CN104275341B - Treatment method for heavy metal polluted sediment - Google Patents

Treatment method for heavy metal polluted sediment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104275341B
CN104275341B CN201410034831.0A CN201410034831A CN104275341B CN 104275341 B CN104275341 B CN 104275341B CN 201410034831 A CN201410034831 A CN 201410034831A CN 104275341 B CN104275341 B CN 104275341B
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heavy metal
mud
sediment
slurry
treatment
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CN104275341A (en
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魏国侠
刘汉桥
周建国
武振华
孙磊
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Tianjin Chengjian University
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Tianjin Chengjian University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a treatment method for heavy metal polluted sediment. The treatment method comprises the following steps: pumping the polluted sediment into a vibrating screen by a mud pump, carrying out primary sieving on polluted sediment so as to separate gravels and sand grains with the grain diameter being more than 1mm, wherein the dehydrated gravels and sand grains are directly utilized as building materials or filling materials; conveying mud being less than 1mm into a hydraulic cyclone to be further separated; discharging separated mud sand being more than 50 microns into a plate-and-frame filter press to be dehydrated, wherein the dehydrated mud sand is directly utilized as building materials or filling materials; conveying fine slurry being less than 50 microns into a mud preparing tank; conveying prepared mud into a floatation column to be subjected to floating separation; after separation, enriching upwards floating foam on heavy metal, carrying out press filtering and dehydration and conveying the mud into a waste incineration plant or a smelting plant to be treated; and after dehydrating sunk low-pollution clay and fine sand grains, directly conveying the low-pollution clay and the fine sand grains into a municipal solid waste landfill to be landfilled. By adopting the treatment method for the heavy metal polluted sediment, the sediment can be graded and separated, be subjected to volume reduction and quantity reduction treatment and be recycled on site in an efficient and low-cost manner, so that the problems of large treatment amount, high transportation cost and the like in the treatment process of dredging the sediment are effectively solved.

Description

A kind of processing method of heavy metal pollution sediment
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of restorative procedure for heavy metal pollution sediment, particular for being chronically at anaerobic state Heavy metal pollution sediment.
Background technology
With the propulsion of process of industrialization, the discharge of industrial wastewater, waste liquid and sanitary sewage, water pollution problem is very prominent Go out.Heavy metal receives much concern because having toxicity, non-biodegradable and Accumulative effect, the heavy metal pollution problem of water body.I The significant component of river deposit of state is polluted by heavy metal, and water body deposit is the major storage of the pollutant such as heavy metal Device, in partial rivers deposit, the effumability heavy metal pollution such as Hg, Cd is serious.When environmental condition changes, deposit In heavy metal can be again introduced into water body, become secondary pollution.For thorough pollution administration river, generally fluviolacustrine deposit thing is entered Row dredging, the marine sediments after dredging process tired because its amount is big, pollutant component is complicated, mechanical property is poor, moisture content is high Difficult.Marine sediments are processed disposes the important environmental problem also becoming the urban development of puzzlement China.
The reparation of contaminated soil/deposit that is that research both at home and abroad at present is related to and being applied in actual process Technology mainly includes:Phytoremediation, electromotion repairing technique, curing/stabilizing, drip washing etc..Phytoremediation is that one kind utilizes plant And its method that the microorganism system coexisting effectively removes pollutant in environment, phytoremediation have the advantages that safe and cheap, This technology is currently under in research and development, not yet large-scale application.Electromotion repairing technique method is so that pollutant is issued in electric field action Raw migration reaches the purpose removing pollutant, and the method effectively can remove metal ion, but pollutant dissolubility and desorption ability Limit it effectively to apply.Curing/stabilizing is to be reacted with pollutant by outer adding medicine, generates the material of indissoluble, reaches The purpose of immobilization deposit.Elution method is by the desorbing of leacheate, chelating or dissolving etc. under the auxiliary of surfactant Chemical action, reaches the purpose of repairing polluted soil, is suitable for the quick soil repaired by high concentration heavy metal and Organic Pollution, Japan and European and American developed countries have carried out engineer applied in the nineties in 20th century, but during being somebody's turn to do, the consumption of surfactant is usual Higher, reach the 0.5%~2% of soil quality.Above-mentioned technology is most of mainly for contaminated soil remediation exploitation, deposit There is moisture content high, the high feature of clay, the content of organic matter, larger with soil diversity, should not simply apply mechanically it is often more important that this A little technology cannot be dissolved large batch of dredged materials in time.Domestic existing pollution deposit substance treating method as pad, landfill Deng having had resulted in serious pollution and the wasting of resources.So, how on the premise of environmental friendliness, be achieved at low cost dirt The reparation of dye deposit is using the key issue being urgent need to resolve.
