CN103879505A - Middle motor of electric bicycle - Google Patents

Middle motor of electric bicycle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103879505A
CN103879505A CN201410046902.9A CN201410046902A CN103879505A CN 103879505 A CN103879505 A CN 103879505A CN 201410046902 A CN201410046902 A CN 201410046902A CN 103879505 A CN103879505 A CN 103879505A
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China
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slide
electric bicycle
axle sleeve
quiet
fixing
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CN201410046902.9A
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CN103879505B (en
Inventor
马庆一
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Suzhou Tongsheng Electric Appliance Co., Ltd
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TONGSHENG VEHICLE INDUSTORY Co Ltd SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL GARDEN
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Priority to CN201410046902.9A priority Critical patent/CN103879505B/en
Publication of CN103879505A publication Critical patent/CN103879505A/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a middle motor of an electric bicycle. The middle motor comprises a motor connecting tube, a housing case, a base, a center shaft, a crankset and a shaft sleeve. The motor connecting tube is fixedly penetratingly arranged in a bottom bracket of the bicycle, the housing case and the base are integrally connected with the motor connecting tube, the center shaft is rotationally assembled in the motor connecting tube via a bearing, the crankset sleeves the center shaft, the shaft sleeve sleeves the center shaft and can peripherally deform when under peripheral torsional force, one end of the shaft sleeve is fixed relative to the center shaft, the other end of the shaft sleeve is fixed relative to the crankset, an unclosed notch is circumferentially formed in the tubular wall of the shaft sleeve, torque sensing steel magnets are fixed to one side of the notch, torque sensors corresponding to the torque sensing steel magnets are fixed to the other side of the notch, and a torque signal output wire of each torque sensor is connected with a motor controller by a wire outlet device. The middle motor of the electric bicycle has the advantages of simple structure, light and handy appearance and stability in performance.

Description

Electric bicycle motor
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of electric bicycle motor, this motor can be arranged on ordinary bicycle.
Background technology
The shortcoming such as existing electric bicycle motor ubiquity complex structure, profile are huge.The pig-tail wire of the moment sensor also having is to draw casing outside by current colector, and current colector adopts the frame mode of slip ring and carbon brush or other contact part dynamic Contacts, when use, between contact part or carbon brush and slip ring, can produce cliding friction.Because, for point contacts, area of contact is very little between contact part and slip ring, pressure is larger, and therefore after long-time use, slip ring is easy to be scratched.And being difficult to ensure the contact stabilization between contact part and slip ring, this has directly affected the stability of the moment sensing signal that moment sensor sends.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to: for the problems referred to above, provide the electric bicycle motor of the light and handy and stable performance of a kind of simple in structure, profile.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of electric bicycle motor, it comprises the motor connection pipe being fixedly located in bicycle five-pipe, the casing and the support that are connected as a single entity with described motor connection pipe, be assemblied in the axis in described motor connection pipe by bearing rotary, be sheathed on the chain wheel on axis, and be enclosed within the axle sleeve that can produce circumferential deformation on axis and in the time that it is subject to circumferential twisting resistance, one end of described axle sleeve is relative with axis fixing, the other end of axle sleeve is relative with chain wheel fixing, on the tube wall of described axle sleeve, along the circumferential direction offer non-close incisions, one side of this otch is fixed with moment sensing magnet steel, opposite side is fixed with the torque sensor corresponding with described moment sensing magnet steel, the torque signals output line of described torque sensor is connected with electric machine controller through an outgoing line device.
As preferably, described outgoing line device is made up of contact bonded to each other and moving slide and quiet slide that can relative sliding, wherein moving slide and described axle sleeve are fixed, quiet slide and described support are fixed, the torque signals output line of described torque sensor is connected with moving slide, between described quiet slide and described electric machine controller, is connected by torque signals pig-tail wire.
As preferably, the torque signals pig-tail wire between the torque signals output line of described torque sensor and described quiet slide and electric machine controller respectively has two; Described moving slide is made up of ring and moving slide outer shroud in the moving slide being connected as a single entity, described quiet slide is made up of ring and quiet slide outer shroud in the quiet slide being connected as a single entity, wherein ring and the moving contact of the interior ring of quiet slide, moving slide outer shroud and the moving contact of quiet slide outer shroud in action; Two described torque signals output lines are connected with moving slide outer shroud with ring in described moving slide respectively, and two described torque signals pig-tail wires are connected with quiet slide outer shroud with ring in quiet slide respectively.
