CN103529301A - Online measuring method for internal resistance of automotive battery and online measuring device for internal resistance of automotive battery - Google Patents

Online measuring method for internal resistance of automotive battery and online measuring device for internal resistance of automotive battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103529301A
CN103529301A CN201210226817.1A CN201210226817A CN103529301A CN 103529301 A CN103529301 A CN 103529301A CN 201210226817 A CN201210226817 A CN 201210226817A CN 103529301 A CN103529301 A CN 103529301A
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China
Prior art keywords
voltage
measurement
starter
resistance
car battery
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CN201210226817.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
邓恒
孟艳
张崇生
郝飞
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上海汽车集团股份有限公司
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Priority to CN201210226817.1A priority Critical patent/CN103529301A/en
Publication of CN103529301A publication Critical patent/CN103529301A/en

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Abstract

The present invention relates to an online measuring method for internal resistance of an automotive battery and an online measuring device for the internal resistance of the automotive battery. The online measuring method for the internal resistance of the automotive battery comprises the following steps: a starting step of starting a starter and generating a key signal; a measuring step of measuring current and voltage over two ends of the starter; and a computing step of selecting a measurement interval in a preset time period from the key signal of the starter as a starting point and computing the internal resistance of the battery according to the current and the voltage measured in the selected preset time period. Through the online measuring method and the online measuring device according to the invention, the internal resistance of the automotive battery can be accurately measured on line, and furthermore the ohmic resistance and the polarization resistance can be separated out.

Description

Car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method and car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device

Technical field

The present invention relates to the detection method of accumulator internal resistance, particularly relate to on-line measurement accumulator internal resistance and can separating and measuring go out Ohmage in internal resistance and measuring method and the measurement mechanism of polarization resistance.

Background technology

The internal resistance of cell refers to that electric current passes through the suffered resistance of battery, and the internal resistance of cell is divided into ohmic internal resistance and polarization resistance.Ohmic internal resistance comprises the resistance of electrode material, electrolytic solution, barrier film and the contact resistance of each several part part.Polarization resistance refers to the caused internal resistance that polarizes when carrying out electrochemical reaction of anodal and negative pole, is the caused resistance sum of activation polarization and concentration polarization.

The internal resistance of cell is the reflection of battery life, is also comprehensive reflection of battery using state.For example, in the valve-control sealed lead acid battery conventional as car battery, if there is early stage capacitance loss, grid corrosion and expansion, water water, dry up, sulfation etc. all can cause the internal resistance of cell to increase.Therefore, to the measurement of the internal resistance of cell, can obtain failure message or the fail message of battery.

Owing to can hold battery status by measuring the internal resistance of cell comprehensively, therefore, in order to grasp state and the performance of battery, very important means are measured the internal resistance of cell exactly.

It is DC-method and AC method that the measurement of the internal resistance of cell mainly contains two kinds of methods.

(1) DC-method

So-called DC-method is exactly the internal resistance that adds direct-current discharge measurement accumulator on the basis of voltage polling.Its principle be by accumulator in static (or off-line state), by external loading, carry out heavy-current discharge, measure the voltage drop of accumulator simultaneously, by the ratio of accumulator pressure drop and discharge current, draw the internal resistance of accumulator.

One of major defect of this method is, owing to must realizing the measurement of DC-method under the state of static state or off line, cannot really realize the on-line measurement of accumulator, so just inevitably can bring equipment safety in operation hidden danger; If in static state, it is also unknown whether large electric current like this exerts an influence to straight-flow system; Under off-line state, if Measuring Time is longer, can cause the offline period of accumulator long, also can there is the potential safety hazard of system in this.It two is, owing to being heavy-current discharge, what have even reaches the electric discharge of up to a hundred amperes, very large to the infringement of accumulator.Detect accumulator and if discharge continually, to the infringement of accumulator, will accumulate, thereby affecting capacity and the life-span of accumulator.It three is, owing to having more a larger load of volume, exists, and can cause field erected complexity and the impact on device layout on the one hand.Can increase maintenance workload on the other hand, affect the convenience of daily servicing.

(2) AC method

AC method is the important method that polarization resistance is measured, and by accumulator being applied to a little current signal that exchanges low frequency, measures the magnitude of voltage of its feedback, by the ratio of voltage and electric current, obtains the internal resistance of accumulator.But because the measurement of AC method exists problem how to get rid of charger and Environmental Noise Influence,

AC method is due to without electric discharge, and accumulator need not can be realized on-line monitoring management completely in static state or off line, has avoided the impact on equipment safety in operation.Because the low current signal frequency applying is very low, the alternating current applying is also very little simultaneously, thus can not impact the performance of accumulator, and do not need load box.But the apparatus measures disturbing factor of AC measurment method is many, can increase the complicacy of system, exist the problem that is easily subject to charger ripple current and other noise.

