CN104696949A - Two-stage process denitrification method of coal fired boiler - Google Patents

Two-stage process denitrification method of coal fired boiler Download PDF

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CN104696949A
CN104696949A CN201510103609.6A CN201510103609A CN104696949A CN 104696949 A CN104696949 A CN 104696949A CN 201510103609 A CN201510103609 A CN 201510103609A CN 104696949 A CN104696949 A CN 104696949A
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boiler
combustion
biogas
entrance
air
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李毅强
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Abstract

The invention discloses a two-stage process denitrification method of a coal fired boiler. The coal fired boiler coal fired flue gas two-stage process denitrification is completed by the first stage of circulation back combustion of boiler flue gas so as to reduce the generation of nitric oxide and the second stage of combustion and reduction of the generated nitric oxide by biomass gas. The two-stage process denitrification method has the advantages that firstly, the investment and running expense of the environment-friendly treatment equipment can be reduced by the method, and the aims of reducing the concentration of nitric oxide of boiler flue gas, emitted to the atmosphere by inhibiting the generation of nitric oxide and reducing the generated nitric oxide. Because the investment is low, the running expense is low, the boiler efficiency is improved, the environment friendliness is achieved without modifying the structure of the boiler or replacing a boiler, so that the two-stage process denitrification method can be easily accepted by enterprises, and has a wide popularization prospect; secondly, because biomass gas is adopted as re-combustion fuel, the emission amount of carbon dioxide can be reduced.

Description

The method of fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitration
Technical field
The invention belongs to denitration of boiler smoke technology, the method for specifically fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitration.
Background technology
Nitrogen oxide is listed in fire coal boiler fume discharge and is detected limit value project by new national standard " emission standard of air pollutants for boilers " (GB13271-2014), with coal-burning boiler (biomass boiler presses coal-burning boiler standard) nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 400mg/m 3below, new construction of coal-fired boiler (biomass boiler presses coal-burning boiler standard) nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 300mg/m 3below.Because the structure of fire coal/biomass boiler, the fuel of use and the reason such as combustion method and vent gas treatment mode restricted, nitrous oxides concentration is generally at 500mg/m 3above, standard regulation difficulty be reached very large.The external flue gas end denitration technology generally used is because equipment investment is large, operating cost is high-leveled and difficult to promote.Have document to propose to utilize recombustion of biomass to burn denitration reducible nitrogen oxide, living beings are a kind of regenerative resources containing lower nitrogen and sulphur composition, make reburning fuel Substitute For Partial fossil fuel, can reduce NOx, SO by living beings 2growing amount and CO 2discharge.Biomass pyrolytic produces a large amount of gaseous volatile, mainly comprises CO, H 2, CH 4and C mh n, CO 2deng mist, in combustion process again, play very large effect.But because common fire coal/biomass boiler furnace cavity is little, reburning fuel residence time in burner hearth short, the reaction time not reason such as Enough, utilize biomass fuel combustion denitration effect not obvious again, reburning fuel burning is insufficient easily discharges the utilization rate reducing reburning fuel, the reburning fuel that therefore biomass fuel neither be very good from flue.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide the method for a kind of fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitration.
Know-why of the present invention
Reduce discharged nitrous oxides and have the both economical effective method of two classes at present:
One is the combustion method by improving boiler, control oxygen content in air, reduce main combustion zone temperature to reduce the growing amount of nitrogen oxide, adopt the hypoxemia flue gas recirculation combustion system after being equivalent to boiler air total amount 20 ~ 25% purification can reduce the growing amount of more than 20% nitrogen oxide.