Dredged materials are the mixtures of silt and water, and main component is soil, gravel, clay or sand etc., general silt Grade uneven, heavy metal be distributed in deposit not only relevant with its mineral composition, also relevant with its granularity.General deposition Gravel in thing, the grains of sand particle diameter larger, because of its surface relative smooth, the ability of Adsorption of Heavy Metals is relatively small for granule;Soil, viscous The particle diameter of soil is relatively small, and specific surface is bigger, and absorbability is stronger, is often enriched with most of heavy metal.Meanwhile, deposit Middle Organic substance easily decomposes the S producing under river course anaerobism2-The sulfur of dissolubility very little can be formed with heavy metal ion such as Cu and Pb For mineral.According to document, Heavy Metal In Sediments mainly occur on the granule of 45 μm of mean diameter <.Therefore, heavy based on dredging In long-pending thing, the distribution character of heavy metal and existence form are it is necessary to find a kind of high efficiency, low cost, separation skill easy to use Silt in dredged mud is carried out separating by art, reaches and for the pollutant of different pollution levels to process disposal in different ways, real The classification of existing deposit, separation, volume reduction, decrement treatment and recycling.
Hydrocyclone is a kind of separation equipment of widely used liquid non-homogeneous mixture, and it can complete solid particle Classification and the operation such as sorting, the clarification of liquid, the concentration of slip, the washing of solid particle, liquid phase desanding.Hydrocyclone profit With the high efficiency separation equipment of centrifugal force separate different densities mixture, have that structure is simple, equipment investment is few, operating cost is low, Install big with easy to operate, small volume, disposal ability, the advantages of take up room little, in hydrocyclone, produce higher shear power, Intergranular reunion can effectively be destroyed, be conducive to classification and the washing of solid phase particles.Hydraulic cyclone so far in mineral plus Numerous industrial department such as work, chemical industry, oil, light industry and environmental protection is widely applied.
Froth flotation technology is a kind of new separation technology that 20 beginnings of the century found, have that equipment is simple, operating cost is low, Operation is continuous, be not required to the feature of High Temperature High Pressure, has the advantage of uniqueness to separating low concentration component.Froth flotation is especially suitable for 50 μm The separating treatment of following thin particulate matter.Meanwhile, the experience according to soil flotation, the dose ratio soil of surfactant needed for flotation Earth drip washing required dosage as little as lacks an order of magnitude.Foam flotation method is used primarily for ore dressing, and in recent years, froth flotation technology becomes Work(is applied to the enrichment of heavy metal ion in organic polluted soil purification and solution.
