CN104400279B - Pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically - Google Patents

Pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104400279B
CN104400279B CN201410536548.8A CN201410536548A CN104400279B CN 104400279 B CN104400279 B CN 104400279B CN 201410536548 A CN201410536548 A CN 201410536548A CN 104400279 B CN104400279 B CN 104400279B
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welding
weld seam
robot
coordinates
dimensional coordinate
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CN201410536548.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104400279A (en
Inventor
钱晓明
楼佩煌
杨丽娟
武星
彭立军
孙志楠
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南京航空航天大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K37/00Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups
    • B23K37/02Carriages for supporting the welding or cutting element
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K37/00Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of pipeline space weld seam based on CCD and automatically identify the method with trajectory planning, meet the common welding robot welding needs to pipeline space weld seam. Before welding, CCD gathers weld seam picture by the mode of " an order dibit ", and it is sent to main control computer by USB line, main control computer is according to General stereoscopic visual theory, three parts are divided to carry out three-dimensional reconstruction workpiece weld seam, obtain the three-dimensional coordinate information of each several part weld seam, merge and obtain complete weld seam three-dimensional coordinate, determine welding starting point, and determine in welding process, the pose change of robot tool coordinate system, and send robot controller to by Ethernet, weld thus controlling welding robot. The present invention passes through vision sensor, it is possible to adapt to the docking of pipe pipe and Guan Guanxiang weld seam when passing through of different-diameter, carry out all-position automatic welding technology, it is to avoid artificial teaching can only weld the limitation of single-pathway weld seam.

Description

Pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically
Technical field:
The present invention relates to the solder technology of the pipeline space weld seam of a kind of view-based access control model sensing, automatically identify the method with trajectory planning particularly to a kind of pipeline space weld seam based on CCD, it belongs to intelligent Technology of Welding Robot field.
Background technology:
Pipe pipe docks, and pipe pipe intersecting welding is relatively common in fields such as oil, boiler and metallurgical constructions, and Guan Guanxiang passes through the space curve producing to compare auxiliary, can produce the shape of a saddle space curve of standard, then can produce increasingly complex space curve during oblique time orthogonal. In the conventional automatic welding special plane of the saddle-shaped seam welding procedure that Guan Guanxiang passes through in the market, machine tool type is generally used for the welding of the pipe pipe intersection that batch is big, workpiece is single, and lathe volume is big, weight big, and the workpiece type being suitable for is limited; Suspension type saddle-shaped welding robot, then be suitable for the welding of a range of saddle-shaped seam, and pipe pipe oblique weld seam is subject to the impact of oblique angles, but the weld joint tracking of this type of welding robot generally uses off-line programing and teaching memory technique.
In the above-mentioned special welding machine for pipeline space weld seam, actual production all can face a critical problem, it is through teaching, can only constantly repeat the action of teaching in advance, namely the weld seam of particular path can only be welded, when pipe diameter change, change in location, Guan Guanxiang pass through the angle change of oblique, it is necessary to teaching again, and welding surroundings change can not be made a response, for instance the mismachining tolerance of workpiece, rigging error etc. And the change of these factors can cause the original teaching track of welding seam bias, reduce welding quality and even form waste product. Therefore, when pipe welding seam welds, can automatically adapt to pipe diameter and position is the key issue realizing robot welding application.
At present, although research visual sensing being applied to welding robot is relatively more, have also been obtained certain application, and the comparative maturity wherein applied is active vision, i.e. additional laser or structured light, but about research visual sensing being applied in pipeline welding and application rare. At present, in visible report, in document " Li Kai; view-based access control model sensor conduit welding robot follows the tracks of systematic study [Ph.D. Dissertation], Harbin Institute of Technology ", for long distance pipeline, have developed pipe welding robot and follow the tracks of system, propose the pipe welding robot annular solder weld joint tracking algorithm based on circular cylindrical coordinate, but pipe ring seam welding can only be followed the tracks of, it is impossible to be applied to welding when Guan Guanxiang passes through.Number of patent application is 201110224808.4, name is called that " the robot initial welding position identification system and method based on monocular vision sensing " provides a kind of robot initial welding position recognition methods thanking to device based on monocular vision sensing, but the weld seam of the workpiece of working needle pair is level, it is changeless towards fixing and relative to vision sensor height, is not particularly suited for space weld when Guan Guanxiang passes through.