Two be reduction boiler combustion process generate nitrogen oxide to reduce the discharge of nitrogen oxide, utilize fuel-staged combustion mode to reach this object.It is a complicated chemical reaction process that fuel fires the growing amount of NOx in abatement high-temperature flue gas again, and this process is included in the conversion of the partial oxidation of reburning fuel under micro-rich fuel condition, hydrocarbon group and reaction of nitrogen oxides and middle nitrogen substance.The selection of reburning fuel, the reaction time in burner hearth, fuel combustion oxygen demand, again combustion zone flue gas oxygen content all have impact to the percent reduction of nitrogen oxide.Reburning fuel in external commercial Application mainly natural gas, but because China is lean gas country, domestic natural gas mainly concentrates on west area, application is inconvenient, and price costly, so natural gas is not optimum reburning fuel, according to China's national situation, utilizing pyrolysis gas of biomass as boiler reburning fuel, is effectively most economical.Pyrolysis gas of biomass composition is mainly containing CO (carbon monoxide), H 2(hydrogen), CH 4the fuel gas of the composition such as (methane), CmHn (hydrocarbon), simple hydrocarbons and corresponding free radical thereof is generated containing cracking under high temperature atmosphere more than 900 DEG C of the biogas of tar, their reactivity is higher than the free radical come by the methane conversion in natural gas, produce reaction with nitrogen oxide and can improve reduction of nitrogen oxide efficiency, can reach with natural gas is the reduction efficiency that reburning fuel is identical, but expense can be saved over half.
The technical scheme that the present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above is as follows:
1. the method for fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitration:
1) fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitrification apparatus, is made up of biomass gasifying furnace, boiler, sack cleaner, main induced draft fan, smoke induced draught fan, mixing chamber, air blast, chimney.Described boiler is provided with burnout degree entrance, biogas entrance, exhanst gas outlet, mixed flue gas entrance and drum.Described biomass gasifying furnace is provided with air intake and biogas outlet.Described mixing chamber is provided with air intake a, smoke inlet b and mixed gas outlet c.
The biogas outlet of described biomass gasifying furnace 7 is connected with the biogas entrance of boiler; The exhanst gas outlet of boiler is connected with the entrance of sack cleaner, and the outlet of sack cleaner is connected with the entrance of main induced draft fan, smoke induced draught fan respectively by flue; The outlet of main induced draft fan is connected with the entrance of chimney; Air intake a, the smoke inlet b of mixing chamber and mixed gas outlet c are connected with the mixed flue gas entrance of the outlet of air blast, the outlet of smoke induced draught fan and boiler respectively.
2) method step of fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitration is as follows:
2.1) first paragraph: boiler smoke circulation is strile-backd minimizing NO_x formation
The flue gas that smoke induced draught fan extracts after sack cleaner purification enters mixing chamber, mix with the natural air that air blast is sent here, send in boiler combustion-supporting through boiler mixed flue gas entrance, because the oxygen content in the flue gas after sack cleaner purification is generally within 13%, oxygen content 21% in natural air, mixed combustion-supporting gas oxygen content about 19%, excess air coefficient α > 1, therefore main combustion zone can be made to burn under micro-oxygen enrichment operating mode and temperature reduces, thus reduce the generation of nitrogen oxide.
First paragraph object, for controlling formation of nitrogen oxides, to be strile-backd system primarily of air blast, mixing chamber, smoke induced draught fan, flue composition flue gas.Boiler total blast volume is constant, combustion air adds natural air 75 ~ 80% with the exhaust gas volumn 20 ~ 25% after sack cleaner purification and is formed, main combustion zone temperature controls can reduce formation of nitrogen oxides 20 ~ 30% 750 DEG C ~ 850 DEG C time, oxygen content in flue gas after the fuel combustion of main combustion zone is less than 3%, is conducive to the biogas nitrogen oxide that the main combustion zone of Accelerating reduction generates in combustion process again at second segment.
