CN104384765B - Based on the automatic soldering method of threedimensional model and machine vision - Google Patents

Based on the automatic soldering method of threedimensional model and machine vision Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104384765B
CN104384765B CN201410540251.9A CN201410540251A CN104384765B CN 104384765 B CN104384765 B CN 104384765B CN 201410540251 A CN201410540251 A CN 201410540251A CN 104384765 B CN104384765 B CN 104384765B
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China
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workpiece
threedimensional
mechanical arm
posture information
coordinate
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CN201410540251.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104384765A (en
Inventor
朱文俊
董远强
王鹏
李福东
李林
刘志强
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江苏湃锐自动化科技有限公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/12Automatic feeding or moving of electrodes or work for spot or seam welding or cutting
    • B23K9/127Means for tracking lines during arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/1272Geometry oriented, e.g. beam optical trading
    • B23K9/1274Using non-contact, optical means, e.g. laser means

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of automatic soldering method based on threedimensional model and machine vision in welding technology field and welder, industrial camera is adopted to gather workpiece image to be welded, carry out three-dimensional coupling according to the threedimensional model of workpiece, locate workpiece to be welded and according to the weld information tack weld in threedimensional model, the accurate tack weld of recycling structured light sensor, then adjust according to the movement locus of the exact position Butt welding gun of weld seam, make its accurately butt welded seam carry out following the tracks of, welding.The present invention can realize automatic location and the following function of weld seam, and improves reliability and the tracking accuracy of weld joint tracking.The workpiece warpage etc. caused due to thermal deformation in welding process is affected to the problem of welding precision, the present invention can carry out regulating and adapting to well, improves the quality of welding.

Description

Based on the automatic soldering method of threedimensional model and machine vision

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of welder and welding method, belong to welding technology field.

Background technology

In prior art, welding robot employed both at home and abroad belongs to the lower teaching playback of level of intelligence and a small amount of off-line programing robot more.The welding robot of these two kinds of forms does not have the function of adjustment control in real time, the thermal deformation (see " Xu Yanling; the robot GTAW three-dimensional weld seam real-Time Tracking Control technical research of view-based access control model and arc sensing technology; Shanghai; Shanghai Communications University's thesis for the doctorate, publishes for 2013 ") that the error of work pieces process and assembling and welding cause cannot be adapted to.At present, work out the intelligent welding system with real-time tracking function, but these systems all need welding gun to be moved to weld seam starting point annex to be initialized, do not possess the function (see " Wu Lin; Chen Shanben; intelligentized welding technology, National Defense Industry Press publish for 2000 ") of Automatic-searching position while welding on a large scale.

Current welding seam traking technology, a large defect of existence needs welding torch position to carry out manual intervention initialization, makes it near welding starting point.

Summary of the invention

An object of the present invention is to provide a kind of automatic soldering method based on threedimensional model and machine vision, makes welding gun can be automatically found the initial position of weld seam, and can carry out automatic welding according to position while welding.

The object of the present invention is achieved like this: a kind of automatic soldering method based on threedimensional model and machine vision, comprises the steps:

1) workpiece threedimensional model is imported visual processes software, workpiece threedimensional model is generated the two-dimentional matching image storehouse corresponding with it; Described two-dimentional matching image storehouse comprises with a virtual camera according to the multiple projecting figures obtaining workpiece relative to X, Y, Z axis with the range of deflection angles of setting; Described projecting figure and the workpiece threedimensional model posture information one_to_one corresponding in virtual camera coordinate system, described posture information comprises the three-dimensional coordinate position of workpiece in virtual camera coordinate system and the workpiece deflection angle relative to virtual camera coordinate system X, Y, Z axis;

2) gather the realtime graphic of workpiece with industrial camera, then the realtime graphic of workpiece is mated with described two-dimentional matching image storehouse, to determine the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system;

3) according to the posture information between the industrial camera demarcated and mechanical arm and the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system, by coordinate transform, the posture information of workpiece in mechanical arm coordinate system is determined; Again in conjunction with the posture information determination weld seam posture information in mechanical arm coordinate system of weld seam on workpiece;

4) according to the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system, path planning is carried out to mechanical arm, collisionless can follow the tracks of weld seam;

5) mechanical arm drives welding gun to carry out weld job according to the path of planning, the structured light sensor before welding gun is utilized accurately to locate along seam track butt welded seam, and by the accurate position feedback of weld seam to computer, the motion path of mechanical arm is adjusted, the accurate butt welded seam of welding gun that mechanical arm is with is welded, until complete welding.

