CN103926313B - A kind of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection - Google Patents

A kind of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection Download PDF

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CN103926313B
CN103926313B CN201310648141.XA CN201310648141A CN103926313B CN 103926313 B CN103926313 B CN 103926313B CN 201310648141 A CN201310648141 A CN 201310648141A CN 103926313 B CN103926313 B CN 103926313B
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porosity
composite
ultrasonic
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evaluation
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CN103926313A (en
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刘松平
刘菲菲
郭恩明
史俊伟
傅天航
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AVIC Composite Corp Ltd
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Abstract

The invention belongs to composite and technical field of nondestructive testing, relate to a kind of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection.The realization of the inventive method includes: the modeling of ultrasonic transducer, ultrasonic detecting unit, porosity evaluation, porosity build the major parts such as storehouse.The composite test block utilizing known porosity content obtains ultrasound parameter by measuring detection signal, build porosity evaluation mould, kind and moulding technique according to detected composite, setting up porosity data storehouse, the composite test block adjacent pores differential scope of rate content for modeling is 0.5% 1.0%.By selecting the respective material in composite porosity data storehouse and technology type, it is achieved the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of porosity of different composite material, and can carry out in real time porosity numerical value automatic alarm, record, preservation etc..Can be used for indoor and outdoor porosity Numerical evaluation and the detection of composite material engineering structure, and need not special sample preparation, rapidly and efficiently, pollution-free.

Description

A kind of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection
Technical field
The invention belongs to composite and technical field of nondestructive testing, relate to a kind of composite based on ultrasound detection Porosity Numerical evaluation method.
Background technology
Along with composite popularization and application in force structure, at composite structure design and structure manufacturing process In, need composite porosity is detected and assessed, prevent the content of porosity from exceeding the peace that design allows Full threshold value.At present, in composite material manufacturing process, the composite porosity methods of sampling mainly used is come Indirectly speculate the porosity content of practice of composite part: concrete method is: (1) utilizes with stove part Sampling and sample preparation, then carry out metallographic observation, observes whether sample preparation section exists space, and speculates same stove with this Composite material parts whether have porosity;(2) utilization carries out sample preparation from the corner surplus that composite material parts cuts, Then carry out metallographic observation, observe whether sample preparation section exists space, and whether speculate composite material parts with this There is porosity.Owing to composite is in manufacturing process, porosity has ferocious random distribution feature, then Plus the strong discreteness of composite self, middle both approaches the most significantly deficiency is all to obtain reality Porosity distribution in the composite material parts of border, and be only a kind of based on theoretic technique equivalent and processing quality Strict uniform it is assumed that differ quite remote with actual conditions, and need special sample preparation, the cycle is long, and efficiency is low, deposits In environmental pollution, in the engineering structures such as composite, it is difficult to popularization and application at present;(3) utilize ultrasonic wave compound In material the end wave attenuation change, carry out the judge of composite porosity, the main method of employing be according to from The reduction of ripple at the bottom of composite or the transmitted wave amplitude that penetrates composite carries out the judgement that porosity is rough, and it shows The deficiency write is, owing to affecting end ripple or the many factors of transmitted wave amplitude change, and, many times, the end The reduction of ripple or transmitted wave amplitude is not necessarily because what the existence of porosity caused, easily causes erroneous judgement, therefore, This method the most also could not be widely applied.