2.2) second segment: biogas burns and reduces the nitrogen oxide that generated
What biomass gasifying furnace produced sprays into boiler furnace through the biogas entrance of boiler without purification containing tar biogas, and spray into position and be close to above main combustion zone, in the middle part of boiler furnace and form combustion zone again, biogas is ignited after entering burner hearth immediately.The high calorific power of biogas is at 15MJ/m 3theoretical air requirement during burning is 3.65m 3/ m 3, tar content 10 ~ 15%, when burning under combustion zone excess air coefficient α < 1 operating mode again, oxygen demand is large, forming oxygen debt reducing atmosphere forces reduction of nitrogen oxide to be nitrogen molecular, and when the oxygen content in flue gas is less than 3%, the reduction efficiency of nitrogen oxide is high.Now biogas is imperfect combustion, ignition temperature 800 DEG C ~ 900 DEG C; The burnout degree entrance being located at boiler furnace top under main induced draft fan suction function pours in natural air and forms burning-out zone, excess air coefficient α > 1 makes fuel burn completely under oxygen enrichment operating mode and produces 1100 ~ 1300 DEG C of high temperature, tar under high temperature atmosphere in biogas produces intense reaction because of cracking, continues nitrogen oxides reduction.Flue gas is discharged from the exhanst gas outlet of boiler, through sack cleaner dedusting laggard enter main induced draft fan entrance, by air-introduced machine outlet enter air through chimney.Because total blast volume during boiler combustion does not change, the oxygen content of discharging in flue gas still can be controlled within 13%.
Second segment object is nitrogen oxides reduction, and formed after burner system united by biomass gasifying furnace, burnout degree entrance, main induced draft fan, boiler total amount of heat is constant.The biogas heat 20 ~ 25% that heat produces with biomass gasifying furnace and boiler oil heat 75 ~ 80% are formed, nitrous oxides concentration 30 ~ 40% can be reduced during burning-out zone temperature 1100 DEG C ~ 1300 DEG C, because boiler total amount of heat does not change, burning-out zone temperature is higher makes rate of heat exchange raising, full combustion of fuel, and the boiler efficiency after sectional combustion is higher than adopting the boiler efficiency of former combustion system.
Without nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration≤600mg/m before denitration process 3fire coal/biomass boiler with after the process of two-stage method denitration technology, nitrous oxides concentration in flue gas reduces 50% ~ 70%, can reach the newly constructed boiler discharge nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 300mg/m that " emission standard of air pollutants for boilers " (GB13271-2014) specifies 3below, active boiler discharge nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 400mg/m 3following standard.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
1. adopt the inventive method can reduce environment protection treating equipment investment and operating cost, reached by the nitrogen oxide suppressing NO_x formation, reduction has generated and reduce the object that boiler smoke is discharged into the nitrous oxides concentration in air.Due to small investment, operating cost is low, boiler efficiency improves, need not transform boiler structure or replacing boiler meet the requirement of environmental protection, makes enterprise be easy to accept, makes the inventive method have wide promotion prospect.
2., because the inventive method adopts biogas to be again combustion fuel, CO2 emissions can also be reduced.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitrification apparatus of the present invention.
In figure: burnout degree entrance 1, boiler 2, exhanst gas outlet 3, sack cleaner 4, chimney 5, air intake 6, biomass gasifying furnace 7, air blast 8, mixing chamber 9, smoke induced draught fan 10, flue 11, main induced draft fan 12, drum 13, biogas entrance 14, mixed flue gas entrance 15.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described with concrete use.
1. as shown in Figure 1, fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitrification apparatus is made up of biomass gasifying furnace 7, boiler 2, sack cleaner 4, main induced draft fan 12, smoke induced draught fan 10, mixing chamber 9, air blast 8, chimney 5 structure of fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitrification apparatus of the present invention.Described boiler 2 is provided with burnout degree entrance 1, biogas entrance 14, exhanst gas outlet 3, mixed flue gas entrance 15 and drum 13.Described biomass gasifying furnace 7 is provided with air intake 6 and biogas outlet.Described mixing chamber 9 is provided with air intake a, smoke inlet b and mixed gas outlet c.
The biogas outlet of described biomass gasifying furnace 7 is connected with the biogas entrance 14 of boiler 2; The exhanst gas outlet 3 of boiler 2 is connected with the entrance of sack cleaner 4, and the outlet of sack cleaner 4 is connected with the entrance of main induced draft fan 12, smoke induced draught fan 10 respectively by flue 11; The outlet of main induced draft fan 12 is connected with the entrance of chimney 5; Air intake a, the smoke inlet b of mixing chamber 9 and mixed gas outlet c are connected with the mixed flue gas entrance 15 of the outlet of air blast 8, the outlet of smoke induced draught fan 10 and boiler 2 respectively.