Therefore, necessary prior art improves to solve the deficiency of prior art.
Summary of the invention:
Need for above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art and production, it is provided that a kind of pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the method and system with trajectory planning automatically, it is possible to meet welding needs when common six axle welding robots pass through for the docking of pipe pipe and Guan Guanxiang.
The present invention adopts the following technical scheme that a kind of pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically, and it comprises the steps:
(1) welding module is selected: on main control computer, select the docking welding of pipe pipe or pipe pipe related subgroup;
(2) workpiece picture to be welded is gathered: main control computer sends shooting signal to welding robot, welding robot adopts the mode of " an order dibit ", successively moving to 6 different camera sites and gather 3 groups of pictures of workpiece to be welded, the weld seam picture gathered is transferred to main control computer by USB line;
(3) image procossing: received picture is carried out image procossing by main control computer, extract weld profile, according to general binocular stereo vision, respectively 3 groups of pictures are carried out three-dimensional reconstruction, obtain the weld seam often organizing in picture three-dimensional coordinate information under camera coordinates system, and store;
(4) path of welding is determined: the weld seam often organizing in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system is converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, it is then combined with obtaining the final three-dimensional coordinate in complete solder path, and determine welding starting point according to final coordinate, and determine the change of the anglec of rotation in welding process of robot tool coordinate system, and store;
(5) welding: main control computer is sent to robot controller the path of welding data obtained, moving in welding starting point thus controlling welding robot, starting welding, completing whole welding process.
Further, three-dimensional reconstruction step concrete in described step (3) is: stitch picture for each assembly welding, extract the pixel coordinate of left side figure weld profile in each group, calculate polar curve, the pixel coordinate of the point determined on corresponding right figure in corresponding left figure, when calculating obtains weld seam camera site, the left side in each group, weld seam three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system.
Further, described step (4) specifically includes:
Step 1: determine weld seam three-dimensional coordinate: according to the transition matrix between the transition matrix between tool coordinates system and basis coordinates system of robot and tool coordinates system and camera coordinates system, the weld seam often organized in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system is converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, and merge the final three-dimensional coordinate obtaining complete weld seam, transformation matrix between described tool coordinates system and basis coordinates system of robot can be obtained by the pose of main control computer read machine people, transformation matrix between described tool coordinates system and camera coordinates system can be obtained by hand and eye calibrating experiment,
Step 2: determine welding starting point: according to the complete weld seam obtained three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, it is determined that the maximum point of X-coordinate value is as welding starting point;
Step 3: determine anglec of rotation when robot tool coordinate system is welded: regulation is in welding process, only the anglec of rotation of tool coordinates system Z axis is in conversion, the anglec of rotation of X-axis and Y-axis is all constant, according to distance between adjacent 2 on weld seam, calculate the differential seat angle that between adjacent 2, Z axis rotates, and in weld seam starting point, the anglec of rotation of each axle of tool coordinates system is pre-set by main control computer, and then obtain the anglec of rotation of tool coordinates system on each coordinate position.