Above-mentioned steps 1) in workpiece threedimensional model be solidworks model, workpiece threedimensional model imports visual processes software halcon, uses the function inspect_object_model_3d program in halcon that the threedimensional model of workpiece is generated corresponding two-dimentional matching image storehouse.

Above-mentioned steps 2) in industrial camera when gathering the realtime graphic of workpiece, halcon function f ind_shape_model_3d is used to be mated with the two-dimentional matching image storehouse generated in step 1) by the realtime graphic of workpiece, to determine the position of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system and attitude.

Outstanding feature of the present invention adopts industrial camera to gather workpiece image, mate storehouse by the two dimension image of collection and the threedimensional model of workpiece generated to mate, determine the position of workpiece, then determine weld seam posture information, drive welding gun to weld along weld seam by mechanical arm.Compared with prior art, automatic welding is carried out in the position that the present invention can be automatically found weld seam, its butt welded seam accurate positioning, and welding quality is good, reduces uncertainty during artificial setting weld seam initial position, and ensure that weldquality is good, locating speed is fast.This device is particularly useful for carrying out automatic welding to multiple workpiece.The workpiece warpage etc. caused due to thermal deformation in welding process is affected to the problem of welding precision, the present invention can carry out regulating and adapting to well, improves the quality of welding.

Two of object of the present invention is to provide a kind of automatic soldering device based on threedimensional model and machine vision, makes it utilize said method, carries out automatic welding to workpiece.

For this reason, a kind of automatic soldering device based on threedimensional model and machine vision provided by the invention, comprise the mechanical arm with six-freedom degree, mechanical arm is clamped with welding gun, mechanical arm end is provided with structured light sensor, also include industrial camera, the workpiece image signal transmission that industrial camera gathers is to computer for controlling, the picture signal of the planar graph that computer for controlling converts to according to workpiece threedimensional model and industrial camera collection is compared, obtain the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system, again according to the posture information of this posture information determination workpiece in mechanical arm coordinate system, and determine the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system further, after computer carries out path planning according to the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system to mechanical arm, butt welded seam welds, described structured light sensor is by position while welding Real-time Feedback to computer for controlling, and the motion path of computer for controlling to mechanical arm adjusts, and the accurate butt welded seam of welding gun that mechanical arm is with is welded.

Be as a further improvement on the present invention, described industrial camera is arranged on directly over workpiece or oblique upper.

Be described industrial camera, structured light sensor as a further improvement on the present invention, be all connected by interface circuit between mechanical arm with computer for controlling.

The present invention does not need to carry out teaching to mechanical arm, does not need welding gun to move near welding starting point to carry out welding position initialization yet, can in larger space automatic tack weld, line trace of going forward side by side; The method that the present invention adopts industrial camera and structured light sensor to combine, the automaticity of weld and HAZ can be improved, can detect accurate position in real time by butt welded seam again, overcome the thermal deformation that the processing of workpiece and the error of assembling and welding cause, realize high-precision weld job.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is method flow diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is structural representation of the present invention.

Wherein, 1 industrial camera, 2 structured light sensor, 3 welding guns, 4 mechanical arms, 5 computer for controlling, 6 interface circuits.