Content of the invention
The present invention provides a kind of process of heavy metal pollution sediment for solving technical problem present in known technology Method is it is characterised in that the method comprises the steps:(1) silt particle coarse fraction:Marine sediments are sent into vibration with slush pump Sieve is tentatively sieved, and isolates gravel and the grains of sand of more than particle diameter 1mm, will after dehydration gravel and the grains of sand be directly used as building materials or Fill material, the water direct reuse vibrosieve of abjection, the mud less than 1mm sends into hydrocyclone;(2) hydraulic cyclone is further Separate silt particle:It is less than 1mm mud after hydrocyclone separation, the silt particle more than 50 μm enters filter press in step (1) Dehydration, can be directly used as building materials or fill material, the water direct reuse vibrosieve of abjection, flotation sent into by the thin mud slurry less than 50 μm Post;(3) FLOTATION SEPARATION:In step (2) be less than 50 μm thin mud slurry send into pond with slurry, simultaneously in pond with slurry add collecting agent, Foaming agent and mineral acid, the mud preparing is sent into flotation column and is carried out FLOTATION SEPARATION, the floating foam of enriching heavy metal after separating Garbage burning factory or smeltery is sent to process after filter pressing, dehydration, the light pollution clay of sinking and fine sand, after dehydration, directly send Household refuse landfill sites landfill stabilization, the water simultaneously deviate from sends into the reuse of ingredients pond.
Described agent for capturing is the mixture that one or more of diesel oil, kerosene, ethylsulfonic acid potassium are formed, its quality For described deposit butt quality 0.05%~0.8%.
Described foaming agent is Oleum Pini, any one in methyl isobutyl carbinol, and its quality is described deposit butt matter The 005%~0.4% of amount.
Described mineral acid is hydrochloric acid, any one in nitric acid, and the pH value of mud controls between 4~6.
In described pond with slurry, the solid-to-liquid ratio of mud is 1: 20~1: 5.
The present invention has the advantages and positive effects that:The bulky grain deposit such as the gravel after pre-screening, grains of sand and floating After choosing, the remaining residual mud volume needing further dystopy to dispose and toxicity significantly reduce, can be directly used for building materials, fill material or Directly fill, reach the purpose of wastes reduction, recycling;Rubbish is sent after the floating Foam Dewaterin of enriching heavy metal after flotation Rubbish incineration plant or smeltery are processed, and realize concentration in cloth bag flying dust for the volatile heavy metal and recovery.This invention is realized on the spot The minimizing of deposit is processed, and not only reduces the treating capacity of dredged materials, and the specific aim processing disposal is higher, can be effective Solve dredged materials and process the problems such as treating capacity being faced in disposal process is big, and cost of transportation is high.Meanwhile, the method equipment Simply, disposal ability is big, small investment, and energy consumption is little, and operating cost is low, and easy to operate, controllability is strong, and it is heavy to significantly reduce The process cost of disposal of long-pending thing.
Specific embodiment
For content of the invention, feature and effect of the present invention can be further appreciated that, hereby enumerate following examples, and coordinate accompanying drawing Describe in detail as follows:
Fig. 1 is the processing system schematic diagram realizing the embodiment of the present invention.
The principle of the present invention is to be in sulphided state and easily in the characteristic of fine grained enrichment in anoxic sediments thing based on heavy metal, Heavy metal sulfide surface itself is hydrophobic, and fine grained deposit has that larger specific surface area, yield be relatively low, proportion simultaneously Relatively light, be preferentially combined with bubble and float in floatation process, thus heavy metal contaminants can be realized by flotation becoming from deposition Separate in thing.
Embodiment 1:
Take deposit 500kg in certain heavy metal pollution river course, 200 μm of particles below of this deposit are analyzed, should Heavy Metals in Sediments content is shown in Table 1 with particle size distribution.As can be seen from the table, most of greatly absolutely heavy metal accumulation is thin in 50 μm of < On granular deposit.This deposit is tentatively sieved with laboratory screen shaker, is isolated gravel and the grains of sand of particle diameter > 1mm Building materials or fill material can be directly used as, the mud of < 1mm is sent into laboratory room small-sized hydrocyclone and separated further after dehydration, The silt particle that 50 μm of > can be directly used as building materials or fill material after screening out, the fine grained deposit of 50 μm of remaining < just corresponds to former The 1/9 about of beginning sediment quality.