2. fire coal boiler fume two-phase method method of denitration step is as follows:
2.1) first paragraph: boiler smoke circulation is strile-backd minimizing NO_x formation
The flue gas that smoke induced draught fan 10 extracts after sack cleaner 4 purifies enters mixing chamber 9, the natural air sent here with air blast 8 mixes, send in boiler 2 combustion-supporting through boiler mixed flue gas entrance 15, because the oxygen content in the flue gas after sack cleaner 4 purification is generally within 13%, oxygen content 21% in natural air, mixed combustion-supporting gas oxygen content about 19%, excess air coefficient α > 1, therefore main combustion zone can be made to burn under micro-oxygen enrichment operating mode and temperature reduces, thus reduce the generation of nitrogen oxide.
First paragraph object, for controlling formation of nitrogen oxides, forms flue gas primarily of air blast 8, mixing chamber 9, smoke induced draught fan 10, flue 11 and to strile-back system.Boiler total blast volume is constant, combustion air adds natural air 75 ~ 80% with the exhaust gas volumn 20 ~ 25% after sack cleaner 4 purification and is formed, main combustion zone temperature controls can reduce formation of nitrogen oxides 20 ~ 30% 750 DEG C ~ 850 DEG C time, oxygen content in flue gas after the fuel combustion of main combustion zone is less than 3%, is conducive to the biogas nitrogen oxide that the main combustion zone of Accelerating reduction generates in combustion process again at second segment.
2.2) second segment: biogas burns and reduces the nitrogen oxide that generated
What biomass gasifying furnace 7 produced sprays into boiler furnace containing tar biogas through the biogas entrance 14 of boiler 2 without purification, spray into position to be close to above main combustion zone, in the middle part of boiler furnace and to form combustion zone again, biogas is ignited after entering burner hearth immediately.The high calorific power of biogas is at 15MJ/m 3theoretical air requirement during burning is 3.65m 3/ m 3, tar content 10 ~ 15%, when burning under combustion zone excess air coefficient α < 1 operating mode again, oxygen demand is large, forming oxygen debt reducing atmosphere forces reduction of nitrogen oxide to be nitrogen molecular, and when the oxygen content in flue gas is less than 3%, the reduction efficiency of nitrogen oxide is high.Now biogas is imperfect combustion, ignition temperature 800 DEG C ~ 900 DEG C; The burnout degree entrance being located at boiler furnace top under main induced draft fan 12 suction function pours in natural air and forms burning-out zone, excess air coefficient α > 1 makes fuel burn completely under oxygen enrichment operating mode and produces 1100 ~ 1300 DEG C of high temperature, tar under high temperature atmosphere in biogas produces intense reaction because of cracking, continues nitrogen oxides reduction.Flue gas is discharged from the exhanst gas outlet 3 of boiler 2, through sack cleaner 4 dedusting laggard enter main induced draft fan 12 entrance, exported by air-introduced machine 12 and enter air through chimney 5.Because total blast volume during boiler combustion does not change, the oxygen content of discharging in flue gas still can be controlled within 13%.
Second segment object is nitrogen oxides reduction, and formed after burner system united by biomass gasifying furnace 7, burnout degree entrance 1, main induced draft fan 12, boiler total amount of heat is constant.The biogas heat 20 ~ 25% that heat produces with biomass gasifying furnace 7 and boiler oil heat 75 ~ 80% are formed, nitrous oxides concentration 30 ~ 40% can be reduced during burning-out zone temperature 1100 DEG C ~ 1300 DEG C, because boiler total amount of heat does not change, burning-out zone temperature is higher makes rate of heat exchange raising, full combustion of fuel, and the boiler efficiency after sectional combustion is higher than adopting the boiler efficiency of former combustion system.
