CN103644969A - Photoelastic modulation interference signal preprocessing method - Google Patents

Photoelastic modulation interference signal preprocessing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103644969A
CN103644969A CN201310669458.1A CN201310669458A CN103644969A CN 103644969 A CN103644969 A CN 103644969A CN 201310669458 A CN201310669458 A CN 201310669458A CN 103644969 A CN103644969 A CN 103644969A
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interference signal
interferogram
optical modulation
signal
interference
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CN103644969B (en
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张敏娟
李晋华
王志斌
李世伟
陈友华
陈媛媛
张瑞
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North University of China
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Abstract

The invention discloses a photoelastic modulation interference signal preprocessing method, belonging to the field of the data processing of a photoelastic modulation interference signal. The invention provides a photoelastic modulation interference signal preprocessing method of sampling a high resolution photoelastic modulation interference signal, extracting a complete interference picture and detecting the transient maximum optical path difference of the interference picture. The sampling of the high resolution photoelastic modulation interference signal is that a clock chip is used as the clock of an AD converter, the equal time sampling of the interference signal is realized, the rapid Fourier transform of the interference signal is realized with a non-uniform Fourier transform algorithm. The extraction of the complete interference picture is that when a radiation resource is a complex color light source, by using the characteristic that a zero light path difference point amplitude is absolutely largest, through detecting data amount between two adjacent interference picture maximum values, the complete interference picture is determined. The method is mainly applied to the data processing of a photoelastic modulation interference signal.

Description

A kind of pretreated method of bullet optical modulation interference signal
Technical field
The pretreated method of a kind of bullet optical modulation of the present invention interference signal, belongs to the data processing field that plays optical modulation interference signal.
Background technology
Along with going deep into of scientific research, spectral instrument is had higher requirement.The speed of detection of existing time-modulation type Fourier transform spectrometer, is slow, poor seismic behavior, is not suitable for operation under rugged surroundings; The spectral range of static Fourier transform spectrometer, is narrow, resolution is low, and needs detector array, has limited its application in high-speed light spectrometry.Therefore, existing Fourier transform spectrometer, is difficult to meet the requirement of transient state spectrographic detection to speed of detection.
Play optical modulation Fourier transform spectrometer, and have that measuring speed is fast, spectral range is wide, anti-seismic performance is good, adopt the advantages such as point probe.But the modulating frequency that plays photomodulator is high, time-modulation, in order to complete the spectrum recovering of radiation source, need to adopt high speed acquisition method to realize the continuous acquisition of interferogram, and from the interference data of continuous acquisition, intercept a complete interferogram, carry out Fourier transform.Therefore, be necessary the intercepting technology of interferogram to study.Meanwhile, playing the transient state maximum optical path difference of photomodulator and the transmission path of its temperature, driving voltage, light beam etc. relevant, is a variable quantity, in order to realize Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the wavelength scaling of interference signal, need study this.
Prior art all adopts non-uniform sampling method, processing for concrete interference data does not describe in detail, therefore,, in order to realize the processing of interference data and the calibration of recovery spectrum, be necessary high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal preprocess method to study.
Summary of the invention
The deficiency existing in order to overcome prior art, provides a kind of to the sampling of high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal, to the extraction of a complete interferogram and detect the pretreated method of bullet optical modulation interference signal of interferogram transient state maximum optical path difference.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
The pretreated method of bullet optical modulation interference signal, first samples to high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal, extracts a complete interferogram, then detects interferogram transient state maximum optical path difference; The sampling of described high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal, refer to and adopt clock chip as the clock of AD converter, realization is sampled to the equal time of interference signal, and with Nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm, realizes the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of interference signal, and its sample frequency meets formula:
Complete interferogram of described extraction, refer to when radiation source is secondary color light source, utilize the definitely maximum characteristic of zero optical path difference point amplitude, by detecting the data volume between adjacent two width interferogram maximal values, determine the data volume (N-1) of a complete interferogram; And centered by bare maximum, select symmetrical bilateral data, both sides data volume is respectively (N-2)/2, extracts the interference data of a complete interferogram.
Described detection interferogram transient state maximum optical path difference, refers to and is playing optical modulation interferometer transient state maximum optical path difference when unknown, using laser as with reference to light source, to the laser interference figure over-zero counting in a width interferogram modulating time, according to formula L=0.5 λ refn, calculates the transient state maximum optical path difference that plays optical modulation interferometer.
