motor drivers, movable motor driver on the right side of in the of 15., traveling crawler on the right side of in the of 16., 17. control casing, road wheel on the right side of in the of 18., 19. laser sensors, 20. binocular vision sensors, 21. industrial computers, 22. range sensors, 23.GPS alignment sensor, 24.CAN bus.
Embodiment:
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, the invention will be further described.
A kind of four support arm wheel-track combined robot chassis, it comprises robot controlling casing, crawler travel unit, running on wheels unit, obstacle detouring prop up arm unit and drive motor.
Wherein, described crawler travel unit comprises the left side traveling crawler and right side traveling crawler that are arranged on the both sides controlling casing.Described running on wheels unit comprises two left row travelling wheels and two right side road wheels.Described obstacle detouring props up arm unit and comprises two front arms being arranged on and controlling casing front end and two back arms being arranged on control box back.Described drive motor comprises left and right two travel driving motor and forward and backward support arm drive motor.
Wherein, described left row travelling wheel and right side road wheel are arranged on four support arms respectively, and be connected by the driving wheel of Timing Belt with left and right sides traveling crawler, thus when travel driving motor drives traveling crawler to rotate, the road wheel of the left and right sides follows traveling crawler synchronous rotary.
Wherein, described robot front and rear support arm drives respectively by being arranged on two motors controlling tank ends, and support arm drive motor output shaft is connected with support arm driving shaft by gear, and support arm driving shaft passes from main crawler driving whell center.The length of described front and rear support arm is slightly less than the half of robot body total length, thus the forward and backward support arm of robot can close at robot body both sides completely.Described robot front and rear support arm can respectively with support arm bull wheel axle center for axle 360 degree of continuous rotations.
The wheel-track combined robot autonomous obstacle detouring control system of a kind of four support arm, it comprises industrial computer, GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, binocular vision sensor, range sensor, obliquity sensor and four motor drivers, four scramblers and two support arm zero position switchs.
Wherein, described industrial computer, GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, range sensor, obliquity sensor are crossed CAN with four motor drivers and are connected.Described industrial computer is connected by IEEE1394 bus with binocular vision sensor.
Wherein, described laser navigation sensor is arranged on robot front-end bracket, can by the distance determination robot current position in transformer station of detection with surrounding objects.Described binocular vision sensor is arranged on robot front-end bracket, can by based on the road environment modeling method of field method vector, extracts the information such as robot road ahead Edge Distance, the level in height and region to be sailed into and area.Described range sensor is arranged on robot controlling casing front end, can the distance of accurate robot measurement distance preceding object thing, thus control rests in the assigned address in barrier front accurately.Described obliquity sensor is arranged on bottom robot interior, can inclination angle in robot measurement roll and pitching both direction.
Wherein, described zero position switch is arranged on support arm driving shaft, is connected with motor driver, for demarcating the back to zero position of support arm.Described scrambler is arranged on on travel driving motor and support arm drive motor respectively, and scrambler is connected by RS422 with motor driver.Can the displacement of accurate Calculation machine people and translational speed by the scrambler connecting travel driving motor, thus the accurately travel speed of control and the stop position of accurate control.Can the anglec of rotation of accurate Calculation support arm and rotational speed by the scrambler of connecting support arm drive motor, thus accurately control the position of rotation of support arm.Described motor driver is arranged on bottom robot interior, is respectively used to travel driving motor and the support arm rotary drive motor of the drive machines people left and right sides.
A control method for crawler type Intelligent Mobile Robot, it comprises:
1, when robot patrols and examines under transformer station's roadway area hard surface environment, it is parallel with road surface that control support arm rotates to downside crawler belt, the road wheel of the robot left and right sides contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to running on wheels mode.
2, when robot patrols and examines under the road environments such as substation equipment district sandstone, meadow, control support arm and close at control casing both sides, and control support arm rotate to upside crawler belt parallel with road surface, the traveling crawler of the robot left and right sides is contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to crawler travel mode.
3, during robot climbing, control support arm and launch forwards, backwards, make the driving force that Robot arm crawler belt and traveling crawler are all climbed to increase robot with earth surface, lengthen robot length simultaneously and topple in climbing process to prevent robot.
4, when robot patrols and examines from access arrangement district of conventional road district of transformer station, if need to cross the barrier such as kerb, cable duct, then following steps are adopted to realize active obstacle:
Step 1: robot normally patrols and examines in process in conventional road district of transformer station, by laser and GPS integrated navigation, in conjunction with global path planning method, control moves in the scope in 1 meter, distance barrier front to be crossed automatically, and makes robot be right against barrier.