As preferably, on described moving slide, velocity response magnet steel is installed, on described support, be provided with the speed sensor corresponding with described velocity response magnet steel.
As preferably, described velocity response magnet steel has 20, rounded being uniformly distributed on described moving slide.
As preferably, also comprise the stator be located in motor casing and rotor and with the fixing motor shaft tooth of rotor, described motor shaft tooth is in transmission connection by gear reduction and described chain wheel.
As preferably, described gear reduction comprise with the intermeshing nylon gear of described motor shaft tooth, with the coaxial miniature gears being connected of nylon gear and with the intermeshing big gear wheel of described miniature gears, described big gear wheel and chain wheel are fixed.
As preferably, between described big gear wheel and axle sleeve, be provided with the first unilateral bearing, described the first unilateral bearing comprises bearing inner ring and the outside race with this bearing inner ring one-way locking, and wherein outside race and described big gear wheel are fixed, and bearing inner ring and sleeve end are fixed.
As preferably, between described miniature gears and nylon gear, be provided with the second unilateral bearing, described the second unilateral bearing comprises bearing inner ring and the outside race with this bearing inner ring one-way locking, and wherein outside race and described nylon gear are fixed, and bearing inner ring and miniature gears are fixed.
Advantage of the present invention is:
1, this Electrical Bicycle of the present invention is by the stressed rear distortion that produces of axle sleeve being installed between axis and chain wheel, and then the relative position of moment sensing magnet steel and torque sensor is changed, and then induce axis Moment size, moment transmission puts in place, because be the structure of integral type, so the defect of induced signal shakiness can not exist moment weak time, but can guarantee all the time high sensitivity and the high precision of induced signal.
2, the outgoing line device in the present invention adopts moving slide and the quiet slide carriage structure of contact bonded to each other, because can remaining to fit tightly in counterrotating process with quiet slide, moving slide contacts, area of contact is larger, pressure is less, so conduction is reliable, stable signal transmission, frictional loss is also little.
3, this Electrical Bicycle of the present invention can detect moment and the speed of axis simultaneously, thereby electric machine controller can be considered after the rotating speed size and moment size of axis, controls the operational factor of motor.
Brief description of the drawings
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described:
Fig. 1 is the integral structure schematic diagram of electric bicycle motor in the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the local structure schematic diagram of electric bicycle motor in inventive embodiments;
Fig. 3 is the sectional structure schematic diagram of inventive embodiments bottom bracket axle;
Fig. 4 is the planar structure schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention bottom bracket axle;
Wherein: 1-axis, 2-chain wheel, 3-axle sleeve, 301-otch, 4-moment sensing magnet steel, 5-torque sensor, 6-moves slide, ring in the moving slide of 601-, 602-moves slide outer shroud, the quiet slide of 7-, ring in the moving slide of 701-, the quiet slide outer shroud of 702-, 8-bearing, 9-torque signals output line, 10-torque signals pig-tail wire, 11-casing, 12-stator, 13-rotor, 14-motor shaft tooth, 15-nylon gear, 16-miniature gears, 17-big gear wheel, 18-the first unilateral bearing, 19-the second unilateral bearing, 20-support, 21-velocity response magnet steel, 22-speed sensor, 23-spline, 24-motor connection pipe, 25-jam nut, 26-electric machine controller, 27-brace panel, 28-adapter plate.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1~Fig. 4 has shown a specific embodiment of this electric bicycle motor of the present invention, and it comprises casing 11, support 20 and motor connection pipe 24, and casing 11 and support 20 are all connected as a single entity with motor connection pipe 24.Motor connection pipe 24 one end are shaped with outside thread, when assembling, motor connection pipe 24 is located in bicycle five-pipe (not shown in FIG.), and the thread end that makes motor connection pipe 24 stretches out outside Five-way tube, then on the outside thread of motor connection pipe 24, lock jam nut 25, thereby motor connection pipe 24 and bicycle five-pipe are tightly fixed together.In order to ensure the Joint strenght between casing 11 and Five-way tube, this example is connected with a brace panel 27 between casing 11, motor connection pipe 24 and Five-way tube, these brace panel 27 one end are by screw locking on casing 11, and the other end is enclosed within on motor connection pipe 24 and by described jam nut 25 and is tightly pressed in Five-way tube end.
