CN104404926A - Overflow dam with dam face cantilever sills for current diversion and energy dissipation - Google Patents

Overflow dam with dam face cantilever sills for current diversion and energy dissipation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104404926A
CN104404926A CN201410525868.3A CN201410525868A CN104404926A CN 104404926 A CN104404926 A CN 104404926A CN 201410525868 A CN201410525868 A CN 201410525868A CN 104404926 A CN104404926 A CN 104404926A
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China
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bank
dam
arc
chooses
chosen
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CN201410525868.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104404926B (en
Inventor
邓军
许唯临
田忠
张法星
刘善均
张建民
王韦
曲景学
刘�文
周茂林
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四川大学
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B8/00Details of barrages or weirs ; Energy dissipating devices carried by lock or dry-dock gates
    • E02B8/06Spillways; Devices for dissipation of energy, e.g. for reducing eddies also for lock or dry-dock gates

Abstract

The invention discloses an overflow dam with dam face cantilever sills for current diversion and energy dissipation. The tank bottom of an energy dissipation tank is connected to the rear part of an overflow slop of the overflow dam. A protection side wall of the energy dissipation tank is connected to the rear part of a side wall of the overflow slope. A plurality of gate piers used for dividing a fluid flow-by area into a plurality spillway are arranged on the dam top of the overflow dam. The overflow slope of the overflow dam is provided with a plurality of current diversion cantilever sills distributed in a spaced manner, so that one part of water current coming from the spillways flows through the upper sill surfaces of the cantilever sills and enters the rear area of the energy dissipation tank in a form of cantilever current while the other part of water current flows into the front area of the energy dissipation tank through flow channels between each two cantilever sills and achieves energy dissipation through dispersion of the water current entering the energy dissipation tank. The energy dissipation mode provided by the invention is totally different from those in the prior art and is distinct in energy dissipation effect.

Description

Dam facing chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating
Technical field
The invention belongs to hydraulic structure flood-discharge energy-dissipating field in Hydraulic and Hydro-Power Engineering, be specifically related to a kind of dam facing and be designed with the overfall dam choosing bank shunting energy dissipating structure.
Background technology
In Hydraulic and Hydro-Power Engineering, gravity dam is a kind of conventional dam type, and in general, the constructional materials of gravity dam is concrete, therefore often adopts flood relief through dam.For with the overfall dam of flood relief through dam, generally all behind dam, build absorption basin, adopt the mode of hydraulic jump to carry out energy dissipating.But the energy dissipation rate of hydraulic jump is general lower, is ideally about 60 ~ 70%, sometimes even less.
Along with the increase of dam height, the lower speed sluicing stream also increases sharply, and its energy also increases sharply, in order to avoid flow energy is to the erosion damage in downstream, usually need absorption basin to be built very large, this can increase engineering construction cost, on the one hand on the other hand, because flow energy is huge, its destructive power is very surprising, engineering reality also proves, along with the increase of dam height, the destructive rate of absorption basin and destructiveness are also in continuous increase.
In order to reduce the construction costs of absorption basin length and downstream thereof as far as possible, flaring gate pier is used widely in gravity dam table hole.The runner that namely described table hole is made up of dam body flow-passing surface and two flaring gate pier sides.The action principle of flaring gate pier is, the current flowed out from table hole are longitudinally stretched, current direction stretching can cause a part of current from falling in the absorption basin of downstream in the air, part current still against dam facing and enter formation hydraulic jump in absorption basin, due in the pond head of absorption basin, nappe flow can impact effect to adherent current, and the current in this region therefore can be made more disorderly, thus increase the consumption of energy, make current energy dissipating.
But, along with the increase of dam height, concentration phenomenon is there will be by the skyborne motion process of current that flaring gate pier stretches, this mainly due to, the water velocity in flaring gate pier exit, due to the viscous flow effect in dam body face, upper water Flow Velocity is little, lower layer of water Flow Velocity is large, therefore, after aerial sports distance is comparatively large, the water movement track of diverse location outgoing can intersect, thus once more concentrate after causing current to stretch, and current concentrate after, can greatly increase the percussion of absorption basin leading section, and excessive surge can make force reduction pool bottom produce destruction, in addition, after current are concentrated, effect of energy dissipation also can be deteriorated.