Table 1 Heavy Metal In Sediments content is with particle size distribution
Granularity Mass Distribution Cu Pb Zn Cd Cr
100~200 μm 17.82% 68.88 58.13 325.90 1.29 120.14
50~100 μm 9.31% 56.80 59.61 389.48 1.32 15431
50 μm of < 72.87% 695.4 494.57 3316.68 8.31 852.12
Deposit 100% 524.31 376.30 2511.22 6.42 656.73
According to the fine grained deposition to 50 μm of < for the leaching toxicity from solid waste method-sulfonitric method (HJ/T299-2007) Thing carries out toxicity leaching, and it the results are shown in Table 2.Weigh the fine grained deposit of 50 μm of < of 100g and 1L water sends into groove with slurry, Add 0.8g diesel oil, 0.2g methyl isobutyl carbinol in groove with slurry, be simultaneously introduced a small amount of hydrochloric acid control solution pH=5, prepare Mud is sent into flotation column and is carried out flotation, and after separating, the floating foam of enriching heavy metal can send garbage burning factory or smeltery after being dehydrated Process, heavy metal in the light pollution clay sinking and fine sand be analyzed, and calculate heavy metal recovery rate after FLOTATION SEPARATION, It the results are shown in Table 2, and dried light pollution clay and fine sand are pressed acetic acid caching solwution method (HJ/T300-2007) measurement leaching Go out heavy metal concentration in liquid, in leachate, harm concentration is less than heavy metal contaminants concentration limit in GB16889-2008, above-mentioned As shown by data gently pollutes clay and fine sand can directly enter household refuse landfill sites landfill.
After 50 μm of fine grained deposit Leachings of < in table 2 embodiment 1, flotation, heavy metal recovery rate and hypostasiss leach Concentration
Embodiment 2:
Using deposit same as Example 1, and same pre-screening is carried out to it.According to leaching toxicity from solid waste Method-sulfonitric method (HJ/T299-2007) carries out toxicity leaching to the fine grained deposit of 50 μm of <, and it the results are shown in Table 3. Weigh the fine grained deposit of 50 μm of < of 100g and 500mL water sends into groove with slurry, groove with slurry adds 0.05 ethylsulfonic acid Potassium, 0.05g methyl isobutyl carbinol, are simultaneously introduced a small amount of hydrochloric acid control solution pH=4, and the mud preparing is sent into flotation column and entered Row flotation, after separating, the floating foam of enriching heavy metal can send garbage burning factory or smeltery to process, to FLOTATION SEPARATION after being dehydrated In the light pollution clay sinking afterwards and fine sand, heavy metal is analyzed, and calculates heavy metal recovery rate, and it the results are shown in Table 3, will Dried light pollution clay and fine sand press acetic acid caching solwution method (HJ/T300-2007) measure leachate in heavy metal dense Degree, in leachate, harm concentration is less than heavy metal contaminants concentration limit in GB16889-2008, and above-mentioned as shown by data gently pollutes Clay and fine sand can directly enter household refuse landfill sites landfill.
After 50 μm of fine grained deposit Leachings of < in table 3 embodiment 2, flotation, heavy metal recovery rate and hypostasiss leach Concentration
Embodiment 4:
Using deposit same as Example 1, and same pre-screening is carried out to it.According to leaching toxicity from solid waste Method-sulfonitric method (HJ/T299-2007) carries out toxicity leaching to the fine grained deposit of 50 μm of <, and it the results are shown in Table 2. Weigh the fine grained deposit of 50 μm of < of 100g and 2L water is sent into groove with slurry and added 0.4g kerosene and ethyl sulphur in groove with slurry The mixture (mass ratio 1: 1) of sour potassium, 0.4g Oleum Pini, are simultaneously introduced a small amount of hydrochloric acid control solution pH=6, and the mud preparing send Enter flotation column and carry out flotation, after separating, the floating foam of enriching heavy metal can send garbage burning factory or smeltery to process after being dehydrated, Heavy metal in the light pollution clay sinking after FLOTATION SEPARATION and fine sand is analyzed, and calculates heavy metal recovery rate, its knot Fruit is shown in Table 4, and dried light pollution clay and fine sand are pressed acetic acid caching solwution method (HJ/T300-2007) measurement leachate Middle heavy metal concentration, in leachate, harm concentration is less than heavy metal contaminants concentration limit in GB16889-2008, above-mentioned data Show gently to pollute clay and fine sand can directly enter household refuse landfill sites landfill.