In described motor connection pipe 24, be equipped with axis 1 by bearing 8 rotations, on this axis 1, cover has chain wheel 2, when practical application, between this chain wheel 2 and bicycle rear chain drum, driving chain is installed.On described axis 1, also cover has an axle sleeve 3, in the time that this axle sleeve 3 is subject to circumferential twisting resistance, can produce circumferential deformation.One end of axle sleeve 3 is relative with axis 1 fixing by spline 23, and the other end is relative with chain wheel 2 fixing.On the tube wall of described axle sleeve 3, along the circumferential direction offer non-close incisions 301, one side of this otch 301 is fixed with moment sensing magnet steel 4, opposite side is fixed with the torque sensor 5 corresponding with described moment sensing magnet steel, this torque sensor 5 is Hall torque sensor, is provided with Hall element in it.The torque signals output line 9 of described torque sensor 5 is connected with electric machine controller 26 through an outgoing line device.When practical application, need crank be installed at axis 1 two ends, on crank, install foot-operated.
When cycling person tramps with one's feet moving pedal drive axis 1 while rotating, the twisting resistance that axis 1 is subject to passes to the left end of axle sleeve 3 in Fig. 1 by spline 23, axle sleeve 3 is subject to, after twisting resistance, circumferential torsional deflection occurs, thereby the relative position between described moment sensing magnet steel 4 and torque sensor 5 is changed, and then make torque sensor 5 sense this torque signals and this torque signals is passed to electric machine controller 26 by outgoing line device, then processed the operational factor of rear adjustment motor by electric machine controller 26.It is larger that bicyclist steps on foot-operated strength, and the twisting resistance that axle sleeve 3 is subject to is larger, and the deflection of axle sleeve 3 is larger, and the torque signals that torque sensor 5 senses is larger).
Described outgoing line device in the present embodiment has adopted one structure very cleverly, it is made up of moving slide 6 and quiet slide 7 contact bonded to each other and can relative sliding, wherein moving slide 6 is fixedly connected on described axle sleeve 3 ends by adapter plate 28, quiet slide 7 is fixing with described support 20, the torque signals output line of described torque sensor 5 is connected with moving slide 6, between described quiet slide 7 and described electric machine controller, is connected by torque signals pig-tail wire 10.
In the time that axle sleeve 3 rotates, the moving slide 6 fixing with axle sleeve 3 will rotate with axle sleeve 3, quiet slide 7 is fixed on support 20 relative with cycle frame static, between moving like this slide 6 and quiet slide 7, relatively rotate and remain laminating contact, thereby the torque signals that torque sensor 5 is sensed is successively through the stable electric machine controller 26 that flows to of torque signals output line 9, moving slide 6, quiet slide 7 and torque signals pig-tail wire 10.Owing to being face contact between moving slide 6 and quiet slide 7, area of contact is larger, and pressure is less, so conduction is reliable, and stable signal transmission, frictional loss is also little.
In the present embodiment, the torque signals pig-tail wire 10 between the torque signals output line 9 of described torque sensor 5 and described quiet slide 7 and electric machine controller is respectively two.Accordingly, described moving slide 6 and quiet slide 7 have been arranged to respectively following structure by this example: moving slide 6 by the moving slide being connected as a single entity, encircle 601 and moving slide outer shroud 602 form, described quiet slide 7 by the quiet slide being connected as a single entity, encircle 701 and quiet slide outer shroud 702 form, wherein ring 601 and 701 moving contacts of the interior ring of quiet slide, moving slide outer shroud 602 and quiet slide outer shroud 702 moving contacts in action.Two described torque signals output lines 9 respectively with in described moving slide, encircle 601 and be connected with moving slide outer shroud 602, two described torque signals pig-tail wires 10 respectively with in quiet slide, encircle 701 and be connected with quiet slide outer shroud 702.