Summary of the invention
The present situation designed for the hydraulic structure Energy dissipation of flood discharging of prior art and deficiency, object of the present invention aims to provide the overfall dam that a kind of dam facing chooses bank shunting energy dissipating, flow through choose the abundant energy dissipating of bank flow dividing structure to realize lower sluicing, avoid flow energy to the erosion damage in downstream.
Dam facing provided by the invention chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, connect at the bottom of the pond of absorption basin after overfall dam earial drainage is domatic, the protection abutment wall of absorption basin is connect after the domatic abutment wall of earial drainage, the dam crest of overfall dam is designed with the some gate piers differentiation of water body overcurrent being divided into some table holes, overfall dam earial drainage is domatic to be provided with some shuntings spaced apart and to choose bank, make a part of upper bank face of choosing bank through shunting of current out from table hole, the Background Region of absorption basin is entered with the form of choosing stream, and another part current enter the front area of absorption basin through the runner that two are chosen between bank, thus reach subregion energy dissipating.
In technique scheme of the present invention, described shunting is chosen bank and is preferentially adopted anti-arc to choose bank, and described anti-arc is chosen bank and referred to that the upper bank face of choosing bank is the cambered surface of a spill; Further preferential employing is chosen bank afterbody to choose angle θ is that bank is chosen in the anti-arc shunting of-25 ~ 25 °; Preferential especially employing is chosen bank afterbody to choose angle θ is that bank is chosen in the anti-arc shunting of-5 ~ 5 °.
In technique scheme of the present invention, bank root (shunting choose bank starting point) the width b that connect domatic with overfall dam earial drainage is chosen in described shunting, can design by following formula: b=(0.4 ~ 0.7) B, B are the distance between two axis, adjacent earial drainage table hole; Described shunting is chosen bank and is paid the utmost attention to and be designed to outwards gradually widen extension along water (flow) direction width from the domatic root connected of overfall dam earial drainage in plane; Preferential worry is designed to gradually widen extension along water (flow) direction according to the rate of widening of root and tail end 1:3 ~ 1:5 in plane further.Anti-arc is chosen bank and is designed to widen extension gradually according to the rate of widening of 1:3 ~ 1:5 by the present invention, also mean the two anti-arc runner designs chosen between bank to become simultaneously and shrink according to 1:3 ~ 1:5 ratio along water (flow) direction, take such structure design, two current chosen between bank can be made longitudinally fully to stretch, thus the surface of shear increased when it enters water, increase and shear effect of energy dissipation.
In technique scheme of the present invention, overfall dam earial drainage is domatic to be connected by falling bank with at the bottom of the pond of absorption basin, also can straightly connect, and connects and can strengthen effect of energy dissipation, but correspondingly can increase cost of investment by falling bank.The absorption basin connect after overfall dam, its exit can arrange tail bank, also can not arrange tail bank, is generally provided with tail bank.
In technique scheme of the present invention, the position that anti-arc chooses bank can be determined by following condition:
l>l 1+l 2
Z 2>Z 4
Wherein l is sater professionals, and its design formulas is l=vtcos θ (gets on the occasion of), and in formula, θ is that anti-arc is chosen bank tail end and chosen angle, and t is the time, and v is for choosing bank tail end outgoing water volume flow rate, and its design formulas is g is acceleration of gravity, z 1for earial drainage height of water level, z 2for anti-arc chooses bank tail end height of water level; l 1for choosing bank apart from absorption basin original position distance, design formulas is l 1=(Z 3-Z 5)/i, z 3for anti-arc chooses bank root height of water level, z 5for height of water level at the bottom of absorption basin pond, i is the domatic gradient in dam downstream; l 2for absorption basin hydraulic jump length; And z 4for downstream part height of water level in the power of disappearing.
