CN104655018A - System and method for detecting end surface size of spline housing - Google Patents

System and method for detecting end surface size of spline housing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104655018A
CN104655018A CN201510113797.0A CN201510113797A CN104655018A CN 104655018 A CN104655018 A CN 104655018A CN 201510113797 A CN201510113797 A CN 201510113797A CN 104655018 A CN104655018 A CN 104655018A
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camera
link
fixture
spline housing
supporting seat
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CN201510113797.0A
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CN104655018B (en
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许贤泽
陈少阳
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武汉大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a system and a method for detecting an end surface size of a spline housing. The system mainly consists of a CMOS camera, a computer, specific detection software programmed for the system, a worktable of the detection system, a bracket and other parts. The part image distortion caused by an optical system is corrected by adopting a camera calibration technology, the size of the parts can be detected by virtue of an image measurement technology, and the detection result can be quantized and stored and is subjected to database constructing management. According to the system, high-precision detection of the end surface size of the spline housing can be realized, the part detection speed is greatly improved, and the system is easy to operate, small in worktable size and low in cost, is particularly suitable to be equipped and used by manufacturers of spline housings in the detection process and can serve as a detection instrument in the quality inspection department, survey departments and other related industries.

Description

A kind of spline housing face size detection system and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of detection system and method for spline housing face size, particularly relate to a kind of spline housing face size detection system based on image measurement technology and method.

Background technology

Spline coupling mechanism is parts in truck drive shaft, and spline housing is vital part wherein, has the different sizes such as 32 teeth, 28 teeth, 26 teeth according to the difference that transmission requires.Spline housing part, after machining, is assembled together with the splined shaft of corresponding model, plays the effect of transmission power.In order to obtain the serviceable life of better transmission power and prolongation truck drive shaft, factory must produce the higher spline housing part of precision, and this also proposes higher requirement to the size detection of spline housing part.

Spline housing part is when assembling with splined shaft, and can the inscribed circle diameter of part end face spline, circumcircle diameter and the spline facewidth coordinate errorless playing a key effect for part.In the process of spline housing, affect cutting output because broaching tool is heated to deform, and the spline housing foozle that machining precision limits and the reason such as operating personnel's fatigue and carelessness all can cause becomes large.In order to the qualification rate of the part that ensures to dispatch from the factory, need to detect the every dimensional parameters of spline housing end face, ensure the ex factory pass rate of part.

The mode of traditional detection spline housing uses three-coordinates measuring machine to carry out sampling Detection to part, and the mode of being adopted a little by probes touch piece surface first obtains piece surface shape information, then resolves piece surface size by software, thus completes detection.The method is consuming time longer, can only carry out sampling Detection, and all can not detect part volume.In addition, this detection mode all has higher requirements to the working experience of operating personnel and duty, and measuring instrument cost is very high, and whole detection efficiency is lower.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is intended to utilize the emerging non-contact detecting technological means based on image measurement to solve the test problems of spline housing face size, for relevant industries provide simply, reliable testing tool and solution.

Concrete technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:

A kind of spline housing face size detection system, comprises CMOS camera 1, knob 3 is tightened by camera fixture 2, camera, camera connecting link 4, connecting link tighten knob 5, connecting link fixture 6, sway brace 7, spline housing 8, light source holder 9, supporting seat 10, table base 11, is provided with the computing machine of inspection software;

CMOS camera 1 is fixed on camera connecting link 4 by camera fixture 2, camera connecting link 4 other end is tightened knob 5 by connecting link fixture 6 by connecting link and is tightened to sway brace 7 upper end, detect part spline housing 8 to be placed on the light source holder 9 that is fixed on supporting seat 10, sway brace 7 and supporting seat 10 are all connected directly between on table base 11; CMOS camera 1 is connected with the computing machine being provided with inspection software.