In addition, this example is provided with velocity response magnet steel 21 on described moving slide 6, is provided with the speed sensor 22 corresponding with described velocity response magnet steel 21 on described support 20, and this speed sensor 5 is hall speed sensor, is provided with Hall element in it.In the time that axis 1 drives axle sleeve 3 and moving slide 6 to rotate, described velocity response magnet steel 21 rotates thereupon, and the speed sensor 22 being fixed on support 20 keeps static, thereby make speed sensor 22 induce the rotating speed of axis 1, reach the object that detects pin and step on speed signal.
In the present embodiment, described velocity response magnet steel 21 has 20, and these 20 velocity response magnet steel 21 rounded being uniformly distributed on described moving slide 6.The moving every rotation one of slide 6 is enclosed, and just can export to speed sensor 22 impulse singla of 20.
This electric bicycle motor of the present embodiment also comprise the stator 12 be located in casing 11 and rotor 13 and with the fixing motor shaft tooth 14 of rotor 13, described motor shaft tooth 14 is in transmission connection by gear reduction and described chain wheel 2.After electrical power operation, rotor 13 drive motor axle teeth 14 rotate, and motor shaft tooth 14 rotates by gear reduction band movable chain wheel 2, and then drive bicycle to move ahead.
This example adopts internal rotor outer stator structure.
Described gear reduction can adopt various version well-known to those skilled in the art, gear reduction in the present embodiment adopts double reduction structure, its detailed structure is as follows: it comprise with the intermeshing nylon gear 15 of described motor shaft tooth 14, with the coaxial miniature gears being connected 16 of nylon gear 15 and with the intermeshing big gear wheel 17 of described miniature gears 16, described big gear wheel 17 is fixing with chain wheel 2.Motor shaft tooth 14 and nylon gear 15 form the first order and slow down, and the two adopts helical teeth transmission; Form the second stage with the coaxial miniature gears being connected 16 of nylon gear 15 and the big gear wheel 17 that is connected with chain wheel 2 and slow down, the two adopts straight-tooth transmission.This product is by two-stage gear reduction, directly drives endless chain transmission for bicycle after the rotating speed of 3600-4500rpm is dropped to 100-125rpm." little " in the said miniature gears of the present invention and big gear wheel and " greatly " are comparatively speaking.
Axis 1 not transfer when ensureing that rotor 13 drives chain wheel 2 to rotate, this example has been installed the first unilateral bearing 18 between axle sleeve 3 and big gear wheel 17, this first unilateral bearing 18 comprises bearing inner ring and the outside race with this bearing inner ring one-way locking, wherein outside race and described big gear wheel 17 are fixing, and bearing inner ring and axle sleeve 3 ends are fixed.Visible, chain wheel 2 is not to be directly connected on axis 1, and makes to be connected with axis 1 by big gear wheel 17, the first unilateral bearing 18 and axle sleeve 3.In the time that electrical power drives rotor 13 to rotate, the inner ring of the first unilateral bearing 18 and outer ring, in released state, can relatively rotate, and axle sleeve 3 and axis 1 just can not follow pedal to rotate.And in the time that manpower is ridden, as long as riding speed exceedes electrically operated speed (when pure manpower is ridden, electric drive speed is zero), the state (one-way locking) that the Internal and external cycle of the first unilateral bearing 1 will be in closing, equally can be as ordinary bicycle normal riding.
Resistance while riding for alleviating manpower, this example is also provided with the second unilateral bearing 19 between described miniature gears 16 and nylon gear 15, described the second unilateral bearing 19 comprises bearing inner ring and the outside race with this bearing inner ring one-way locking, wherein outside race and described nylon gear 15 are fixing, and bearing inner ring and miniature gears 16 are fixing.In the time that manpower is ridden, chain wheel 2 can rotate with miniature gears 16 by big gear wheel, and at this moment the Internal and external cycle of the second unilateral bearing 19 is in released state, can not drive nylon gear 15 and rotor 13 to rotate, thereby it is lighter to guarantee to ride; And in the time that electrical power moves, as long as electrically operated speed exceedes the speed that manpower is ridden, the second unilateral bearing 19 will be in the state closing, thereby ensure that electrical drive power can pass to chain wheel 2.And this example is also provided with the ball bearing of main shaft coaxially arranged with the second unilateral bearing 19 (in figure not mark) between miniature gears 16 and nylon gear 15, thereby be that the second unilateral bearing 19 is shared a part of diametral load.