Dam facing provided by the invention chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, by arranging some anti-arc shuntings spaced apart and choose bank overfall dam earial drainage being domatic, make a part of upper surface choosing bank through anti-arc shunting of current out from table hole, the Background Region of downstream absorption basin is entered with the form of choosing stream, and another part current choose the runner between bank through two, the front area of downstream absorption basin is entered with the form of adherent overflow, hydraulic jump is formed in absorption basin, Hydraulic Jump Region in absorption basin is fallen into choose the streamed current entering absorption basin, the current of further increase Hydraulic Jump Region are disorderly, thus reach the object of the abundant energy dissipating of water body.
In order to improve the effect of energy dissipation of current further, enter the prerequisite of absorption basin at water stream under, preferably make each choose flowing water to flow to end and may enter absorption basin dispersedly, for this reason, the width that anti-arc is chosen bank by the present invention is taked outwards constantly to increase width in the plane, such one side can make current smoothization under the effect of anti-arc centrifugal force of choosing on bank, expand the angle of flare that current work both sides when choosing, thus laterally disperseing as far as possible when making current enter absorption basin, two current chosen between bank can be made constantly to shrink in the plane on the other hand, finally form narrow slit overflow, thus at longitudinal stretching.Therefore, this form choose bank design, two parts current can be made to be dispensed into water in a different manner simultaneously, thus improve effect of energy dissipation.
In order to ensure effect of energy dissipation, for different situations, need regulate and choose from anti-arc the ratio that bank and dam facing enter absorption basin two parts current.The ratio of two parts current chooses bank width ratio by adjusting anti-arc realizes, and anti-arc chooses the width b of the root (starting point) of bank, can determine by formula b=(0.4 ~ 0.7) B, and B is the distance between two axis, table hole.In general, when the water cushion degree of depth of downstream absorption basin is large, b gets smaller value, makes more current in the energy dissipating of absorption basin front area; On the contrary, when the water cushion degree of depth of downstream absorption basin is less, when effectively can not form hydraulic jump, b gets higher value, high speed underflow the washing away force reduction pool bottom entering the formation of absorption basin front area water body can be reduced like this, but the discharge entering absorption basin Background Region should be made in principle to be no more than 60% of total water current amount.Simultaneously, the span of θ optionally can be taken as-25 ° ~ 25 °, in the less situation of the downstream absorption basin water cushion degree of depth, the impact of flowing water stream to force reduction pool bottom is chosen for what avoid entering Background Region, θ value can be reduced in right amount, its immersion angle degree is reduced as far as possible, thus increases its running orbit in cushion pool water body, weaken its impact to base plate.Otherwise, then θ value can be increased in right amount.
Dam facing provided by the invention chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, the hydraulic structure structure being used for current energy dissipating from prior art is completely different, it is the brand-new current energy dissipating pattern that inventor puts forward through deep theory analysis and long-term thinking, be the current energy dissipating hydraulic structure structure being different from prior art completely, enriched current energy dissipating pattern.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing 1 is the perspective view of one embodiment of the present invention.
Accompanying drawing 2 is plan structure schematic diagrames of accompanying drawing 1 illustrated embodiment.
Accompanying drawing 3 is water body fluidised form schematic diagrames of accompanying drawing 1 illustrated embodiment.
Accompanying drawing 4 is water body fluidised form schematic diagrames of another embodiment of the present invention.
The each shown by reference numeral identification of object of above-mentioned accompanying drawing is respectively: 1-gate pier; 2-abutment wall; 3-overflow is domatic; Bank is chosen in 4-shunting; 5-absorption basin; 6-absorption basin tail bank; 7-trajectory nappe; 8-overflow water body; 9-hydraulic jump.