The present invention also adopts the following technical scheme that a kind of pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the system with trajectory planning automatically, it includes welding robot, vision sensor, robot controller and main control computer, described welding robot is connected with robot controller, main control computer and robot controller are communicated by Ethernet, main control computer is connected by USB line with vision sensor, vision sensor is fixedly mounted on welding robot robot end welding gun, described vision sensor includes CCD industrial digital video camera and optical filter, described main control computer includes:
Weld seam picture acquisition module, adopts the mode of " an order dibit " to control CCD industrial digital video camera and gathers workpiece picture to be welded;
Weld seam picture processing module, it is divided into two submodules of weld seam picture processing that the docking of pipe pipe and Guan Guanxiang pass through, utilize image procossing, extract the weld profile on picture, according to general binocular stereo vision, respectively 3 assembly weldings are stitched picture and carry out three-dimensional reconstruction, respectively obtain the weld seam often organizing in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system;
Path calculation module, the weld seam often organized in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system is converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, and merge the final three-dimensional coordinate obtaining complete weld seam, determine welding starting point further according to final three-dimensional coordinate, and determine that tool coordinates ties up to the anglec of rotation under each coordinate;
Communication/control module, it is thus achieved that the real-time pose information of robot, sending robot controller the path of welding data obtained to by Ethernet, thus controlling welding robot to move to welding starting point, welding.
There is advantages that
(1) present invention is that the pipeline space weld seam based on CCD automatically identifies and provides system platform with trajectory planning, pass through vision sensor, meet six common axle welding robots to the docking of pipe pipe and the welding needs that pass through of Guan Guanxiang, it is possible to automatically adapt to different angles oblique when different-diameter, diverse location and Guan Guanxiang pass through and the weld seam that produces;
(2) vision sensor is utilized, automatically seam track is identified, obtain the three-dimensional coordinate information of complete weld seam, carry out all-position automatic welding technology, eliminate the impact of the welding qualities such as the mismachining tolerance of workpiece, rigging error, avoid artificial teaching and can only weld the limitation of particular path weld seam, decrease labour force, reduce manufacturing cost and time cost.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
The position view of robot when Fig. 1 is to gather image.
Fig. 2 is weld seam measurement of coordinates principle and each ordinate transform figure.
Fig. 3 is the workflow diagram of a specific embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is the pose schematic diagram of robot tool coordinate system in welding process.
Fig. 5 is the welding robot jig schematic diagram based on CCD of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is based on the control principle block diagram of the welding robot of visual sensing.
Detailed description of the invention:
For making the purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect clearly, below in conjunction with specific embodiment, and with reference to accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited to this.
The present invention identifies and method for planning track automatically based on the pipeline space weld seam of CCD, comprises the following steps:
(1) welding module is selected: on main control computer, select the docking of pipe pipe or pipe pipe related subgroup;
(2) workpiece picture to be welded is gathered: adopt the mode of " an order dibit " to gather workpiece picture to be welded, main control computer sends a signal to welding robot, welding robot successively moves to 6 different camera sites, concrete camera site is as shown in Figure 1, the picture gathered in position 1 and 2 is one group, the picture that position 3 and 4 gathers is one group, the picture that position 5 and 6 gathers is one group, main control computer is sent a signal to after arriving each camera site, receive the main control computer after signal, send shooting signal to CCD, 3 groups of pictures of shooting workpiece, and it is transferred to main control computer by USB line,
(3) image procossing: received picture is carried out corresponding image procossing by main control computer, extract weld profile, as shown in Figure 2, the matrix relationship H of camera site, left and right can calculate according to the robot read obtain at the pose often organizing camera site, picture left and right, general binocular stereo vision is utilized to carry out three-dimensional reconstruction, for each group of picture, extract the pixel coordinate of left figure weld profile in every group, calculate polar curve, determine the pixel coordinate of corresponding left side point on corresponding right figure, calculating obtains camera when often organizing camera site, the left side, often group picture in weld seam at camera coordinates system OlXlYlZlUnder three-dimensional coordinate information, and store;
(4) path of welding is determined: be converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under robot base mark often organizing weld seam that picture the obtains three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system, it is then combined with namely obtaining the final three-dimensional coordinate of complete path of welding, and determine welding starting point according to final coordinate, and determine the change of the anglec of rotation in welding process of robot tool coordinate system, and store;
(5) after above job step completes, main control computer sends path data to robot controller by Ethernet, the center controlling welding robot tool coordinates system moves in welding starting point, workpiece is carried out welding job according to calculated path of welding by robot, until welding job completes or continues the welding job of next workpiece. The work process of whole embodiment, as shown in Figure 3.