Without nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration≤600mg/m before denitration process 3fire coal/biomass boiler with after the process of two-stage method denitration technology, nitrous oxides concentration in flue gas reduces 50% ~ 70%, can reach the newly constructed boiler discharge nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 300mg/m that " emission standard of air pollutants for boilers " (GB13271-2014) specifies 3below, active boiler discharge nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 400mg/m 3following standard.

Claims (1)

1. the method for fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitration, is characterized in that,
1) fire coal boiler fume two-phase method denitrification apparatus, be made up of biomass gasifying furnace (7), boiler (2), sack cleaner (4), main induced draft fan (12), smoke induced draught fan (10), mixing chamber (9), air blast (8), chimney (5), described boiler (2) is provided with burnout degree entrance (1), biogas entrance (14), exhanst gas outlet (3), mixed flue gas entrance (15) and drum (13); Described biomass gasifying furnace (7) is provided with air intake (6) and biogas outlet; Described mixing chamber (9) is provided with air intake a, smoke inlet b and mixed gas outlet c;
The biogas outlet of described biomass gasifying furnace (7) is connected with the biogas entrance (14) of boiler (2); The exhanst gas outlet (3) of boiler (2) is connected with the entrance of sack cleaner (4), and the outlet of sack cleaner (4) is connected with the entrance of main induced draft fan (12), smoke induced draught fan (10) respectively by flue; The outlet of main induced draft fan (12) is connected with the entrance of chimney (5); Air intake a, the smoke inlet b of mixing chamber (9) and mixed gas outlet c are connected with the mixed flue gas entrance (15) of the outlet of air blast (8), the outlet of smoke induced draught fan (10) and boiler (2) respectively;
2) fire coal boiler fume two-phase method method of denitration step is as follows:
2.1) first paragraph: boiler smoke circulation is strile-backd minimizing NO_x formation
The flue gas that smoke induced draught fan (10) extracts after sack cleaner (4) purification enters mixing chamber (9), the natural air sent here with air blast (8) mixes, send in boiler (2) combustion-supporting through boiler mixed flue gas entrance (15), because the oxygen content in the flue gas after sack cleaner (4) purification is generally within 13%, oxygen content 21% in natural air, mixed combustion-supporting gas oxygen content about 19%, excess air coefficient α > 1, therefore main combustion zone can be made to burn under micro-oxygen enrichment operating mode and temperature reduces, thus reduce the generation of nitrogen oxide,
First paragraph object, for controlling formation of nitrogen oxides, to be strile-backd system primarily of air blast (8), mixing chamber (9), smoke induced draught fan (10), flue (11) composition flue gas; Boiler total blast volume is constant, combustion air adds natural air 75 ~ 80% with the exhaust gas volumn 20 ~ 25% after sack cleaner purification and is formed, main combustion zone temperature controls can reduce formation of nitrogen oxides 20 ~ 30% 750 DEG C ~ 850 DEG C time, oxygen content in flue gas after the fuel combustion of main combustion zone is less than 3%, is conducive to the biogas nitrogen oxide that the main combustion zone of Accelerating reduction generates in combustion process again at second segment;
2.2) second segment: biogas burns and reduces the nitrogen oxide that generated
The tar biogas that contains without purification that biomass gasifying furnace (7) produces sprays into boiler furnace through the biogas entrance (14) of boiler (2), spray into position to be close to above main combustion zone, in the middle part of boiler furnace and to form combustion zone again, biogas is ignited after entering burner hearth immediately, and the high calorific power of biogas is at 15MJ/m 3theoretical air requirement during burning is 3.65m 3/ m 3, tar content 10 ~ 15%, when burning under combustion zone excess air coefficient α < 1 operating mode again, oxygen demand is large, forming oxygen debt reducing atmosphere forces reduction of nitrogen oxide to be nitrogen molecular, when oxygen content in flue gas is less than 3%, the reduction efficiency of nitrogen oxide is high, now biogas is imperfect combustion, ignition temperature 800 DEG C ~ 900 DEG