Detailed description of the invention

As shown in Figure 2, for a kind of based on the automatic soldering device of threedimensional model and machine vision, its structure mainly comprises the mechanical arm 4 with six-freedom degree, and this six-freedom degree is respectively the rectilinear motion on X, Y, Z axis direction, and around the rotary motion of X, Y, Z axis; Mechanical arm 4 is clamped with welding gun 3, mechanical arm 4 end is provided with structured light sensor 2, this device also includes industrial camera 1, the workpiece image signal transmission that industrial camera 1 gathers is to computer for controlling 5, the picture signal of the planar graph that computer for controlling 5 converts to according to workpiece threedimensional model and industrial camera collection is compared, obtain the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system, then according to the posture information of this posture information determination workpiece in mechanical arm coordinate system; And determine the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system further; After computer for controlling 5 carries out path planning according to the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system to mechanical arm 4, butt welded seam welds; Structured light sensor 2 is by position while welding Real-time Feedback to computer for controlling 5, and the motion path of computer for controlling 5 pairs of mechanical arms 4 adjusts, and the accurate butt welded seam of welding gun that mechanical arm is with 3 is welded.Industrial camera 1 is arranged on directly over workpiece or oblique upper, and industrial camera 1 is installed on ceiling, and its visual field covers workpiece to be welded.Industrial camera 1, structured light sensor 2, mechanical arm 4 are connected by interface circuit 6 with between computer for controlling.

Mechanical arm 4 selects ESTUNER-16-1600, and structured light sensor 2 selects MetaSLS50LR, and industrial camera 1 selects MantaG-125B, and computer for controlling 5 selects fan-free industrial computer NeousysNovo-1300af.

Said apparatus, when carrying out work, carries out as follows:

1) the workpiece three-dimensional software model utilizing computer graphics to obtain is imported visual processes software, make workpiece threedimensional model generate the two-dimentional matching image storehouse corresponding with it; Described workpiece three-dimensional software model comprises the positional information of each location point on the three-dimensional system of coordinate X, Y, Z axis direction of setting on workpiece, also comprises weld seam position information simultaneously; Workpiece three-dimensional software model is the virtual image after workpiece has welded, and such as, when A workpiece and B workpiece being welded, workpiece three-dimensional software model refers to the model of A workpiece and the B whole workpiece welded together; Described two-dimentional matching image storehouse comprises the multiple projecting figures of workpiece obtained in setting range of deflection angles relative to X, Y, Z axis with a virtual camera; The posture information one_to_one corresponding of described projecting figure and workpiece threedimensional model, described posture information comprises the three-dimensional coordinate position of workpiece in virtual camera coordinate system and the workpiece deflection angle relative to virtual camera coordinate system X, Y, Z axis; This workpiece threedimensional model is solidworks model, and workpiece threedimensional model imports visual processes software halcon, uses the function inspect_object_model_3d program in halcon that the threedimensional model of workpiece is generated corresponding two-dimentional matching image storehouse; Deflection angle is the angle of artificial setting, such as angle is arranged within the scope of-30 ° ~ 30 °, sampling precision is arranged on 1/100 °, during workpiece actual welding, its position may and given reference axis between there is certain angular deflection, therefore, provide two-dimensional projection's figure that multiple angle is corresponding, in coupling subsequently, just can find immediate real-time graph; Above-mentioned angle and sampling precision are for X-axis, its implication is expressed as: workpiece pose in space maintains static, the line of virtual camera center and workpiece barycenter with workpiece barycenter for fixing point rotates from-30 ° to+30 ° angles around X-axis, often rotate 1/100 °, virtual camera then can obtain a width equatorial projection figure of workpiece; Y-axis, Z axis can the rest may be inferred; Virtual camera can deflect around X, Y, Z axis simultaneously, therefore, what above-mentioned two-dimentional matching image storehouse was formed is virtual camera deflects all two-dimensional projection image of the workpiece obtained in ± 30 ° of angular ranges combination around X, Y, Z axis, and each two-dimensional projection image is all with positional information and angle information;