Also comprise camera fixture fixed head 15, camera fixture axle 16, connecting link locking hole 17, pitman shaft 18, connecting link fixed orifice 19, connecting link fastener apertures 20, sway brace upper end fixed groove 21, connecting link fixture locking hole 22;

Connecting link fixture 6 is fixed on groove 21 place of sway brace 7 upper end at connecting link fixture locking hole 22 place by screw, camera connecting link 4 is arranged on extension bar fixture 6, the pitman shaft 18 of camera connecting link 4 stretches in the connecting link fastener apertures 20 of extension bar fixture 6, tighten connecting link to suitable position and tighten knob 5, complete the installation of camera connecting link 4; Camera fixture axle 16 to stretch in camera connecting link 4 connecting link fixed orifice 19 to correct position, camera is tightened knob 3 and be screwed into connecting link locking hole 17 internal locking, CMOS camera 1 is arranged on camera fixture fixed head 15, is tightened at camera fixing threaded hole 14 place by screw.

Also comprise light source holder boss 23, supporting seat boss 24, supporting seat fixed screw 25, supporting seat fixed orifice 26, supporting seat pickup groove 27, sway brace pickup groove 28;

Supporting seat 10 is arranged on the supporting seat pickup groove 27 li of table base 11, be fixed in supporting seat fixed orifice 26 by four lock screws 25, light source holder 9 is arranged on the upper end boss 24 of supporting seat 10, light source holder 9 upper end boss 23 has the effect of retaining element position, spline housing 8 is arranged on above light source holder boss 23, and sway brace 7 is fixed in sway brace pickup groove 28.

Described CMOS camera 1 comprises camera lens 12, data cable plug 13, camera fixing threaded hole 14; Camera lens 12 is fixed on camera body by screw thread, and data cable plug 13 is connected with computing machine by data line, and to transmit data and to provide working power, camera fixing threaded hole 14 is for being fixed on camera fixture fixed head 15 by camera body.

The mode of throwing light on dorsad is adopted in image acquisition process, namely tested spline housing 8 is placed in the centre of CMOS camera 1 and light source 29, this lighting system can give prominence to the contour shape of measured object, shields the interference of the uncorrelated attribute such as the interference of background illumination and the textural characteristics on measured object surface dramatically.

Described inspection software comprises three subroutines, is distortion correction program, system calibrating program and systems axiol-ogy program respectively.

Based on a spline housing face size detection method for said system, comprise three processes, that is: distortion correction, system calibrating and systems axiol-ogy;

Distortion correction: adopt camera calibration plate, camera calibration plate is placed near part end face position, and constantly change the angle of inclination of camera calibration plate, take 25 pictures altogether, distortion correction system in inspection software can be analyzed and detect camera distortion distribution situation, resolve and obtain distortion correction parameter, parameter can be applied in piece test process automatically;

System calibrating: after distortion correction completes, then need to carry out initialization calibration if first time uses, namely native system is used to detect one with the standard component that the testing tool of higher extra fine grade is detected, obtain the facewidth of the inscribed circle diameter of standard component, circumcircle diameter and all spline tooths, system draws the pixel equivalent of detection as criterion calculation, i.e. the ratio value of pixel value and physical size in image; Open lighting source, standard component is placed on light source fixing part, start calibration process; For obtaining the pixel equivalent at each position of image, standard component need be demarcated 10 times continuously, after having demarcated, standard component is rotated 36 °, demarcation completes at every turn;

Systems axiol-ogy: keep lighting source open mode, the trace routine of opening control, clicks and connects camera key, and namely detection camera communication normally start to detect; Manually input the dimensional tolerence upper limit of a collection of part to be detected and the value of dimensional tolerence lower limit at the standard value editing area detecting interface, and input the dimensional parameters of the standard component used in calibration process, locking editing area after completing; Be placed on light source fixing part by be measured, click and detect key, wait for and namely complete testing process in 30 seconds, operation interface can demonstrate the every size of part whether out-of-size band, and whether comprehensive descision part is qualified, and calibration testing result is kept at Excel file;

Change part to be measured, detect next time.

Below the further elaboration that technique scheme of the present invention and design concept are done:

Part I is image capturing system part, is made up of CMOS camera, optical lens parts, connectivity kit and lighting source;

Part II is testing platform part, by base, sway brace, connecting link, tightens the external members such as knob and forms;

Part III is software processing part, is made up of the specific inspection software of system composes for this reason, usb hub and the computing machine (computer) with USB interface, and software runtime environment is Windows XP system and more highest version.