Certainly, above-described embodiment is only explanation technical conceive of the present invention and feature, and its object is to allow people can understand content of the present invention and implement according to this, can not limit the scope of the invention with this.All equivalent transformation or modification that according to the present invention, the Spirit Essence of main technical schemes does, within all should being encompassed in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. an electric bicycle motor, it is characterized in that: it comprises the motor connection pipe (24) being fixedly located in bicycle five-pipe, the casing (11) and the support (20) that are connected as a single entity with described motor connection pipe (24), be assemblied in the axis (1) in described motor connection pipe (24) by bearing (8) rotation, be sheathed on the chain wheel (2) on axis (1), and be enclosed within on axis (1) and in the time that it is subject to circumferential twisting resistance, can produce the axle sleeve (3) of circumferential deformation, one end of described axle sleeve (3) is relative fixing with axis (1), the other end of axle sleeve (3) is relative fixing with chain wheel (2), on the tube wall of described axle sleeve (3), along the circumferential direction offer non-close incisions (301), one side of this otch (301) is fixed with moment sensing magnet steel (4), opposite side is fixed with the torque sensor (5) corresponding with described moment sensing magnet steel, the torque signals output line (9) of described torque sensor (5) is connected with electric machine controller (26) through an outgoing line device.
2. electric bicycle motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described outgoing line device is made up of contact bonded to each other and moving slide (6) and quiet slide (7) that can relative sliding, wherein moving slide (6) is fixing with described axle sleeve (3), quiet slide (7) is fixing with described support (20), the torque signals output line of described torque sensor (5) is connected with moving slide (6), between described quiet slide (7) and described electric machine controller, is connected by torque signals pig-tail wire (10).
3. electric bicycle motor according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the torque signals pig-tail wire (10) between torque signals output line (9) and described quiet slide (7) and the electric machine controller of described torque sensor (5) respectively has two; Described moving slide (6) is made up of ring (601) and moving slide outer shroud (602) in the moving slide being connected as a single entity, described quiet slide (7) is made up of ring (701) and quiet slide outer shroud (702) in the quiet slide being connected as a single entity, wherein ring (701) moving contact in ring (601) and quiet slide in moving seat, moving slide outer shroud (602) and quiet slide outer shroud (702) moving contact; Described two torque signals output lines (9) are connected with moving slide outer shroud (602) with ring (601) in described moving slide respectively, and described two torque signals pig-tail wires (10) are connected with quiet slide outer shroud (702) with ring (701) in quiet slide respectively.
4. electric bicycle motor according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: velocity response magnet steel (21) is installed on described moving slide (6), on described support (20), is provided with the speed sensor (22) corresponding with described velocity response magnet steel (21).
5. electric bicycle motor according to claim 4, is characterized in that: described velocity response magnet steel (21) has 20, upper rounded being uniformly distributed of described moving slide (6).
6. electric bicycle motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: also comprise the stator (12) be located in motor casing (11) and rotor (13) and with the fixing motor shaft tooth (14) of rotor (13), described motor shaft tooth (14) is in transmission connection by gear reduction and described chain wheel (2).
7. electric bicycle motor according to claim 6, it is characterized in that: described gear reduction comprise with the intermeshing nylon gear of described motor shaft tooth (14) (15), with the coaxial miniature gears being connected of nylon gear (15) (16) and with the intermeshing big gear wheel of described miniature gears (16) (17), described big gear wheel (17) and chain wheel (2) are fixing.
8. electric bicycle motor according to claim 7, it is characterized in that: between described big gear wheel (17) and axle sleeve (3), be provided with the first unilateral bearing (18), described the first unilateral bearing (18) comprises bearing inner ring and the outside race with this bearing inner ring one-way locking, wherein outside race and described big gear wheel (17) are fixing, and bearing inner ring and axle sleeve (3) end is fixed.