Summary of the invention
The non-destructive ultrasonic numerical value of composite porosity that the purpose of the present invention is to propose to a kind of rapidly and efficiently environmental protection is commented Estimate method, it is achieved the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of porosity of composite, improve the accuracy of composite porosity evaluation, To realize the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of the porosity of composite material engineering structure.The technical solution of the present invention is,
The basic composition of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection includes: ultrasonic transducer (1), ultrasonic detecting unit (2), porosity evaluation model (3), porosity data storehouse (4), ultrasonic transducer (1) applicable detected composite material component port surface contact coupling or noncontact coupling ultrasonic transducer are used, ultrasonic Detector unit (2) use have detection signal digitizing function and detection signal show, detect parameter setting, ultrasonic Parameter computational analysis and output, the ultrasound detection instrument of storage function, the signal digitlization of ultrasonic detecting unit (2) The operational frequency bandwidth processed is not less than 100MHz, utilizes ultrasonic transducer (1) and ultrasound unit (2) to Know that the composite test block of porosity content carries out ultrasound parameter test, obtain known same process feature and different hole The ultrasound parameter of the composite test block that gap rate is differential, utilizes surveyed ultrasound parameter to build composite porosity evaluation mould, Form the porosity evaluation model of corresponding detected composite type;Set up porosity data storehouse (4);
Composite porosity evaluation modeling method for solving is:
(1) composite test block process characteristic and porosity test block according to known porosity content are differential, determine The power side n, n of equation is generally no greater than the composite test block number of known different porosities content, and (2) are asked Solve equation:
V C 1 = a n x C 1 n + a n - 1 x C 1 n - 1 + . . . + a 0 . . . V Cn = a n x Cn n + a n - 1 x Cn n - 1 + . . . + a 0 - - - ( 1 )
Here, an,an-1,...,a0The porosity coefficient solved for needs,
VC1,...,VCnIt is respectively the porosity content nominal value in n known composite materials test block, refers to unit Porosity number contained by volume, represents with percents,
Ultrasonic by being surveyed in the composite porosity test block of the 1st known porosity content Parameter, by the ultrasound unit (2) the composite test block actual measurement gained to the 1st known porosity content Ultrasound parameter,
By being surveyed ultrasound parameter in the composite test block of the n-th known porosity content, By the ultrasound unit (2) the composite porosity test block actual measurement gained to the n-th known porosity content Ultrasound parameter, By solving equation (1), it is calculated porosity coefficient an,an-1,...,a0, it is expressed in matrix as:
V C 1 . . . V Cn = a n . . . a 0 × x C 1 n x C 1 n - 1 . . . x C 1 1 . . . x Cn n x Cn n - 1 . . . x Cn 1 , - - - ( 2 )
Then,
a n . . . a 0 = V C 1 . . . V Cn × x C 1 n x C 1 n - 1 . . . x C 1 1 . . . x Cn n x Cn n - 1 . . . x Cn 1 - 1 - - - ( 3 )
Building composite porosity data storehouse method is:
(1) the 1st grade of search catalogue is set up by material type
Here, m is composite material species number, is called for short " material ".
(2) the 2nd grade of search catalogue is set up by the technology type under every kind of catalog of materials
Here, k is moulding process kind corresponding under material 1 catalogue, is called for short " technique ", J is moulding process kind corresponding under material m catalogue.
(3) 3rd level search catalogue is set up by the technology type under every kind of catalog of materials,
Here,Hole for the 1st kind of technique under material m Rate coefficient, is tried to achieve by formula (3), simply herein for the porosity coefficient under difference different process, adds angle Mark 1, in like manner,For the porosity coefficient of the jth kind technique under material m, formula (3) try to achieve, Herein for the porosity coefficient under difference different process, add superscript j.
By ultrasonic detecting unit (2) according to set detection parameter, by measuring from ultrasonic transducer (1) Detection signal in boundary's wave energy, end wave energy, layer wave energy and propagation time obtain ultrasound parameter.
Difference is comprised by one group for solving the composite porosity test block of composite porosity evaluation modeling The composite test block composition of porosity content, the differential scope of porosity content of adjacent composites test block is 0.5% 1.0%, the composite test block number being typically different porosity content takes between 3-10.
Solve the composite porosity evaluation modeling obtained and corresponding composite porosity data library storage exists In ultrasonic detecting unit (2), during detection, by selecting the respective material in composite porosity data storehouse and work Skill type, utilizes ultrasonic transducer (1) and ultrasonic detecting unit (2) can realize the hole of different composite material The ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of rate.