The effect of Part I described in the invention is for system provides lighting environment, ensures that tested end face is high-visible, gathers the image information of tested part end face spline, and digital picture is transferred to computer end by USB data line.Adopt light source from part back to the lighting system that one end of camera is irradiated, the contrast of part and background can be given prominence to, weaken piece surface texture information, and outstanding system needs the contour shape of the part detected, reduce surround lighting to the impact of image acquisition, be conducive to the image detected clearly.

The effect of Part II described in the invention is location, the effect supporting and regulate CMOS camera shooting angle.It is all steel construction, provides enough rigidity, and when the positional precision of support tested part, guarantee light source irradiation direction, guarantee camera and shooting, the attitude accuracy of camera, ensures carrying out smoothly and accurately of testing.Its length, width and height all control in 0.8 meter, and small volume can be placed on Working table, easy to assembly.

The Main Function of Part III of the present invention receives part end face image, rectification and process image, resolves and stores detection data.Collected by camera is connected to computer by USB data line after part end face image.USB2.0 at a high speed ensures that the image of camera shooting can show on the computer screen in real time.Utilize image measurement technology to the algorithm progressively analytical calculation of the image gathered according to system composes for this reason, finally by computer, result of calculation is integrated together, and the result of each value detected and judgement is fed back to checker by display.Checker is according to the Qualification of interpretation of result this batch of part exported, and the detected parameters of product is finally kept at computer with excel file and product is sent into next process by software, filters out underproof product, the qualification rate of the product that ensures to dispatch from the factory.

The present invention replaces three-coordinates measuring machine to complete checking measurements work mainly through image measurement technology with coordinating of corresponding software, is wherein also applied to pattern distortion correcting technology, improves accuracy of detection.The work that the combination of above-mentioned first, second, third part makes spline housing face size detect can be carried out by convenient and efficient exactly.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the testing platform structural representation of native system.

Fig. 2 is that the axles such as the testing platform structure of native system are surveyed.

Fig. 3 is CMOS camera structure schematic diagram.

Fig. 4 is camera support structure installment schematic diagram.

Fig. 5 is table base part scheme of installation.

Fig. 6 is camera calibration plate pattern diagram.

Fig. 7 is lighting system schematic diagram.

Fig. 8 is pixel equivalent calibration principle figure.

Fig. 9 is subregion pixel equivalent standardization principle schematic.

In figure, each modular construction is CMOS camera 1, camera fixture 2, knob 3 tightened by camera, camera connecting link 4, connecting link tightens knob 5, connecting link fixture 6, sway brace 7, spline housing 8, light source holder 9, supporting seat 10, table base 11, camera lens 12, data cable plug 13, camera fixing threaded hole 14, camera fixture fixed head 15, camera fixture axle 16, connecting link locking hole 17, pitman shaft 18, connecting link fixed orifice 19, connecting link fastener apertures 20, sway brace upper end fixed groove 21, connecting link fixture locking hole 22, light source holder boss 23, supporting seat boss 24, supporting seat fixed screw 25, supporting seat fixed orifice 26, supporting seat pickup groove 27, sway brace pickup groove 28, camera light source 29.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and exemplifying embodiment, the present invention will be further described illustrates, but this description is only for explaining the present invention, and can not be interpreted as limitation of the present invention.

One, the assembling of testing platform

Fig. 1 is the structural representation after worktable has assembled.Wherein, CMOS camera 1 is fixed on camera connecting link 4 by camera fixture 2.Camera connecting link 4 other end is tightened knob 5 by connecting link fixture 6 by connecting link and is tightened to sway brace 7 upper end.Detect part spline housing 8 to be placed on the light source holder 9 that is fixed on supporting seat 10, sway brace 7 and supporting seat 10 are all connected directly between on table base 11, and CMOS camera 1 is connected with the computing machine being provided with inspection software.