Step 2: pass through binocular vision sensor, based on 3 D stereo reconfiguration technique, extract robot and the distance d of barrier, the height h of barrier, and the information such as the area of plane to be sailed into, and judge that can robot cross this barrier in conjunction with the model of robot self.
Step 3: if barrier can be crossed, by the horizontal range of the accurate robot measurement of range sensor to barrier, the position that control is d≤5cm at obstacle distance stops, and this distance ensures that front arm can reliably ride on the edge of barrier after rotating.
Step 4: control front arm and rotate forward, until the downside crawler belt of front arm and new planar horizontal.Control back arm to rotate backward, until back arm crawler belt downside and ground level simultaneously.In the process, the angle on robot body and ground increases gradually.
Step 5: the level inclination and the side direction inclination angle that are obtained robot by obliquity sensor, the speed of control both sides Athey wheel makes to travel forward, and control lateral tilt does not occur simultaneously.Control back arm rotates forward, with ensure back arm crawler belt downside all the time with ground level, prevent robot from sliding backward.In the process, robot body and ground level inclination angle increase gradually, when level inclination reaches critical value, and control stop motion.This angle is determined jointly by the height of robot centre of gravity place and barrier, ensure that robot does not occur to topple forward or backward in advance process.
Step 6: control back arm rotates backward, until robot both sides traveling crawler is parallel to the ground.If when obstacle height is greater than back arm length, robot both sides traveling crawler cannot reach parallel with ground, then control back arm and rotate to maximum position.Control front arm rotates, backward until front arm downside is parallel to the ground simultaneously.
Step 7: control travels forward, until robot center of gravity is all fallen on new plane of movement.Pack up the forward and backward support arm of robot, select running on wheels mode or crawler travel mode according to surface conditions.
Embodiment one:
A kind of four support arm wheel-track combined robot chassis, it comprises robot controlling casing (17), crawler travel unit, running on wheels unit, obstacle detouring prop up arm unit and drive motor.Wherein crawler travel unit comprises the left side traveling crawler (4) and right side traveling crawler (16) that are arranged on the both sides controlling casing.Running on wheels unit comprises two left row travelling wheels (1) and two right sides road wheel (18).Obstacle detouring props up arm unit and comprises two front arms (8) being arranged on and controlling casing front end and two back arms (13) being arranged on control box back.Drive motor comprises left side travel driving motor (7), right side travel driving motor (12), front arm drive motor (10) and back arm drive motor (2).
Wherein, road wheel is arranged on front arm (8) and back arm (13) respectively.Two road wheels be arranged on front arm (8) are connected respectively by the driving wheel of Timing Belt with left and right sides traveling crawler, and thus when travel driving motor drives traveling crawler to rotate, the road wheel of the left and right sides follows traveling crawler synchronous rotary.Two road wheels be arranged on back arm (13) are engaged wheel.In this example, travel driving motor uses the DC brushless motor of MAXON company 250W, this motor maximum speed is 9090rpm, kinematic train reduction gear ratio is 56:1, Athey wheel diameter is 180mm, road wheel diameter is 120mm, and thus under running on wheels mode, robot maximal rate is 1m/s, and under crawler travel mode, maximal rate is 1.5m/s.
Wherein, robot front arm (8) and back arm (13) are arranged on respectively and control outside casing (17) two ends, and are driven respectively by the front arm drive motor (10) and back arm drive motor (2) being arranged on control casing (17) inner two ends.Support arm drive motor output shaft is connected with support arm driving shaft by gear, and support arm driving shaft passes from traveling crawler driving wheel center, and forward and backward support arm can be synchronous with 360 degree of continuous rotations respectively.The length of support arm is slightly less than the half of robot body total length, thus the forward and backward support arm of robot can close at robot body both sides completely, and when robot is normally travelled, structure is compacter.In this example, support arm drive motor uses the brush direct current motor of MAXON company 150W, and this motor maximum speed is 7580rpm, and kinematic train reduction gear ratio is 1040:1, and thus the maximum rotative speed of support arm is 43 °/s.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, present invention also offers the wheel-track combined robot autonomous obstacle detouring control system of a kind of four support arm, it comprises the industrial computer (21) being arranged on and controlling casing (17) top, be arranged on the GPS alignment sensor (23) on robot front-end bracket, laser navigation sensor (19), binocular vision sensor (20), be arranged on the range sensor (22) controlling casing (17) front end, be arranged on and control the inner obliquity sensor (5) of casing (17), left side movable motor driver (6), right side movable motor driver (15), front arm motor driver (14), back arm motor driver (3), four scramblers (9) being arranged on motor rear end and the back to zero switch (11) be arranged on support arm driving shaft.