Described over-zero counting is respectively the driving signal and the laser interference signal that play optical modulation interferometer to be converted to square-wave signal through high-speed comparator, rising edge or negative edge playing the square-wave signal of optical modulation driving signal conversion, start rising edge and the negative edge of the square-wave signal of laser interference signal conversion to count; When playing optical modulation and drive the square-wave signal negative edge of signal conversion or rising edge, stop counting.
The beneficial effect that the present invention compared with prior art had is:
The invention provides the method for sampling of high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal and the computing method of Least sampling rate, the extractive technique of width interferogram complete cycle and the transient state maximum optical path difference computing method of interferogram, the interference signal of extraction one-period that can be complete by this technology, improves the accuracy of restoring spectrum; Meanwhile, by the measurement of transient state maximum optical path difference, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that can be interferogram provides data processing parameter, realizes the Wavelength calibration that restores spectrum.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing is described in further detail the specific embodiment of the present invention below.
Fig. 1 is high resolving power bullet photoabsorption modulation light spectrometer structured flowchart of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is monocycle interference signal extracting method schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is laser interference signal of the present invention and driving signal principle figure;
Fig. 4 is laser interference signal zero passage comparator circuit of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is that the present invention is converted to the laser interference signal of square wave and drives signal graph through zero balancing.
In figure, 1 is that interferometer, 2 is that high speed detector, 3 is that amplification filtering, 4 is that AD converter, 5 is that FPGA, 6 is that comparator circuit, 7 is that driving signal, 8 is that polychromatic light interference signal, 9 is laser interference signal.
Embodiment
The invention will be further described by reference to the accompanying drawings for embodiment below.
High resolving power bullet optical modulation interferometer optical path difference is larger, and in visible ray and near-infrared band spectrographic detection, signal frequency is very high, can not adopt traditional equiphase method of sampling to realize the sampling of interference signal.Therefore, bullet optical modulation Fourier transform spectrometer, of the present invention adopts clock chip as the clock of AD converter, realizes the equal time sampling to interference signal, and with Nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm, realizes the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of interference signal.In order to guarantee to gather the undistorted of interferogram, its sample frequency should meet formula:
Interference data through AD converter collection includes time dependent multi-frame interferometry figure, extracts the width interferogram of complete cycle from continuous a plurality of interferograms, to complete processing and the Fourier transform of interference data, improves the accuracy of restoring spectrum.
When radiation source is secondary color light source, play the interferogram that optical modulation interferometers produces and there is bare maximum at zero optical path difference point, along with far away apart from zero optical path difference point, interference signal oscillatory extinction, trend towards zero.Utilize the definitely maximum characteristic of zero optical path difference point amplitude, can extract the interference data of a complete interferogram.
From the interference data of continuous acquisition, to determine the position of the zero optical path difference point of adjacent two width interferograms, and calculate the sampling number N between two width interferogram maximal values, data volume (N-1) is the data volume of a complete interferogram.
From the interference data of continuous acquisition, centered by a bare maximum, select the bilateral data of adjacent symmetric, both sides data volume is respectively (N-2)/2.
The data of one width interferogram are x 0for bare maximum, total data volume is (N-1).
The maximum optical path difference of described bullet optical modulation interferometer is a variable quantity, relevant with the transmission path of driving voltage, light and resonant condition etc., for solving the demarcation of the measurement of transient state maximum optical path difference, the processing that realizes interference data and recovery spectrum, adopt reference laser as with reference to light source, through playing optical modulation interferometer, produce laser interference figure, and adopt the method to laser interference figure over-zero counting, measure transient state maximum optical path difference.
Described reference laser interferogram over-zero counting method, comprises that reference laser interferogram produces the over-zero counting method of light path system, interferogram zero cross detection circuit and a width interferogram.
Described interferogram zero cross detection circuit is to take high-speed comparator as core, to laser interference figure and bullet optical modulation, drives signal to carry out respectively zero passage detection, is converted to square-wave signal.Rising edge playing the square-wave signal of optical modulation driving signal conversion, starts rising edge and the negative edge of the square-wave signal of laser interference figure conversion to count; When playing the square-wave signal negative edge of optical modulation driving signal conversion, stop counting.