The present invention has the advantage that and beneficial effect,
1. the porosity for composite material engineering structure detects, and it is nondestructive efficiently that the present invention proposes one Environment-friendly composite material porosity ultrasonic Numerical evaluation method, utilizes the composite porosity Numerical evaluation mould set up Type, can realize the porosity Numerical evaluation of composite total very easily, and can carry out hole in real time The automatic alarm of rate score, record, preservation etc..Thus composite material engineering structure provide very effective efficiently Quickly porosity detection method;
2. utilize the composite porosity ultrasonic Numerical evaluation method that the present invention proposes, can manually or Automatically scan mode carries out the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of porosity to composite, directly obtains composite practical structures district Porosity numeric distribution, obtained testing result directly reacts the porosity distribution in practice of composite part, And need not special sample preparation, and rapidly and efficiently, environmental nonpollution, it is very easy in the engineering structures such as composite Application;
3. utilize the composite porosity ultrasonic Numerical evaluation method that the present invention proposes, overcome and solely utilize When reduction from ripple at the bottom of composite or transmitted wave amplitude carries out porosity rough judgement, exist due to shadow The disturbing factor ringing end ripple or the change of transmitted wave amplitude is many, easily causes porosity to pass judgment on the problems such as inaccurate;
4. utilize the composite porosity ultrasonic Numerical evaluation method that the present invention proposes, set up different composite material With the porosity data storehouse of different composite material shaping, may be coextruded the porosity numerical analysis of material parts.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is process step schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is porosity banking process schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is porosity Numerical evaluation schematic diagram of the present invention.
Detailed description of the invention
The basic composition of the inventive method includes: ultrasonic transducer 1, ultrasonic detecting unit 2, porosity evaluation model 3, porosity builds storehouse 4, as it is shown in figure 1, be scanned composite material parts 5 by ultrasonic transducer 1, sweeps During retouching, by ultrasonic detecting unit 2 according to selecting porosity assessment models that composite material parts 5 is carried out in real time Porosity Numerical evaluation, instruction of reporting to the police, result preservation and porosity numerical analysis etc..Ultrasonic transducer 1 uses suitable Close detected composite material component port surface contact coupling or noncontact coupling ultrasonic transducer, it is achieved ultrasound detection is believed Number transmitting and reception, the FJ series high-resolution ultrasound transducing that composite Co., Ltd of Air China produces can be selected Device;Ultrasonic detecting unit 2 uses to have detection signal digitizing function and detect signal and shows, detects parameter (bag Include thickness, the velocity of sound, gate etc.) arrange, ultrasound parameter computational analysis and the ultrasound detection of the function such as output, storage Instrument is constituted, and the operational frequency bandwidth of its signal digitized processing at least 100MHz can be selected for Air China's composite MUT series high-resolution ultrasound detecting instrument, CUS series high-resolution ultrasound that Co., Ltd produces are swept automatically Retouch detection equipment and directly constitute ultrasonic detecting unit 2;Porosity evaluation modeling 3 is to build in storehouse 4 temporary for porosity Time vacancy new composite type, utilize ultrasonic transducer 1 and ultrasound unit 2 to known porosity content After composite test block carries out ultrasound parameter test, the composite porosity evaluation modeling be given is solved, Form the porosity evaluation model of corresponding detected composite type;It is to pass through software programming that porosity builds storehouse 4 Existing and newly-established composite porosity value assessment module are managed according to given selection principle, in order to Select when carrying out the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of composite porosity;Composite material parts 5 refers to that actual being required is carried out The composite material parts of porosity ultrasound detection.
Composite porosity evaluation modeling method for solving is,
(1) differential according to detected composite material process characteristic and porosity test block, determine the power of equation Side n, to carbon fiber resin matrix composite, n selects the characteristic with detected composite and porosity evaluation Accuracy, porosity are differential etc. requires relevant, and n typically selects in 1-5, and n is generally no greater than known different hole The composite test block number of gap rate content.
(2) solving equation:
V C 1 = a n x C 1 n + a n - 1 x C 1 n - 1 + . . . + a 0 . . . V Cn = a n x Cn n + a n - 1 x Cn n - 1 + . . . + a 0 - - - ( 1 )
Here, an,an-1,...,a0The porosity coefficient solved for needs,
VC1,...,VCnIt is respectively the porosity content mark in the composite test block of n known porosity content Title value, refers to porosity number contained by unit volume, represents with percents,
By being surveyed ultrasound parameter in the composite test block of the 1st known porosity content, By ultrasound unit 2, the composite porosity test block actual measured amount of the 1st known porosity content is obtained ultrasonic Parameter, after the running parameters such as the velocity of sound set, thickness, gate, gain, by ultrasound unit 2 to super Sonic transducer 1 receive from detected composite detection signal projectile energy, return energy, After propagation time carries out computing, directly obtain ultrasound parameter,
By being surveyed ultrasound parameter in the composite test block of the n-th known porosity content, By the ultrasound unit (2) the composite porosity test block actual measurement gained to the n-th known porosity content, Beijing Aviation manufacturing engineering research institute ZL201220318356.6 and ZL201320020780.7 can be selected Middle composite porosity test block, ultrasound unit (2) directly export this ultrasound parameter,
By solving equation (1), it is calculated porosity coefficient an,an-1,...,a0, it is expressed in matrix as:
V C 1 . . . V Cn = a n . . . a 0 × x C 1 n x C 1 n - 1 . . . x C 1 1 . . . x Cn n x Cn n - 1 . . . x Cn 1 , - - - ( 2 )
Then,
a n . . . a 0 = V C 1 . . . V Cn × x C 1 n x C 1 n - 1 . . . x C 1 1 . . . x Cn n x Cn n - 1 . . . x Cn 1 - 1 - - - ( 3 )
Composite porosity banking process is,
(1) the 1st grade of search catalogue is set up by composite type
Here, m is material category number, is called for short " material ".