Fig. 2 is the testing platform structure normal axomometric drawing of native system, and for ease of being described drafting to system architecture, in figure, various piece title is identical with Fig. 1 with connected mode.

Fig. 3 is CMOS camera structure schematic diagram, and wherein camera lens 12 is fixed on camera body by screw thread, and data cable plug 13 is used for connection data line, and can transmit data and provide working power, camera fixing threaded hole 14 is for fixed camera fuselage.

Fig. 5 is table base part scheme of installation, concrete assembling process is, first supporting seat 10 is arranged on the supporting seat pickup groove 27 li of table base 11, tighten four supporting seat fixing and locking screws 25, then select to survey light source holder 9 corresponding to part numbers, different model part designs the light source fixing part 9 of different model in advance, light source holder 9 is arranged on the upper end supporting seat boss 24 of supporting seat 10, plays fixed light source and ensures that part acts within sweep of the eye at camera calibration.Light source fixing part 9 upper end light source holder boss 23 has the effect of retaining element position, then just can part 8 is arranged on above light source holder boss 23, finally installs the sway brace 7 in installation diagram 1 in sway brace pickup groove 28 position.

Then install camera support structure, Fig. 4 is camera support structure installment schematic diagram.Concrete assembling process is, first connecting link fixture 6 is fixed on fixed groove 21 place, sway brace upper end of sway brace 7 upper end at connecting link fixture locking hole 22 place by screw.Then camera connecting link 4 is arranged on extension bar fixture 6, the left end extension pitman shaft 18 of camera connecting link 4 stretches in the connecting link fastener apertures 20 of extension bar fixture 6, tighten connecting link to suitable position and tighten knob 5, complete the installation of camera connecting link 4.Then install camera fixture 2, camera fixture axle 16 to stretch in camera connecting link 4 connecting link fixed orifice 19 to correct position, camera is tightened knob 3 and is screwed into connecting link locking hole 17 internal locking.Finally CMOS camera 1 is arranged on camera fixture 2, screw is tightened at camera fixing threaded hole 14 place.

After installation, need to adjust the position of camera and attitude.Unclamp camera and tighten knob 3 and connecting link tightens knob 5, the left end extension pitman shaft 18 of adjustment camera connecting link 4 and the degree of depth stretching into hole of camera fixture axle 16 to the position adjusting camera to camera lens directly over part to be measured, simultaneously rotating camera connecting link 4 and camera fixture 2 adjust camera angle of pitch posture, to the upper surface of camera perpendicular to part to be measured.Last camera of again tightening tightens knob 3 and connecting link tightens knob 5.Whole testing platform has assembled.

Two, software flow

Open the specific inspection software of system composes for this reason, software comprises three subroutines altogether, is distortion correction program, system calibrating program and systems axiol-ogy program respectively.Carry out communication test with camera after opening software, after inerrancy, enter mode of operation;

After assembling detection system, need to carry out camera distortion correcting process, namely the distortion correction program that native system software provides is used, distortion correction needs to use camera calibration plate as shown in Figure 6, camera calibration plate is placed near part end face position, and constantly change the angle of inclination of camera calibration plate, take 25 pictures altogether.Distortion correction system can be analyzed and detect camera distortion distribution situation, resolves and obtains distortion correction parameter, and parameter can be applied in piece test process automatically.

After distortion correction completes, then need to carry out initialization calibration if first time uses, namely native system software detection one is used with the standard component that the testing tool of higher extra fine grade is detected, obtain the facewidth of the inscribed circle diameter of standard room, circumcircle diameter and all spline tooths, software can draw the pixel equivalent of detection as criterion calculation, i.e. the ratio value of pixel value and physical size in image.Open lighting source, standard component is placed on light source fixing part, start calibration process.For obtaining the pixel equivalent at each position of image, standard component need be demarcated 10 times continuously, after having demarcated, standard component is rotated about 36 °, demarcation completes at every turn.