As shown in Figure 3, industrial computer (21), GPS alignment sensor (23), laser navigation sensor (19), range sensor (22), obliquity sensor (5) are connected by CAN (24) with four motor drivers, are convenient to the expansion of system.Wherein realize robot in the location of transformer station and navigation by GPS alignment sensor (23) and laser navigation sensor (19) combination, GPS alignment sensor (23) for providing the initial position of robot, and corrects robot location in robot operational process.Scanned the distance of robot and surrounding objects by laser navigation sensor (19), and obtain the position coordinates of robot in transformer station with laser map match.Binocular vision sensor (20) is connected by IEEE1394 bus with industrial computer.The binocular image of robot preceding object thing is obtained by binocular vision sensor (20), adopt the road environment modeling method based on field method vector, extracting the information such as robot road ahead Edge Distance, the level in height and region to be sailed into and area, can needing to take obstacle detouring strategy still tactful around hindering by comprehensive descision according to above-mentioned information machine people.Two range sensors (22) are arranged on the front end controlling casing (17), can accurately robot measurement is apart from the distance of barrier, thus control rests in barrier front assigned address accurately.Use the DT35 of SICK company as range sensor in this example, this transducer range can reach 0.05m ~ 12m, and measuring accuracy is 0.5mm.Obliquity sensor (5) is arranged on and controls casing (17) bottom, can inclination angle in robot measurement roll and pitching both direction.Use the SCA126T-60 double-shaft tilt angle sensor of RION company in this example, this sensor resolution is 0.01 °, absolute precision 0.08 °.
Wherein, four scramblers (9) are arranged on the afterbody of four drive motor respectively, are connected with four motor drivers by RS422 bus.The rotating speed of motor can be calculated by scrambler (9), movable motor driver forms speed closed loop, thus the speed of control walking.Forming position closed loop on support arm motor driver, thus the anglec of rotation controlling support arm.The scrambler used in this example is the HEDL9140 of MAXON company, this scrambler is 500 lines, and in the drive after 4 frequencys multiplication, motor often rotates a circle and can obtain 2000 pulses, reduction gear ratio due to support arm kinematic train is 1040, so the resolution of the support arm anglec of rotation can reach 0.0002 °.
The invention allows for a kind of control method of wheel-track combined robot.As shown in Fig. 4 (a), when robot patrols and examines under transformer station's roadway area hard surface environment, it is parallel with road surface that control support arm rotates to downside crawler belt, the road wheel of the robot left and right sides contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to running on wheels mode.As shown in Fig. 4 (b), when robot patrols and examines under the road environments such as substation equipment district sandstone, meadow, control support arm and close at control casing both sides, and control support arm rotate to upside crawler belt parallel with road surface, the traveling crawler of the robot left and right sides is contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to crawler travel mode.As shown in Fig. 4 (c), during robot climbing, control support arm to launch forwards, backwards, make the driving force that Robot arm crawler belt and traveling crawler are all climbed to increase robot with earth surface, lengthen robot length simultaneously and topple in climbing process to prevent robot.
When robot patrols and examines from access arrangement district of conventional road district of transformer station, if need to cross the barrier such as kerb, cable duct, then step is as shown in Figure 5 adopted to realize active obstacle:
Step 1: robot normally patrols and examines in process in conventional road district of transformer station, by GPS alignment sensor (23) and laser navigation sensor (19) integrated navigation, in conjunction with global path planning method, control moves in the scope in 1 meter, distance barrier front to be crossed automatically, and makes robot be right against barrier.As shown in Fig. 6 (a).
Step 2: by binocular vision sensor (20), based on 3 D stereo reconfiguration technique, extract robot and the distance d of barrier, the height h of barrier, and the information such as the area of plane to be sailed into, and judge that can robot cross this barrier in conjunction with the model of robot self.If barrier can be walked around, then start around barrier strategy, barrier can be crossed else if, then start crossing obstacle automatically strategy, otherwise robot is by parking alarm latency human intervention.As shown in Fig. 6 (a).