Detailed description of the invention
Provide embodiments of the invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, and by embodiment, the present invention is further described specifically.What be necessary to herein means out is; embodiment is only for the invention will be further described; limiting the scope of the invention can not be interpreted as; the person skilled in the art in this field can make some nonessential improvement according to the content of the invention described above and adjustment is implemented, but such enforcement still should belong to protection scope of the present invention.
Embodiment 1
The dam facing of the present embodiment chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, its structure as shown in Figures 1 and 2, overfall dam earial drainage domatic 3 is connected with straight at the bottom of the pond of absorption basin 5, the protection abutment wall of absorption basin is connect after the domatic abutment wall 2 of earial drainage, the dam crest of overfall dam is designed with some gate piers 1 differentiation of water body overcurrent being divided into some table holes, overfall dam earial drainage is domatic to be provided with some anti-arc shuntings spaced apart and to choose bank 4, make to choose bank from showing a hole current part out through anti-arc, the latter half of region of absorption basin is entered with the form of choosing stream, and another part current enter the first half region of absorption basin through the runner that two are chosen between bank.Distance between the adjacent two table axis, hole be wherein separated into by gate pier 1 is about 2 meters, on the arc that bank is chosen in the shunting of anti-arc, bank face tail end chooses angle θ is about 10 °, anti-arc shunting is chosen bank and is about 0.8 meter with the domatic root width connected of overfall dam earial drainage, anti-arc shunting chooses the width of bank at planar water flow path direction from outside with the domatic root connected of overfall dam earial drainage, widens extension gradually according to the rate of widening of root and tail end 1:3.Anti-arc shunting is chosen the anti-arc of bank and is chosen the position of bank according to l > l 1+ l 2, Z 2> Z 4condition is determined, wherein l is sater professionals, and design formulas is l=vtcos θ, and in formula, θ is that anti-arc is chosen bank face afterbody on bank and chosen angle, and t is the time, and v is for choosing bank end outgoing water volume flow rate, and its design formulas is g is acceleration of gravity, z 1for earial drainage height of water level, z 2for anti-arc chooses bank tail end height of water level; l 1for choosing bank apart from absorption basin original position distance, design formulas is l 1=(Z 3-Z 5)/i, z 3for anti-arc chooses bank root height of water level, z 5for height of water level at the bottom of absorption basin pond, i is the domatic gradient in dam downstream; l 2for absorption basin hydraulic jump length; And z 4for downstream part height of water level in the power of disappearing.The outlet of absorption basin is provided with tail bank 6.Lower sluicing flows through anti-arc and chooses bank and two runner chosen between bank and enter the water body fluidised form of absorption basin as shown in Figure 3.
Embodiment 2
The dam facing of the present embodiment chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, overfall dam earial drainage domatic 3 is connected by falling bank with at the bottom of the pond of absorption basin 5, the protection abutment wall of absorption basin is connect after the domatic abutment wall 2 of earial drainage, the dam crest of overfall dam is designed with some gate piers 1 differentiation of water body overcurrent being divided into some table holes, overfall dam earial drainage is domatic to be provided with some anti-arc shuntings spaced apart and to choose bank 4, make to choose bank from showing a hole current part out through anti-arc, the latter half of region of absorption basin is entered with the form of choosing stream, and another part current enter the first half region of absorption basin through the runner that two are chosen between bank.Distance between the adjacent two table axis, hole be wherein separated into by gate pier 1 is about 3 meters, on the arc that bank is chosen in the shunting of anti-arc, bank face tail end chooses angle θ is about 15 °, anti-arc shunting is chosen bank and is about 1.8 meters with the domatic root width connected of overfall dam earial drainage, anti-arc shunting chooses the width of bank at planar water flow path direction from outside with the domatic root connected of overfall dam earial drainage, widens extension gradually according to the rate of widening of root and tail end 1:5.Anti-arc shunting is chosen the anti-arc of bank and is chosen the position of bank according to l > l 1+ l 2, Z 2> Z 4condition is determined, wherein l is sater professionals, and design formulas is l=vtcos θ, and in formula, θ is that anti-arc is chosen bank face afterbody on bank and chosen angle, and t is the time, and v is for choosing bank end outgoing water volume flow rate, and its design formulas is g is acceleration of gravity, z 1for earial drainage height of water level, z 2for anti-arc chooses bank tail end height of water level; l 1for choosing bank apart from absorption basin original position distance, design formulas is l 1=(Z 3-Z 5)/i, z 3for anti-arc chooses bank root height of water level, z 5for height of water level at the bottom of absorption basin pond, i is the domatic gradient in dam downstream; l 2for absorption basin hydraulic jump length; And z 4for downstream part height of water level in the power of disappearing.The outlet of absorption basin is provided with tail bank 6.Lower sluicing flows through anti-arc and chooses bank and two runner chosen between bank and enter the water body fluidised form of absorption basin as shown in Figure 4.