Described step (4), is specifically divided into:
Step 1: determine weld seam three-dimensional coordinate: utilize camera coordinates system OlXlYlZlWith TCP (ToolCenterPoint) tool coordinates system OtXtYtZtBetween transition matrix T, tool coordinates system OtXtYtZtAnd the transition matrix D between basis coordinates system of robot OXYZ, by every part weld seam of obtaining at camera coordinates system OlXlYlZlUnder three-dimensional coordinate be converted to the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot OXYZ, and merge the final three-dimensional coordinate namely obtaining complete weld seam, described transition matrix T is obtained by hand and eye calibrating experiment, and described transition matrix D can be calculated by the pose of read machine people and obtain.
Step 2: determine welding starting point: according to the complete weld seam obtained three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, it is determined that the maximum point of X-coordinate value is as welding starting point.
Step 3: determine anglec of rotation when tool coordinates system welds: if Fig. 4 is the relative position that tool coordinates ties up in welding process with workpiece, in the position that weld seam is different, the only anglec of rotation conversion of tool coordinates system Z axis, the anglec of rotation of X-axis and Y-axis is all constant, according to distance between adjacent 2 on weld seam, calculate the anglec of rotation of Z axis between adjacent 2 poor, and in weld seam starting point, the anglec of rotation of each axle of tool coordinates system is pre-set by main control computer, therefore, the anglec of rotation of tool coordinates system on each coordinate position of weld seam can be obtained.Workpiece weld seam to be welded described in this specific embodiment is the Guan Guanxiang pipe welding seam passed through.
Simultaneously, the present invention also provides for a kind of pipeline space weld seam based on CCD and automatically identifies the system with trajectory planning, as shown in Figure 5, the pipeline space weld seam based on CCD of the present embodiment identifies the system with trajectory planning automatically, including: six axle welding robots, vision sensor, robot controller, main control computer. Wherein:
Six axle welding robots, are connected with robot controller, and for duct work is welded, robot drives vision sensor, after moving to corresponding camera site, send shooting signal to main control computer;
Vision sensor, is fixedly mounted on the end of welding robot welding gun, moves with welding gun, and wherein vision sensor includes CCD industrial digital video camera, optical filter. Vision sensor and welding robot relation between the two, determine by hand and eye calibrating experiment, the weld seam picture collected sends main control computer to by USB line;
Robot controller, with main control computer by ethernet communication, thus controlling the motion of robot;
Main control computer, ethernet communication is passed through with robot controller, can read machine people pose data and send order control robot motion, and the weld seam picture received is carried out image procossing, obtain the Complete three-dimensional coordinate information of weld seam, and the angle change that calculating robot's tool coordinates is when tying up to welding, controlled the motion of robot by Ethernet according to the result obtained;
As shown in Figure 6, main control computer includes:
Weld seam picture acquisition module, the mode adopting " an order dibit " controls CCD and gathers workpiece picture to be welded, particularly as follows: by the motion controlling welding robot, shoot 3 groups of pictures of workpiece weld seam respectively at 6 diverse locations, the weld seam picture shot sends main control computer to by USB line;
Weld seam picture processing module, it is divided into two submodules of weld seam picture processing that the docking of pipe pipe and Guan Guanxiang pass through, utilize image procossing, extract the weld profile on picture, according to general binocular stereo vision, respectively 3 assembly weldings are stitched picture and carry out three-dimensional reconstruction, respectively obtain the weld seam often organizing in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system;
Path calculation module, the weld seam often organized in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system is converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, and merge the final three-dimensional coordinate obtaining complete weld seam, determine welding starting point further according to final three-dimensional coordinate, and determine that tool coordinates ties up to the anglec of rotation under each coordinate;
Communication/control module, it is thus achieved that the real-time pose information of robot, sends robot controller the path of welding result obtained to by Ethernet, thus controlling robot motion to welding starting point, welds.