Transient state maximum optical path difference computing formula is: L=0.5 λ refn.
As shown in Figure 1, high-resolution bullet optical modulation interferometer 1, its core component is to play photomodulator, and playing photomodulator is a heat engine charge coupled device, and its resonance frequency is approximately 50kHz.When driving the frequency of signal to be close with the resonance frequency that plays photomodulator, produce larger deformation, make two-beam produce different phase shifts.Driving under signal function, two-beam is interfered, and produces the interferogram of asking at any time variation.When radiation source and reference laser adopt different light paths to act on to play optical modulation interferometer, will produce respectively continually varying interferogram I (υ) and I ref(υ).The interferogram that I (υ) is radiation source, radiation source is generally continuous spectrum, as black matrix, incandescent lamp etc., its interferogram is as shown in Figure 2; I ref(υ) be the interferogram of reference laser, laser is narrow-band spectrum, plays the laser interference figure of optical modulation instrument generation as shown in Figure 3.
Interferogram is converted to faint electric signal through high speed detector 2, and as adopted the HgCdTe detector that model is J15D14-M200-S01m, after preposition amplification filtering 3 circuit through 1000 times, interferogram signal amplitude is in 100mV left and right.
In order to realize near-infrared band, as the atmospheric window of (3~14) mu m waveband scope is surveyed, and require spectral resolution high, as be 20cm -1, in order to guarantee distortionless collection interferogram, reduce the impact of circuit delay on measuring accuracy, adopt the equal time method of sampling to carry out continuous sampling to interferogram.
In the interferogram equal time method of sampling, the sampling clock of AD converter 4 is produced by clock chip, as: adopt clock generator AD9524 to produce the differential signal of a road 120MHz as the sampling clock of AD converter 4.
In the interferogram equal time method of sampling, in order to guarantee to gather the undistorted of interferogram, its sample frequency should meet formula:
f s ≥ 4 ω r · π 2 · m - - - ( 1 )
In formula (1), ω rfor playing photomodulator, drive the frequency of signal, and drive in the signal period and produce two width interferograms at one.The driving signal that plays photomodulator is sinusoidal signal, and therefore, the phase differential of two-beam is sinusoidal variations.
In formula (1), m is in measuring wavelength band, the number of oscillation of frequency minimum signal within half modulation period.As to measure wave band be (3~14) μ m, in spectral resolution, be 20cm -1time,
m = 1 cm 20 × 3 μm = 166.7
In playing optical modulation interferometer, because the phase differential of two-beam is sinusoidal variations, the oscillation frequency that causes interference signal is not even variation, as shown in Figure 3, the oscillation frequency density of laser interference figure changes, pi/2 when its maximum frequency of oscillation is phase differential linear change.
Therefore,, according to formula (1), when meeting above-mentioned condition, the sample frequency of AD converter should have:
f s ≥ 4 ω r · π 2 · m = 4 × 50000 × π 2 × 167 = 52 MHz
For more complete reproduction interference signal, sample frequency is generally selected (4:6) signal frequency doubly, as selected sample frequency, is 120MHz.
AD converter 4 is transferred to FPGA5 with the interference data of equal time method of sampling collection with parallel high-speed transmission mode, by FPGA5, completes the temporary of data.
When radiation source is infrared origin or black matrix, the interferogram of AD converter 4 continuous acquisition is polychromatic light interference signal 8 as shown in Figure 2, is that order changes in time.In playing optical modulation Fourier transform spectrometer,, in order to realize spectrum recovering, need process and Fourier transform a complete interferogram.Therefore, being necessary to extract a complete interferogram from the interferogram of continuous acquisition processes.
As shown in Figure 2, x 0, x 1the zero optical path difference point that is respectively adjacent two width interferograms, has bare maximum, and this some intermediate point that is a width interferogram.Therefore, centered by this point, select bilateral data to form a width interferogram.
In playing optical modulation Fourier transform spectrometer,, when playing that optical modulation interferometer drives the frequency of signal, after the sample frequency of AD converter determines, the sampled data output in a width interferogram is determined.As the driving signal frequency that plays optical modulation interferometer is 50kHz, the sample frequency of AD converter is 120MHz, and the data volume of a width interferogram is 1200.Therefore,, centered by interferogram bare maximum, selecting bilateral data volume is all the interferogram that 600 points can form 1201 points.