9. electric bicycle motor according to claim 7, it is characterized in that: between described miniature gears (16) and nylon gear (15), be provided with the second unilateral bearing (19), described the second unilateral bearing (19) comprises bearing inner ring and the outside race with this bearing inner ring one-way locking, wherein outside race and described nylon gear (15) are fixing, and bearing inner ring and miniature gears (16) are fixing.
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Cited By (12)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104260818A (en) * 2014-09-25 2015-01-07 苏州工业园区同盛车业有限公司 Middle-mounted motor of electric bicycle and moment sensing device
WO2015120644A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-20 苏州工业园区同盛车业有限公司 Central shaft torque sensing device of electric bicycle
WO2016065500A1 (en) * 2014-10-31 2016-05-06 太仓市荣驰电机有限公司 Electric vehicle central shaft torque sensing system
CN105896831A (en) * 2016-05-19 2016-08-24 北京轻客智能科技有限责任公司 Torsion induction motor
CN106143777A (en) * 2015-04-22 2016-11-23 苏州赛诺伊电动科技有限公司 A kind of Moped Scooter built-in motor and moment measuring device thereof
WO2016205974A1 (en) * 2015-06-25 2016-12-29 太仓市荣驰电机有限公司 Electric bicycle having integrated battery and motor
CN110015375A (en) * 2019-04-28 2019-07-16 苏州力矩优行智能科技有限公司 A kind of improved electric vehicle using motor built-in motor
CN110525572A (en) * 2019-06-21 2019-12-03 卧龙电气驱动集团股份有限公司 A kind of secondary transmission vehicle using motor built-in motor
CN112109840A (en) * 2020-08-14 2020-12-22 苏州力矩优行智能科技有限公司 Middle motor of power-assisted bicycle
WO2021008281A1 (en) * 2019-07-12 2021-01-21 太仓市悦博电动科技有限公司 Torque sensor of central motor
WO2022121117A1 (en) * 2020-12-09 2022-06-16 宁波麦思动力系统有限公司 Bicycle torque transmission mechanism and system, and electric power-assisted bicycle
TWI829485B (en) * 2022-12-23 2024-01-11 賴士豪 Torque sensing device for electric assisted bicycle

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CN203410587U (en) * 2013-09-04 2014-01-29 苏州八方电机科技有限公司 Five-way tube fixing device for motor of electric bicycle
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2015120644A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-20 苏州工业园区同盛车业有限公司 Central shaft torque sensing device of electric bicycle
CN104260818A (en) * 2014-09-25 2015-01-07 苏州工业园区同盛车业有限公司 Middle-mounted motor of electric bicycle and moment sensing device
WO2016045181A1 (en) * 2014-09-25 2016-03-31 苏州工业园区同盛车业有限公司 Middle-mounted motor of an electric bicycle and moment sensing device thereof
WO2016065500A1 (en) * 2014-10-31 2016-05-06 太仓市荣驰电机有限公司 Electric vehicle central shaft torque sensing system
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CN106143777A (en) * 2015-04-22 2016-11-23 苏州赛诺伊电动科技有限公司 A kind of Moped Scooter built-in motor and moment measuring device thereof
WO2016205974A1 (en) * 2015-06-25 2016-12-29 太仓市荣驰电机有限公司 Electric bicycle having integrated battery and motor
CN105896831A (en) * 2016-05-19 2016-08-24 北京轻客智能科技有限责任公司 Torsion induction motor
CN110015375A (en) * 2019-04-28 2019-07-16 苏州力矩优行智能科技有限公司 A kind of improved electric vehicle using motor built-in motor
CN110525572A (en) * 2019-06-21 2019-12-03 卧龙电气驱动集团股份有限公司 A kind of secondary transmission vehicle using motor built-in motor
WO2021008281A1 (en) * 2019-07-12 2021-01-21 太仓市悦博电动科技有限公司 Torque sensor of central motor
CN112109840A (en) * 2020-08-14 2020-12-22 苏州力矩优行智能科技有限公司 Middle motor of power-assisted bicycle
WO2022121117A1 (en) * 2020-12-09 2022-06-16 宁波麦思动力系统有限公司 Bicycle torque transmission mechanism and system, and electric power-assisted bicycle
TWI829485B (en) * 2022-12-23 2024-01-11 賴士豪 Torque sensing device for electric assisted bicycle

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