C, the burnout degree entrance being located at boiler furnace top under main induced draft fan (12) suction function pours in natural air and forms burning-out zone, excess air coefficient α > 1 makes fuel burn completely under oxygen enrichment operating mode and produces 1100 ~ 1300 DEG C of high temperature, tar under high temperature atmosphere in biogas produces intense reaction because of cracking, continue nitrogen oxides reduction, flue gas is discharged from the exhanst gas outlet (3) of boiler (2), through sack cleaner (4) dedusting laggard enter main induced draft fan (12) entrance, air is entered through chimney (5) by air-introduced machine (12) outlet, because total blast volume during boiler combustion does not change, the oxygen content of discharging in flue gas still can be controlled within 13%,
Second segment object is nitrogen oxides reduction, by biomass gasifying furnace (7), burnout degree entrance (1), main induced draft fan (12) composition after burner system system, boiler total amount of heat is constant, the biogas heat 20 ~ 25% that heat produces with biomass gasifying furnace (7) and boiler oil heat 75 ~ 80% are formed, nitrous oxides concentration 30 ~ 40% can be reduced during burning-out zone temperature 1100 DEG C ~ 1300 DEG C, because boiler total amount of heat does not change, the higher rate of heat exchange that makes of burning-out zone temperature improves, full combustion of fuel, boiler efficiency after sectional combustion is higher than adopting the boiler efficiency of former combustion system,
Without nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration≤600mg/m before denitration process 3fire coal/biomass boiler with after the process of two-stage method denitration technology, nitrous oxides concentration in flue gas reduces 50% ~ 70%, can reach the newly constructed boiler discharge nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 300mg/m that " emission standard of air pollutants for boilers " (GB13271-2014) specifies 3below, active boiler discharge nitrogen oxides in effluent concentration limit 400mg/m 3following standard.
CN201510103609.6A 2015-03-09 2015-03-09 Two-stage process denitrification method of coal fired boiler Pending CN104696949A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106871440A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-06-20 黄永乐 A kind of environment-friendlynegative negative pressure boiler
CN106895395A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-06-27 黄永乐 A kind of high-efficiency negative-pressure boiler
CN108534134A (en) * 2018-06-08 2018-09-14 山西桐鑫宇环保设备有限公司 The low nitrogen boiler special for biomass of back-firing efficient
CN109735371A (en) * 2019-02-13 2019-05-10 浙江大学 A kind of biomass circulating fluidized bed direct-combustion boiler and its with gasification furnace coupled electricity-generation co-producing active carbon system
CN112325648A (en) * 2020-11-17 2021-02-05 成都阳光铝制品有限公司 Method for reducing harmful gas emission in workshop
CN115111591A (en) * 2021-03-17 2022-09-27 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Combustion control apparatus, method, device, and computer storage medium
CN115342551A (en) * 2022-08-23 2022-11-15 北京建筑大学 Direct-expansion heat pump type premixing and humidifying flue gas waste heat recovery and nitrogen reduction system

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106871440A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-06-20 黄永乐 A kind of environment-friendlynegative negative pressure boiler
CN106895395A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-06-27 黄永乐 A kind of high-efficiency negative-pressure boiler
CN108534134A (en) * 2018-06-08 2018-09-14 山西桐鑫宇环保设备有限公司 The low nitrogen boiler special for biomass of back-firing efficient
CN109735371A (en) * 2019-02-13 2019-05-10 浙江大学 A kind of biomass circulating fluidized bed direct-combustion boiler and its with gasification furnace coupled electricity-generation co-producing active carbon system
CN112325648A (en) * 2020-11-17 2021-02-05 成都阳光铝制品有限公司 Method for reducing harmful gas emission in workshop
CN115111591A (en) * 2021-03-17 2022-09-27 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Combustion control apparatus, method, device, and computer storage medium
CN115342551A (en) * 2022-08-23 2022-11-15 北京建筑大学 Direct-expansion heat pump type premixing and humidifying flue gas waste heat recovery and nitrogen reduction system

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