Keep lighting source open mode, open the trace routine of system software, click and connect camera key, detection camera communication normally can start to detect.Manually input the dimensional tolerence upper limit of a collection of part to be detected and the value of dimensional tolerence lower limit at the standard value editing area detecting interface, and input the dimensional parameters of the standard component used in calibration process, locking editing area after completing.To be measured is placed on light source fixing part, click and detect key, wait for about 30 seconds and namely complete testing process, operation interface can demonstrate the every size of part whether out-of-size band, whether comprehensive descision part is qualified, and calibration testing result is kept at Excel file.

Change part to be measured, detect next time.

Three, native system lighting system and calibration principle

Lighting system:

What native system adopted is lighting system dorsad, as shown in Figure 7, the centre of CMOS camera 1 and light source 29 is placed in by tested spline housing 8, in this, lighting system can give prominence to the contour shape of measured object, shields the interference of the uncorrelated attribute such as the interference of background illumination and the textural characteristics on measured object surface dramatically.

Calibration principle:

Pixel equivalent calibration principle.Fig. 8 is pixel equivalent calibration principle figure, L is standard component physical size, and l is standard component shared pixel value in the picture, and the ratio of two amounts is exactly pixel equivalent S.

S = L l

Subregion standardization principle.Because camera optical axis and tested surface cannot reach absolute upright, bad student can have an X-rayed error, this error reaction is exactly the diverse location at picture in testing result, pixel equivalent S (i) is different, the value of S (i) is relevant to the position in picture residing for degree of tilt and its, as shown in Figure 9, the pixel equivalent at S place and S ' place is incomplete same.

Common pixel equivalent scaling method can not distinguish the pixel equivalent of diverse location, thus introduces error.Here in the calibration process detected, propose a kind of way of new subregion calibration for cameras.Detect picture and be divided into the region identical with the number of teeth by the position according to tooth, each region is independently demarcated, if also number detects the spline of tooth in other words, will obtain the different pixels equivalent in 32 regions: S (i); I=1,2 ..., 32}.Namely the facewidth L (i) of 32 teeth is:

L(i)=l(i)*S(i);{i=1,2,……,32}

Find that the testing result of the present invention to spline housing part end face size detection reaches accuracy requirement by test, inscribed circle directly and circumcircle examine of diameter precision reach ± 0.02mm, spline facewidth accuracy of detection reaches ± 0.04mm.

Concrete embodiment described herein is only to the explanation for example of the present invention's spirit.Those skilled in the art can make various amendment or supplement or adopt similar mode to substitute to described concrete embodiment, but can't depart from spirit of the present invention or surmount the scope that appended claims defines.