The present invention is that the pipeline space weld seam based on CCD automatically identifies and provides system platform with trajectory planning, pass through vision sensor, meet six common axle welding robots to the docking of pipe pipe and the welding needs that pass through of Guan Guanxiang, it is possible to automatically adapt to different angles oblique when different-diameter, diverse location and Guan Guanxiang pass through and the weld seam that produces; Utilize vision sensor, automatically seam track is identified, obtain the three-dimensional coordinate information of complete weld seam, carry out all-position automatic welding technology, eliminate the impact of the welding qualities such as the mismachining tolerance of workpiece, rigging error, avoid artificial teaching and can only weld the limitation of particular path weld seam, decrease labour force, reduce manufacturing cost and time cost.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for those skilled in the art, can also make some improvement under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention, and these improvement also should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. one kind identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically based on the pipeline space weld seam of CCD, it is characterised in that: comprise the steps
(1) welding module is selected: on main control computer, select the docking welding of pipe pipe or pipe pipe related subgroup;
(2) workpiece picture to be welded is gathered: main control computer sends shooting signal to welding robot, welding robot adopts the mode of " an order dibit ", successively moving to 6 different camera sites and gather 3 groups of pictures of workpiece to be welded, the weld seam picture gathered is transferred to main control computer by USB line;
(3) image procossing: received picture is carried out image procossing by main control computer, extract weld profile, according to general binocular stereo vision, respectively 3 groups of pictures are carried out three-dimensional reconstruction, obtain the weld seam often organizing in picture three-dimensional coordinate information under camera coordinates system, and store;
(4) path of welding is determined: the weld seam often organizing in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system is converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, it is then combined with obtaining the final three-dimensional coordinate in complete solder path, and determine welding starting point according to final coordinate, and determine the change of the anglec of rotation in welding process of robot tool coordinate system, and store;
(5) welding: main control computer is sent to robot controller the path of welding data obtained, moving in welding starting point thus controlling welding robot, starting welding, completing whole welding process;
Three-dimensional reconstruction step concrete in described step (3) is: stitch picture for each assembly welding, extract the pixel coordinate of left side figure weld profile in each group, calculate polar curve, the pixel coordinate of the point determined on corresponding right figure in corresponding left figure, when calculating obtains weld seam camera site, the left side in each group, weld seam three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system.
2. the pipeline space weld seam based on CCD according to claim 1 identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically, it is characterised in that: described step (4) specifically includes:
Step 1: determine weld seam three-dimensional coordinate: according to the transition matrix between the transition matrix between tool coordinates system and basis coordinates system of robot and tool coordinates system and camera coordinates system, the weld seam often organized in picture three-dimensional coordinate under camera coordinates system is converted into the three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, and merge the final three-dimensional coordinate obtaining complete weld seam, transformation matrix between described tool coordinates system and basis coordinates system of robot can be obtained by the pose of main control computer read machine people, transformation matrix between described tool coordinates system and camera coordinates system can be obtained by hand and eye calibrating experiment,
Step 2: determine welding starting point: according to the complete weld seam obtained three-dimensional coordinate under basis coordinates system of robot, it is determined that the maximum point of X-coordinate value is as welding starting point;
Step 3: determine anglec of rotation when robot tool coordinate system is welded: regulation is in welding process, only the anglec of rotation of tool coordinates system Z axis is in conversion, the anglec of rotation of X-axis and Y-axis is all constant, according to distance between adjacent 2 on weld seam, calculate the differential seat angle that between adjacent 2, Z axis rotates, and in weld seam starting point, the anglec of rotation of each axle of tool coordinates system is pre-set by main control computer, and then obtain the anglec of rotation of tool coordinates system on each coordinate position.
CN201410536548.8A 2014-10-11 2014-10-11 Pipeline space weld seam based on CCD identifies the method with trajectory planning automatically CN104400279B (en)

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