Claims (10)

1. a dam facing chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, overfall dam earial drainage connects at the bottom of the pond of absorption basin (5) after domatic (3), the protection abutment wall (2) of absorption basin is connect after the domatic abutment wall of earial drainage, the dam crest of overfall dam is designed with some gate piers (1) differentiation of water body overcurrent being divided into some table holes, it is characterized in that, overfall dam earial drainage is domatic to be provided with some shuntings spaced apart and to choose bank (4), make from showing a hole current part out through choosing the upper bank face of bank, the Background Region of absorption basin is entered with the form of choosing stream, and another part current enter the front area of absorption basin through the runner that two are chosen between bank, thus reach subregion energy dissipating.
2. dam facing according to claim 1 chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, it is characterized in that, it is that bank is chosen in the shunting of anti-arc that bank is chosen in described shunting.
3. dam facing according to claim 2 chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, and it is characterized in that on the arc that bank is chosen in the shunting of described anti-arc that bank face tail end chooses angle θ is-25 ~ 25 °.
4. dam facing according to claim 3 chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, and it is characterized in that on the arc that bank is chosen in the shunting of described anti-arc that bank face tail end chooses angle θ is-5 ~ 5 °.
5. the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating is chosen according to the dam facing one of Claims 1-4 Suo Shu, it is characterized in that, it is distance between two axis, adjacent earial drainage table hole that bank and domatic root width b=(0.4 ~ 0.7) B, the B connected of overfall dam earial drainage are chosen in described shunting.
6. dam facing according to claim 5 chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, it is characterized in that, described shunting is chosen bank and outwards widened extension gradually at the width of planar water flow path direction from described root.
7. dam facing according to claim 6 chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, it is characterized in that, described shunting is chosen bank and outwards widened extension gradually according to the rate of widening of root and tail end 1:3 ~ 1:5 at the width of planar water flow path direction from described root.
8. choose the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating according to the dam facing one of Claims 1-4 Suo Shu, it is characterized in that, described overfall dam earial drainage domatic (3) is connected by falling bank with at the bottom of the pond of absorption basin.
9. choose the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating according to the dam facing one of Claims 1-4 Suo Shu, it is characterized in that, the position that anti-arc chooses bank is determined by following condition:
l>l 1+l 2
Z 2>Z 4
Wherein l is sater professionals, and design formulas is l=vt cos θ (gets on the occasion of), and in formula, θ is that anti-arc is chosen bank face tail end on bank and chosen angle, and t is the time, and v is for choosing bank end outgoing water volume flow rate, and its design formulas is g is acceleration of gravity, z 1for earial drainage height of water level, z 2for anti-arc chooses bank tail end height of water level; l 1for choosing bank apart from absorption basin original position distance, design formulas is l 1=(Z 3-Z 5)/i, z 3for anti-arc chooses bank root height of water level, z 5for height of water level at the bottom of absorption basin pond, i is the domatic gradient in dam downstream; l 2for absorption basin hydraulic jump length; And Z 2 - Z 4 = 1 2 gt 2 - vt sin θ Z 4for downstream part height of water level in the power of disappearing.