2) gather the realtime graphic of workpiece with industrial camera, then the realtime graphic of workpiece is mated with described two-dimentional matching image storehouse, to determine the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system; During coupling, halcon function f ind_shape_model_3d is used to be mated with the two-dimentional matching image storehouse generated in step 1) by the realtime graphic of workpiece, during coupling, by the comparison of figure, in two-dimentional matching image storehouse, find immediate two-dimensional projection figure, the position corresponding to this X-Y scheme figure and attitude are exactly the position of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system and attitude;

3) according to the posture information between the industrial camera demarcated and mechanical arm and the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system, by coordinate transform, the posture information of workpiece in mechanical arm coordinate system is determined; Again in conjunction with the posture information determination weld seam posture information in mechanical arm coordinate system of weld seam on workpiece;

4) according to the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system, path planning is carried out to mechanical arm, collisionless can follow the tracks of weld seam;

5) mechanical arm drives welding gun to carry out weld job according to the path of planning, the structured light sensor before welding gun is utilized accurately to locate along seam track butt welded seam, and by the accurate position feedback of weld seam to computer, the motion path of mechanical arm is adjusted, the accurate butt welded seam of welding gun that mechanical arm is with is welded, until complete welding.

Prove through practical application, automaticity of the present invention is high, automatically can realize the localization and tracking of butt welded seam, can meet the needs of the workpiece automatic welding of small lot polytypic.

The present invention is not limited to above-described embodiment; on the basis of technical scheme disclosed by the invention; those skilled in the art is according to disclosed technology contents; do not need performing creative labour just can make some to some technical characteristics wherein to replace and distortion, these are replaced and are out of shape all in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1., based on an automatic soldering method for threedimensional model and machine vision, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
1) workpiece threedimensional model is imported visual processes software, workpiece threedimensional model is generated the two-dimentional matching image storehouse corresponding with it; Described two-dimentional matching image storehouse comprises with a virtual camera according to the multiple projecting figures obtaining workpiece relative to X, Y, Z axis with the range of deflection angles of setting; Described projecting figure and the workpiece threedimensional model posture information one_to_one corresponding in virtual camera coordinate system, described posture information comprises the three-dimensional coordinate position of workpiece in virtual camera coordinate system and the workpiece deflection angle relative to virtual camera coordinate system X, Y, Z axis;
2) gather the realtime graphic of workpiece with industrial camera, then the realtime graphic of workpiece is mated with described two-dimentional matching image storehouse, to determine the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system;
3) according to the posture information between the industrial camera demarcated and mechanical arm and the posture information of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system, by coordinate transform, the posture information of workpiece in mechanical arm coordinate system is determined; Again in conjunction with the posture information determination weld seam posture information in mechanical arm coordinate system of weld seam on workpiece;
4) according to the posture information of weld seam in mechanical arm coordinate system, path planning is carried out to mechanical arm, collisionless can follow the tracks of weld seam;
5) mechanical arm drives welding gun to carry out weld job according to the path of planning, the structured light sensor before welding gun is utilized accurately to locate along seam track butt welded seam, and by the accurate position feedback of weld seam to computer, the motion path of mechanical arm is adjusted, the accurate butt welded seam of welding gun that mechanical arm is with is welded, until complete welding.
2. the automatic soldering method based on threedimensional model and machine vision according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in step 1), workpiece threedimensional model is solidworks model, workpiece threedimensional model imports visual processes software halcon, uses the function inspect_object_model_3d program in halcon that the threedimensional model of workpiece is generated corresponding two-dimentional matching image storehouse.
3. the automatic soldering method based on threedimensional model and machine vision according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: step 2) in industrial camera when gathering the realtime graphic of workpiece, halcon function f ind_shape_model_3d is used to be mated with the two-dimentional matching image storehouse generated in step 1) by the realtime graphic of workpiece, to determine the position of workpiece in industrial camera coordinate system and attitude.
CN201410540251.9A 2014-10-14 2014-10-14 Based on the automatic soldering method of threedimensional model and machine vision CN104384765B (en)

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