In playing optical modulation interferometer, the driving frequency that plays photomodulator is not a fixed value, and its frequency is along with driving voltage, temperature variation, in the drift of 50kHz left and right.Therefore, when sample frequency is determined, the data volume gathering in one-period is unfixed, is also in 1200 left and right drifts.Therefore, need to determine the data volume of a width interferogram.
In the data of continuous acquisition, in every more than 1200 points, include the zero optical path difference point of a width interferogram.Therefore, from the interference data of continuous acquisition, select front 1200 data, by programming, determine bare maximum corresponding position in data sequence, be made as x 0; Equally, then select [x 0+ 600, x 0+ 1800] data in sequence, determine the position x of bare maximum in corresponding sequence in these 1200 data 1.The data volume of one width interferogram is (N-1), wherein, and N=x 1+ 600.
In continuous acquisition interference data, first data of storage are not generally first data points of interferogram.First puts the zero optical path difference point of corresponding interferogram the interference data of storage as shown in Figure 2, rather than a width interferogram rightmost point.Select a complete interferogram, need to determine the position of two frontier points of a width interferogram.
In order to extract the left margin of a width interferogram, should first determine first zero optical path difference point, whether the data volume on first bare maximum left side includes the data volume (N-2)/2 of half range interferogram.
If first zero optical path difference is put corresponding sequence location x 0be greater than (N-2)/2, x is described 0left side contain half range interferogram.With x 0centered by, select [x 0-(N-2)/2, x 0+ (N-2)/2] data in interval, as width interferogram data, complete data processing; If x 0be less than (N-2)/2, x is described 0left side there is no half range interferogram, therefore, with second corresponding position of bare maximum, select [x 1-(N-2)/2, x 1+ (V-2)/2] data in interval, as width interferogram data.
From the above mentioned, according to the data volume of adjacent bare maximum location positioning one width interferogram, and centered by maximal value, selecting both sides data volume is (N-2)/2, total amount of data is (N-1) individual data, complete complete the choosing of width interferogram data, thereby can improve the accuracy of restoring spectrum.
The phase differential of high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal is sinusoidal variations, processes and restore the Wavelength calibration of spectrum in order to realize the nonuniform fast Fourier transform of equal time sampling interference data, needs to detect the transient state maximum optical path difference L that plays optical modulation interferometer.
Transient state maximum optical path difference is:
L = 0.5 λ ref · n - - - ( 2 )
In formula, λ reffor optical maser wavelength, select optical maser wavelength shorter, the maximum optical path difference accuracy of calculating is higher, but requires the speed of comparer higher; N is in half modulation period, the zero passage number of times of laser interference figure.
As shown in Figure 3, laser interference signal 9 is cosine wave (CW)s that a frequency density changes, and the distance between two adjacent zero crossings of cosine wave (CW) is half wavelength.If drive the half period inner laser interference signal of signal 7 to cross zero balancing, counting to playing optical modulation interferometer, can detect the transient state maximum optical path difference of the corresponding bullet optical modulation of this secondary laser interference signal 9 interferometer.Therefore, adopt laser as with reference to light source, by playing optical modulation interferometer 1, produce laser interference figure I ref(υ).
In Fig. 1, reference laser interferogram, through high speed detector 2 opto-electronic conversion and after arrowband amplification filtering 3, is input to comparator circuit 6, realizes the sinusoidal wave conversion to square wave.
In order to realize the counting of a width laser interference figure, need to determine the cycle of counter.The cycle that plays optical modulation interferometer driving signal is the twice in a width interferogram cycle.Therefore, utilize this characteristic, the laser interference signal 9 zero passage frequency n in half driving signal are counted.
When bullet optical modulation interferometer spectral resolution is high, maximum optical path difference is larger, and therefore, the oscillation frequency of interference signal is higher.As being 20cm in interferometer spectral resolution -1, to adopt the laser of 632.8nm be reference light source, the maximum frequency of oscillation of laser interference signal is:
f Laser = L 0.5 × 632.8 mm × π 2 × 2 ω r
Wherein, L=1cm/20=0.5mm, ω rfor playing optical modulation interferometer driving frequency, as be 50kHz.
Therefore, the maximum frequency of oscillation of laser interference signal is 248MHz.