Although more employ CMOS camera 1 herein, knob 3 tightened by camera fixture 2, camera, camera connecting link 4, connecting link fixture 5, connecting link tighten the terms such as knob 6, sway brace 7, spline housing 8, light source holder 9, supporting seat 10, table base 11, light source 29, do not get rid of the possibility using other term.These terms are used to be only used to describe and explain essence of the present invention more easily; The restriction that they are construed to any one additional is all contrary with spirit of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a spline housing face size detection system, is characterized in that: comprise CMOS camera (1), knob (3) tightened by camera fixture (2), camera, camera connecting link (4), connecting link tighten knob (5), connecting link fixture (6), sway brace (7), spline housing (8), light source holder (9), supporting seat (10), table base (11), be provided with the computing machine of inspection software;
CMOS camera (1) is fixed on camera connecting link (4) by camera fixture 2, camera connecting link (4) other end is tightened knob (5) by connecting link fixture (6) by connecting link and is tightened to sway brace (7) upper end, detect part spline housing (8) to be placed on the light source holder (9) that is fixed on supporting seat (10), sway brace (7) and supporting seat (10) are all connected directly between on table base (11); CMOS camera (1) is connected with the computing machine being provided with inspection software.
2. a kind of spline housing face size detection system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: also comprise camera fixture fixed head (15), camera fixture axle (16), connecting link locking hole (17), pitman shaft (18), connecting link fixed orifice (19), connecting link fastener apertures (20), sway brace upper end fixed groove (21), connecting link fixture locking hole (22);
Connecting link fixture (6) is fixed on groove (21) place of sway brace (7) upper end at connecting link fixture locking hole (22) place by screw, camera connecting link (4) is arranged on extension bar fixture (6), the pitman shaft (18) of camera connecting link (4) stretches in the connecting link fastener apertures (20) of extension bar fixture (6), tighten connecting link to suitable position and tighten knob (5), complete the installation of camera connecting link (4); Camera fixture axle (16) to stretch in camera connecting link (4) connecting link fixed orifice (19) to correct position, camera is tightened knob (3) and be screwed into connecting link locking hole (17) internal locking, CMOS camera (1) is arranged on camera fixture fixed head (15), is tightened at camera fixing threaded hole (14) place by screw.
3. a kind of spline housing face size detection system according to claim 2, is characterized in that: also comprise light source holder boss (23), supporting seat boss (24), supporting seat fixed screw (25), supporting seat fixed orifice (26), supporting seat pickup groove (27), sway brace pickup groove (28);
The supporting seat pickup groove (27) that supporting seat (10) is arranged on table base (11) is inner, be fixed in supporting seat fixed orifice (26) by four lock screws (25), light source holder (9) is arranged on the upper end boss (24) of supporting seat (10), there is the effect of retaining element position light source holder (9) upper end boss (23), spline housing (8) is arranged on above light source holder boss (23), and sway brace (7) is fixed in sway brace pickup groove (28).
4. a kind of spline housing face size detection system according to claim 3, is characterized in that: described CMOS camera (1) comprises camera lens (12), data cable plug (13), camera fixing threaded hole (14); Camera lens (12) is fixed on camera body by screw thread, data cable plug (13) is connected with computing machine by data line, to transmit data and to provide working power, camera fixing threaded hole (14) is for being fixed on camera fixture fixed head (15) by camera body.
5. a kind of spline housing face size detection system according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: in image acquisition process, adopt the mode of throwing light on dorsad, namely tested spline housing (8) is placed in the centre of CMOS camera (1) and light source (29), this lighting system can give prominence to the contour shape of measured object, shields the interference of the uncorrelated attribute such as the interference of background illumination and the textural characteristics on measured object surface dramatically.
6. a kind of spline housing face size detection system according to claim 5, is characterized in that: described inspection software comprises three subroutines, is distortion correction program, system calibrating program and systems axiol-ogy program respectively.
7. based on a spline housing face size detection method for system described in claim 6, it is characterized in that: comprise three processes, that is: distortion correction, system calibrating and systems axiol-ogy;
Distortion correction: adopt camera calibration plate, camera calibration plate is placed near part end face position, and constantly change the angle of inclination of camera calibration plate, take 25 pictures altogether, distortion correction system in inspection software can be analyzed and detect camera distortion distribution situation, resolve and obtain distortion correction parameter, parameter can be applied in piece test process automatically;
System calibrating: after distortion correction completes, then need to carry out initialization calibration if first time uses, namely native system is used to detect one with the standard component that the testing tool of higher extra fine grade is detected, obtain the facewidth of the inscribed circle diameter of standard component, circumcircle diameter and all spline tooths, system draws the pixel equivalent of detection as criterion calculation, i.e. the ratio value of pixel value and physical size in image; Open lighting source, standard component is placed on light source fixing part, start calibration process; For obtaining the pixel equivalent at each position of image, standard component need be demarcated 10 times continuously, after having demarcated, standard component is rotated 36 °, demarcation completes at every turn;
Systems axiol-ogy: keep lighting source open mode, the trace routine of opening control, clicks and connects camera key, and namely detection camera communication normally start to detect; Manually input the dimensional tolerence upper limit of a collection of part to be detected and the value of dimensional tolerence lower limit at the standard value editing area detecting interface, and input the dimensional parameters of the standard component used in calibration process, locking editing area after completing; Be placed on light source fixing part by be measured, click and detect key, wait for and namely complete testing process in 30 seconds, operation interface can demonstrate the every size of part whether out-of-size band, and whether comprehensive descision part is qualified, and calibration testing result is kept at Excel file;
Change part to be measured, detect next time.
CN201510113797.0A 2015-03-16 2015-03-16 A kind of spline housing face size detecting system and method CN104655018B (en)

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