(2) the 2nd grade of search catalogue is set up by the moulding process type under every kind of catalog of materials
Here, k is moulding process kind corresponding under material 1 catalogue, and j is material m mesh The lower corresponding moulding process kind of record, is called for short " technique ".
(3) 3rd level search catalogue is set up by the technology type under every kind of catalog of materials, such as, for material m mesh J kind technique under Lu, porosity banking process is:
Here,Hole for the 1st kind of technique under material m Rate coefficient, is tried to achieve by formula (3), simply herein for the porosity coefficient under difference different process, adds angle Mark 1, in like manner,For the porosity coefficient of the jth kind technique under material m, formula (3) try to achieve, Herein for the porosity coefficient under difference different process, add superscript j.
(4) porosity modeling procedure step is:
1. porosity MBM is entered, it may be judged whether for new material, if belonging to new material, the most newly-built catalog of materials; The most newly-built technique catalogue;Preserve this porosity coefficient in newly-built technique catalogue, form corresponding porosity evaluation model;
If the most not belonging to new material;Select the existing catalog of materials;Determine whether new technology;If genus new technology, The most newly-built technique catalogue;This porosity coefficient is preserved under newly-built technique catalogue;
If the most not belonging to new material;The most do not belong to new technology;Then enter technique mesh selected under the selected catalog of materials Record;Under selected technique catalogue, preserve this porosity coefficient, form corresponding porosity evaluation model, terminate hole Gap rate builds storehouse, shown in Figure 2.
Composite porosity ultrasonic Numerical evaluation method step is as follows,
(1) detection prepares
1. porosity ultrasonic scan mode is determined: when detected composite material parts being carried out porosity craft scanning inspection During survey, ultrasound unit 2 may select the MUT series high-resolution that composite material Co., Ltd of Air China produces Rate ultrasound detection instrument;Connect ultrasound unit 2;When detected composite material parts is carried out porosity automatic scanning During detection, ultrasound unit 2 may select the CUS series high-resolution that composite material Co., Ltd of Air China produces Rate ultrasonic automatic scanning detection equipment;Ultrasonic transducer 1 is connected with ultrasound unit 2;Enter composite hole Rate ultrasonic Numerical evaluation working interface.
(2) detecting step
As shown in Figure 3, the step of the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of composite porosity is as follows:
It is (velocity of sound, operating frequency, thickness, gain, gate, detected compound that 1. ultrasound detection running parameter is set The title of material parts, detection date etc.);
2. porosity alarm threshold value V is setT
3. porosity assessment models is selected;
4. zero porosity sample is utilized to carry out porosity check and correction;
5. porosity measurement working interface is entered;
6. move ultrasonic transducer 1 and detected composite material parts 5 is carried out scanning;
7. by selecting porosity assessment models to calculate current detection point porosity numerical value VCi
8. porosity numerical value caching, display (data or image mode);
9. V is worked asCi>VTTime, instruction of reporting to the police;
The most whether complete detection, as complete in detection, it may be judged whether result preserves;
If selecting result to preserve, then under testing result preserves the working directory set automatically, detection of end, enter Enter hole rate score analysis;
If selecting result not preserve, then detection of end, enter hole rate score and analyze.