In order to realize the zero passage detection of high frequency lasers interference signal, need to adopt ultrahigh-speed comparator.As adopt twin-channel hypervelocity binary channels comparer IT1715.
Hypervelocity binary channels comparer IT1715, its response time has reached 4ns level, meets the laser interference signal zero passage detection of maximum frequency of oscillation 250MHz.
When the spectral resolution of interference signal is higher than 20cm -1time, being difficult to find the comparer of more speed, the laser instrument that can adopt longer wavelength is as with reference to light source.As: the near infrared laser of 15550nm.Now reduced the accuracy in computation of transient state maximum optical path difference.
In playing a drive cycle of optical modulation interferometer, produce two width interferograms.Driving signal is sinusoidal signal, and modulation signal is converted to square-wave signal through comparer.When square wave rising edge, flip-flop number, starts the square-wave signal of laser zero passage detection to count, and stops counting when negative edge.
As shown in Figure 4, hypervelocity binary channels comparer IT1715 has two-way comparer, and INA+ connects and plays optical modulation interferometer driving signal 7, and OUTA is the driving signal that converts square wave to; INB+ connects laser interference signal 9, and OUTB is the laser signal that converts square wave to.
For the impact of noise decrease on over-zero counting, at negative terminal INA-and the INB-of comparer, by the voltage of 5V is carried out to dividing potential drop, increase the tiny signal of 0.1V.
As shown in Figure 5, square wave driving signal 7 and the square wave laser interference signal 9 through comparer, exported.The FPGA5 that two signals is input to Fig. 1 realizes counting processing.When OUTA is rising edge, counter is started working, and in rising edge and the negative edge count value of OUTB, adds 1; At OUTA negative edge, come temporarily, counter quits work; When OUTA is negative edge, counter is started working, and in rising edge and the negative edge count value of OUTB, adds 1; At OUTA rising edge, come temporarily, counter quits work.
Utilize described formula (2), measure the maximum optical path difference of this width interferogram.
The present invention adopts reference laser and plays the driving signal of optical modulation interferometer, can realize the Measurement accuracy of the maximum optical path difference of interferogram, so that accurate processing and the spectrum recovering of interference data.
The foregoing is only preferred enforcement technology of the present invention, be not limited in the present invention.To one skilled in the art, the variation of doing in essential scope of the present invention, remodeling or replacement, also belong to protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. play the pretreated method of optical modulation interference signal, first high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal is sampled, extract a complete interferogram, then detect interferogram transient state maximum optical path difference; It is characterized in that: the sampling of described high resolving power bullet optical modulation interference signal, refer to and adopt clock chip as the clock of AD converter, the equal time sampling of realization to interference signal, and with Nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm, realize the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of interference signal, its sample frequency meets formula: f s ≥ 4 ω r · π 2 · m .
2. the pretreated method of a kind of bullet optical modulation interference signal according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: complete interferogram of described extraction, refer to when radiation source is secondary color light source, utilize the definitely maximum characteristic of zero optical path difference point amplitude, by detecting the data volume between adjacent two width interferogram maximal values, determine the data volume (N-1) of a complete interferogram; And centered by bare maximum, select symmetrical bilateral data, both sides data volume is respectively (N-2)/2, extracts the interference data of a complete interferogram.
3. the pretreated method of a kind of bullet optical modulation interference signal according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described detection interferogram transient state maximum optical path difference, refer to when playing the unknown of optical modulation interferometer transient state maximum optical path difference, using laser as with reference to light source, to the laser interference figure over-zero counting in a width interferogram modulating time, according to formula L=0.5 λ refn, calculates the transient state maximum optical path difference that plays optical modulation interferometer.
4. the pretreated method of a kind of bullet optical modulation interference signal according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: described over-zero counting is respectively the driving signal and the laser interference signal that play optical modulation interferometer to be converted to square-wave signal through high-speed comparator, rising edge or negative edge playing the square-wave signal of optical modulation driving signal conversion, start rising edge and the negative edge of the square-wave signal of laser interference signal conversion to count; When playing optical modulation and drive the square-wave signal negative edge of signal conversion or rising edge, stop counting.
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CN110187362A (en) * 2019-05-24 2019-08-30 中国科学技术大学 A kind of double frequency anemometry laser radar of ultraviolet infrared synchronous work
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