10. dam facing according to claim 5 chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating, it is characterized in that, the position that anti-arc chooses bank is determined by following condition:
l>l 1+l 2
Z 2>Z 4
Wherein l is sater professionals, and design formulas is l=vt cos θ (gets on the occasion of), and in formula, θ is that anti-arc is chosen bank face tail end on bank and chosen angle, and t is the time, and v is for choosing bank tail end outgoing water volume flow rate, and its design formulas is g is acceleration of gravity, z 1for earial drainage height of water level, z 2for anti-arc chooses bank tail end height of water level; l 1for choosing bank apart from absorption basin original position distance, design formulas is l 1=(Z 3-Z 5)/i, z 3for anti-arc chooses bank root height of water level, z 5for height of water level at the bottom of absorption basin pond, i is the domatic gradient in dam downstream; l 2for absorption basin hydraulic jump length; And Z 2 - Z 4 = 1 2 gt 2 - vt sin θ Z 4for downstream part height of water level in the power of disappearing.
CN201410525868.3A 2014-10-08 2014-10-08 Dam facing chooses the overfall dam of bank shunting energy dissipating CN104404926B (en)

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CN105133555A (en) * 2015-09-28 2015-12-09 安徽理工大学 Step type and spiral reverse rotation bottom sill type combined energy dissipation facility and energy dissipation method
CN105220660A (en) * 2015-09-01 2016-01-06 河北工程大学 A kind of adjustable aeration ecoscape check dam
CN105821814A (en) * 2016-03-25 2016-08-03 四川大学 Deep slot type flip bucket free of water accumulation
CN106013009A (en) * 2016-06-28 2016-10-12 四川大学 Multi-reverse-slope type stilling pool
CN106638504A (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 河海大学 Energy dissipation and erosion control structure used for energy dissipation by bottom flow and used in water conservancy project
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CN107574797A (en) * 2017-08-07 2018-01-12 昆明理工大学 A kind of chopped-off head ladder build on Stepped Spillway
CN108086260A (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-05-29 安徽理工大学 Differential type High-low Bucket Energy Dissipation Building-height falls bank type stiling basin system and energy dissipating method
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CN104831695A (en) * 2015-05-26 2015-08-12 浙江海洋学院 Energy dissipation and erosion control dam
CN104831695B (en) * 2015-05-26 2017-01-04 浙江海洋学院 A kind of dissipation and scouring dam
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CN105220660A (en) * 2015-09-01 2016-01-06 河北工程大学 A kind of adjustable aeration ecoscape check dam
CN105133555A (en) * 2015-09-28 2015-12-09 安徽理工大学 Step type and spiral reverse rotation bottom sill type combined energy dissipation facility and energy dissipation method
CN105821814A (en) * 2016-03-25 2016-08-03 四川大学 Deep slot type flip bucket free of water accumulation
CN106013009A (en) * 2016-06-28 2016-10-12 四川大学 Multi-reverse-slope type stilling pool
CN106013009B (en) * 2016-06-28 2018-01-09 四川大学 A kind of more counter-slope formula stiling basins
CN106638504A (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 河海大学 Energy dissipation and erosion control structure used for energy dissipation by bottom flow and used in water conservancy project
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CN107419709B (en) * 2017-05-25 2019-04-26 重庆交通大学 A kind of stilling pond system
CN107574797A (en) * 2017-08-07 2018-01-12 昆明理工大学 A kind of chopped-off head ladder build on Stepped Spillway
CN108086260A (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-05-29 安徽理工大学 Differential type High-low Bucket Energy Dissipation Building-height falls bank type stiling basin system and energy dissipating method
CN108755618A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-06 广东省水利电力勘测设计研究院 A kind of medium and small reservoirs Spillway stream dissipation and scouring method
KR101964064B1 (en) * 2018-10-02 2019-04-01 주식회사 이도 Rubber dam
CN109594534A (en) * 2018-12-28 2019-04-09 四川大学 It is differential to fall bank type stilling pond

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