Step 3: if disturbance in judgement thing can be crossed, by the distance of range sensor (22) robot measurement to barrier, the position that control is d≤5cm at obstacle distance stops, and this distance ensures that front arm (8) can reliably ride on the edge of barrier after rotating.
Step 4: front arm processed (8) rotates forward, until the downside crawler belt of front arm (8) and new planar horizontal.Control back arm (13) to rotate backward, until back arm (13) crawler belt downside and ground level simultaneously.The angle that now front arm (8) rotates is about and the angle that back arm rotates is about wherein, L is the centre distance of robot Caterpillar walking wheel, and h is the height of barrier, and θ is the angle of support arm upper and lower both sides crawler belt, and in this example, the angle theta of support arm upper and lower both sides crawler belt is 26 °.In the process, the angle on robot body and ground increases gradually.As shown in Fig. 6 (b).
Step 5: on the left of control, travel driving motor (6) and right side travel driving motor (12) speed make robot travel forward, obtained level inclination and the side direction inclination angle of robot by obliquity sensor (5), there is not lateral tilt in control simultaneously.Control back arm (13) rotates forward, with ensure back arm (13) crawler belt downside all the time with ground level, prevent robot from sliding backward.In the process, robot body and ground level inclination angle increase gradually, when level inclination reaches critical value, and control stop motion.This angle is determined jointly by the height of robot centre of gravity place and barrier, ensures that robot does not occur to fall forward or topple backward in forward movement.As shown in Fig. 6 (c).
Step 6: control back arm (13) rotates backward, until robot both sides traveling crawler is parallel to the ground.If when obstacle height is greater than back arm (13) length, robot both sides traveling crawler cannot reach parallel with ground, then control back arm (13) and rotate to maximum position.Control front arm (8) rotates, backward until front arm downside is parallel to the ground simultaneously.As shown in Fig. 6 (d).
Step 7: control travels forward, until robot center of gravity is all fallen on new plane of movement.Pack up robot front arm (8) and back arm (13), select running on wheels mode or crawler travel mode according to surface conditions.As shown in Fig. 6 (e).
By reference to the accompanying drawings the specific embodiment of the present invention is described although above-mentioned; but not limiting the scope of the invention; one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that; on the basis of technical scheme of the present invention, those skilled in the art do not need to pay various amendment or distortion that creative work can make still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (16)

1. a wheel-track combined Intelligent Mobile Robot active obstacle system, it is characterized in that: comprise chassis and control system, wherein, chassis comprises robot controlling casing, crawler travel unit, running on wheels unit, obstacle detouring props up arm unit and drive motor group, crawler travel unit comprises left and right traveling crawler, left and right traveling crawler is fixed on and controls casing both sides, left and right traveling crawler connects a drive motor separately, running on wheels unit comprises left and right sides road wheel, road wheel props up arm unit connecting support arm drive motor by obstacle detouring, left and right sides road wheel is separately fixed at and controls casing both sides, the sensor group that control system comprises industrial computer and is attached thereto, industrial computer connects multiple motor driver, each motor driver connects corresponding drive motor respectively.
2. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: described obstacle detouring props up arm unit and comprises two front arms being arranged on and controlling casing front end and two back arms being arranged on control box back.
3. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described drive motor group comprises left and right two travel driving motor and forward and backward support arm drive motor, wherein, left travel driving motor drives left traveling crawler, right travel driving motor drives right traveling crawler, front arm drive motor drives two front arms, and back arm drive motor drives two back arms.
4. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that: described forward and backward support arm drive motor output shaft is connected with forward and backward support arm driving shaft respectively by gear, and forward and backward support arm driving shaft passes from crawler driving whell center.
5. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that: the length of described forward and backward support arm is less than the half of robot body total length, described robot front and rear support arm respectively with support arm bull wheel axle center for axle 360 degree of continuous rotations.
6. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described sensor group, comprise GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, binocular vision sensor, range sensor and obliquity sensor, wherein, described laser navigation sensor is arranged on robot front-end bracket, by the distance determination robot current position in transformer station of detection with surrounding objects, described binocular vision sensor is arranged on robot front-end bracket, by the road environment modeling method based on field method vector, extract robot road ahead Edge Distance, the level in height and region to be sailed into and area information, described range sensor is arranged on robot controlling casing front end, the distance of accurate robot measurement distance preceding object thing, described obliquity sensor is arranged on bottom robot interior, the inclination angle in robot measurement roll and pitching both direction.
7. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 6, is characterized in that: described GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, range sensor, obliquity sensor are crossed CAN with four motor drivers and be connected.
8. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 6, is characterized in that: described binocular vision sensor connects industrial computer by IEEE1394 bus.
9. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described control system, also comprise two support arm zero position switchs, described zero position switch is arranged on support arm driving shaft, is connected with motor driver, for demarcating the back to zero position of support arm.
10. active obstacle system as claimed in claim 9, it is characterized in that: described control system, also comprise four scramblers, described scrambler is arranged on on travel driving motor and support arm drive motor respectively, and scrambler is connected by RS422 with motor driver; Connect displacement and the translational speed of the scrambler calculating robot of travel driving motor; The scrambler of connecting support arm drive motor is for calculating the anglec of rotation and the rotational speed of support arm.
11., based on the control method of the obstacle detouring system such as according to any one of claim 1-10, is characterized in that: comprise following control mode:
(1), when robot patrols and examines under transformer station's roadway area hard surface environment, it is parallel with road surface that control support arm rotates to downside crawler belt, the road wheel of the robot left and right sides contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to running on wheels mode;
(2) when robot patrols and examines under the road environments such as substation equipment district sandstone, meadow, control support arm and close at control casing both sides, and control support arm rotate to upside crawler belt parallel with road surface, the traveling crawler of the robot left and right sides is contacted with road surface, thus robot is switched to crawler travel mode;
(3) during robot climbing, control support arm and launch forwards, backwards, make the driving force that Robot arm crawler belt and traveling crawler are all climbed to increase robot with earth surface, lengthen robot length simultaneously and topple in climbing process to prevent robot;
(4), when robot patrols and examines from access arrangement district of conventional road district of transformer station, if need throwing over barrier, active obstacle control method is taked.
12. active obstacle control methods as claimed in claim 11, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
Step one, the information gathered according to GPS alignment sensor, laser navigation sensor, by global path planning method, control moves in the action setting range of barrier, and is right against barrier;
Step 2, pass through binocular vision sensor, gather ambient image, based on 3 D stereo reconfiguration technique, extract robot and the distance of barrier, the height of barrier, and the area information of plane to be sailed into, judge whether robot can walk around this barrier, if can walk around, robot cut-through thing; Otherwise, judge whether robot can cross this barrier, if can cross, enters step 3; Otherwise robot stops and reports to the police, wait for staff's process;
Step 3, by the horizontal range of the accurate robot measurement of range sensor to barrier, the distance of control and barrier is in safe range;
Step 4, control front arm rotate forward, until the downside crawler belt of front arm and new planar horizontal, control back arm simultaneously and rotate backward, until back arm crawler belt downside and ground level, in the process, the angle on robot body and ground increases gradually;
Step 5, obtain the level inclination of robot and side direction inclination angle by obliquity sensor, the speed of control both sides Athey wheel makes to travel forward, and control lateral tilt does not occur simultaneously;
Step 6, control back arm rotate backward, until robot both sides traveling crawler is parallel to the ground;
Step 7, control travel forward, until robot center of gravity is all fallen on new plane of movement; Pack up the forward and backward support arm of robot, select running on wheels mode or crawler travel mode according to surface conditions.
13. control methods as described in claim 12, is characterized in that: in described step one, and action setting range maximal value is 1m.
14. control methods as described in claim 12, it is characterized in that: in described step 3, safe range maximal value is 5cm.
15. control methods as described in claim 12, it is characterized in that: in described step 5, its concrete grammar is: the level inclination and the side direction inclination angle that are obtained robot by obliquity sensor, the speed of control both sides Athey wheel makes to travel forward, and control lateral tilt does not occur simultaneously; Control back arm rotates forward, with ensure back arm crawler belt downside all the time with ground level, prevent robot from sliding backward; In the process, robot body and ground level inclination angle increase gradually, when level inclination reaches critical value, and control stop motion; This angle is determined jointly by the height of robot centre of gravity place and barrier, should ensure that robot does not occur to topple forward or backward in advance process.
16. control methods as described in claim 12, it is characterized in that: in described step 6, its concrete grammar is: control back arm rotates backward, until robot both sides traveling crawler is parallel to the ground, if when obstacle height is greater than back arm length, robot both sides traveling crawler cannot reach parallel with ground, then control back arm and rotate to maximum position; Control front arm rotates, backward until front arm downside is parallel to the ground simultaneously.
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