After 50 μm of fine grained deposit Leachings of < in table 4 embodiment 3, flotation, heavy metal recovery rate and hypostasiss leach Concentration
Although being described to the preferred embodiments of the present invention above in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention is not limited in The specific embodiment stated, above-mentioned specific embodiment is only schematically, is not restricted, this area common Technical staff, under the enlightenment of the present invention, in the case of without departing from present inventive concept and scope of the claimed protection, also may be used To make a lot of forms, these belong within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of restorative procedure of heavy metal pollution sediment is it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
(1) silt particle coarse fraction:Heavy metal pollution sediment is sent into vibrosieve with slush pump tentatively sieved, isolate particle diameter The gravel of more than 1mm and the grains of sand, the gravel after dehydration and the grains of sand are directly used as building materials or fill material, the water of abjection directly returns With vibrosieve, the mud feeding hydrocyclone less than 1mm;
(2) hydraulic cyclone separates silt particle further:After in step (1), the mud less than 1mm separates through hydrocyclone, more than 50 μm silt particle enter filter press dehydration, the silt particle after dehydration can be directly used as building materials or fill material, and the water of abjection is direct Reuse vibrosieve, pond with slurry sent into by the thin mud slurry less than 50 μm;
(3) FLOTATION SEPARATION:In step (2) be less than 50 μm thin mud slurry send into pond with slurry, simultaneously in pond with slurry add collecting agent, Foaming agent and mineral acid, the mud preparing is sent into flotation column and is carried out FLOTATION SEPARATION, the floating foam of enriching heavy metal after separating Garbage burning factory or smeltery is sent to process after filter pressing, dehydration, the light pollution clay of sinking and fine sand, after dehydration, directly send Household refuse landfill sites landfill stabilization, the water simultaneously deviate from sends into pond with slurry reuse, and described collecting agent is diesel oil, kerosene, second The mixture that one or more of base potassium sulfonate is formed, its quality is described heavy metal pollution sediment butt quality 0.05%~0.8%;Described foaming agent is Oleum Pini, any one in methyl isobutyl carbinol, and its quality is described heavy metal The 0.05%~0.4% of marine sediments butt quality.
2. a kind of restorative procedure of heavy metal pollution sediment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that in step (3) Described mineral acid is hydrochloric acid, any one in nitric acid, and the pH value of mud controls between 4~6.
3. a kind of restorative procedure of heavy metal pollution sediment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that step (3) institute The solid-to-liquid ratio stating mud in pond with slurry is 1: 20~1: 5.
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CN104275245B (en) * 2014-01-22 2017-07-04 天津城建大学 The method of medical refuse burning flyash stepped-flotation separation detoxification
CN106111684A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-11-16 华东理工大学 A kind of preprocess method promoting soil washing desorption performance and device
CN108687128A (en) * 2018-06-14 2018-10-23 方碧水 A kind of soil restoring device

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CN1884153A (en) * 2006-06-29 2006-12-27 上海交通大学 Method for processing organic chloride and heavy metal polluted bed mud
EP2119678A1 (en) * 2008-05-09 2009-11-18 Politechnika Lubelska Method for elimination of mobile fraction of heavy metal ions in sewage sludge
CN101797575A (en) * 2010-03-09 2010-08-11 天津城市建设学院 Flyash treatment method for waste incineration
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