Claims (3)

1. a composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection, is characterized in that, based on ultrasonic inspection The composite porosity Numerical evaluation method equipment therefor surveyed basic constitutes and includes: ultrasonic transducer (1), super Sound detection unit (2), porosity evaluation modeling unit (3), porosity data storehouse (4), ultrasonic transducer (1) Use and be suitable for detected composite material component port surface contact coupling or the ultrasonic transducer of noncontact coupling, ultrasonic inspection Survey unit (2) uses to have detection signal digitizing function and detect signal and shows, detects parameter setting, ultrasonic ginseng Number computational analysis and output, the ultrasound detection instrument of storage function, at the signal digitlization of ultrasonic detecting unit (2) The operational frequency bandwidth of reason is not less than 100MHz, utilizes ultrasonic transducer (1) and ultrasonic detecting unit (2) right The composite test block of known porosity content carries out ultrasound parameter test, obtains known same process feature and difference The ultrasound parameter of the composite test block of porosity, utilizes surveyed ultrasound parameter to build composite porosity evaluation mould, Form the porosity evaluation model of corresponding detected composite type;Set up porosity data storehouse (4), ultrasonic Parameter includes boundary's wave energy, end wave energy, layer wave energy and propagation time, Composite porosity evaluation modeling method for solving is:
(1) composite porosity test block process characteristic and porosity according to known porosity content are differential, really The power side n, n that determine equation are not more than the composite test block number of known different porosities content,
(2) solving equation:
V C 1 = a n x C 1 n + a n - 1 x C 1 n - 1 + ... + a 0 ... V C n = a n x C n n + a n - 1 x C n n - 1 + ... + a 0 - - - ( 1 )
Here, an,an-1,...,a0The porosity coefficient solved for needs,
VC1,...,VCnIt is respectively the porosity content nominal value in n known composite materials porosity test block, Refer to hole number contained by unit volume, represent with percents, xC1For the 1st known composite materials Surveyed ultrasound parameter in porosity test block, by ultrasonic detecting unit (2) to the 1st known porosity content The actual ultrasound parameter measuring gained of composite porosity test block,
xCnBy being surveyed ultrasound parameter, by ultrasonic in the composite test block of the n-th known porosity content The composite porosity test block actual measurement gained of the n-th known porosity content is surpassed by detector unit (2) Sound parameter,
By solving equation (1), it is calculated porosity coefficient an,an-1,...,a0, it is expressed in matrix as:
V C 1 ... V C n = x C 1 n x C 1 n - 1 ... x C 1 1 ... x C n n x C n n - 1 ... x C n 1 × a n ... a 0 , - - - ( 2 )
Then,
a n ... a 0 = x C 1 n x C 1 n - 1 ... x C 1 1 ... x C n n x C n n - 1 ... x C n 1 T × V C 1 ... V C n - - - ( 3 )
Building composite porosity data storehouse method is:
(1) the 1st grade of search catalogue is set up by composite type
Here, m is composite species number, and " material " is composite,
(2) the 2nd grade of search catalogue is set up by the moulding process type under every kind of catalog of materials
Here, k is moulding process kind corresponding under material 1 catalogue, and " technique " is Moulding process, j is moulding process kind corresponding under material m catalogue,
(3) 3rd level search catalogue is set up by the technology type under every kind of catalog of materials,
Here,Hole for the 1st kind of technique under material m Rate coefficient, is tried to achieve by formula (3), simply herein for the porosity coefficient under difference different process, adds angle Mark 1, in like manner,For the porosity coefficient of the jth kind technique under material m, formula (3) try to achieve, Herein for the porosity coefficient under difference different process, add superscript j;
Solve the composite porosity evaluation modeling and composite porosity data library storage obtained ultrasonic In detector unit (2), during detection, by selecting the respective material in composite porosity data storehouse and technique class Type, it is achieved the ultrasonic Numerical evaluation of porosity of different composite material.
A kind of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that, ultrasonic detecting unit (2) is according to set detection parameter, by measuring from ultrasonic transducer (1) Detection signal, therefrom obtain boundary wave energy, end wave energy, layer wave energy and propagation time.
A kind of composite porosity Numerical evaluation method based on ultrasound detection the most according to claim 1, It is characterized in that, composite porosity test block is by one group of composite porosity test block comprising different porosities content Composition, the differential scope of porosity content of adjacent composites porosity test block is 0.5% 1.0%, different porosities The composite porosity test block number of content takes between 3-10.
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