Summary of the invention

The present invention aims to provide in view of the above problems and a kind ofly with online mode, utilizes DC-method accurately to measure car battery internal resistance particularly car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method and the car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device of Ohmage.

Car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:

Starter starts and produces the set up procedure of key signal;

Measure the electric current at starter two ends and the measuring process of voltage;

Take the key signal of the starter surveying range in starting point is chosen the stipulated time, according to the calculation procedure of the internal resistance of the electric current measuring in this stipulated time of choosing and voltage calculating accumulator.

Preferably, the stipulated time in described calculation procedure refer to from the key signal of starter be starting point until the voltage of starter start to decline during in.

Preferably, in during to refer to from the key signal of starter be starting point the described stipulated time in 20 milliseconds.

Preferably, described measuring process comprises:

Measure the voltage measurement sub-step of starter voltage; And

Measure the current measurement sub-step of starter electric current.

Preferably, described voltage measurement sub-step utilizes ADC voltage sensor to realize.

Preferably, described current measurement sub-step utilizes Hall current sensor to realize.

Preferably, described calculation procedure comprises:

Choose the selection of measuring point step of 2 groups of measurement points;

According to the calculation procedure of the electric current of select 2 groups of measurement points and voltage calculating accumulator internal resistance.

Preferably, described 2 groups of measurement points are the peak point of voltage.

Car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device of the present invention, is characterized in that, comprising:

Voltage measurement module, for detection of the voltage at vehicle starter two ends;

Current measurement module, for detection of the electric current that flows through vehicle starter; And

Signal processing module, chooses and take the voltage and current that described voltage measurement module and described current measurement module measure in the stipulated time that the key signal of starter is starting point, according to the internal resistance of the voltage and current calculating accumulator of choosing.

Preferably, the described stipulated time refer to from the key signal of starter be starting point until the voltage of starter start to decline during in.

Preferably, in during to refer to from the key signal of starter be starting point the described stipulated time in 20 milliseconds.

Preferably, described voltage measurement module utilizes ADC voltage sensor to realize.

Preferably, described current measurement submodule utilizes Hall current sensor to realize.

Preferably, described signal processing module is chosen 2 groups of measurement points and is carried out calculating accumulator internal resistance according to the electric current of these 2 groups of measurement points that utilize described current measurement module and described voltage measurement module to measure and voltage within the described stipulated time.

Preferably, described 2 groups of measurement points are the peak point of voltage.

In sum, with above-mentioned car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention and car battery essential resistance on-line measurement square law device, Ohmage and the all-in resistance of accumulator can be measured respectively, thus, Ohmage and polarization resistance can be distinguished.On this basis, can judge whether internal storage battery exists physical damnification according to Ohmage, or, can judge whether internal storage battery exists chemometamorphism according to polarization resistance.Therefore, separated by Ohmage and polarization resistance, can more effectively test, monitor the performance of accumulator, can be online and grasp in real time internal storage battery situation.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 means the schematic diagram of the discharge process of battery under certain state of charge.

Fig. 2 means the structural representation of starter.

Fig. 3 means the schematic flow sheet of car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention.

Fig. 4 means the schematic diagram of choosing 2 groups of measurement point A1 and A2 in selecting step.

Fig. 5 means the structured flowchart of car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device of the present invention.

Fig. 6 means the schematic diagram of the structure of the Hall current sensor consisting of Hall device element.

Embodiment

What introduce below is some in a plurality of possibility embodiment of the present invention, aims to provide basic understanding of the present invention.Be not intended to confirm key of the present invention or conclusive key element or limit claimed scope.

For making the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail.

First, for Ohmage and polarization resistance, be briefly described.

Ohmage mainly reflects is whether the physical connection of inside battery good, for example material connect whether good, whether electrolytic solution rotten, whether barrier film breakdown, whether distortion is folding crooked for the leads of inside battery.And polarization resistance is mainly whether reflection inside battery chemical material is good.Therefore, according to Ohmage, can judge merely whether inside battery exists physical damnification, and can judge whether to exist by other chemical substances according to polarization resistance, change and cause.That is, by isolating Ohmage and polarization resistance, just can tell inside battery internal resistance variation and be by physical cause, caused or by chemical reason, caused.

For separated Ohmage and polarization resistance, the present inventor has carried out crack research, find that Ohmage shows after energising immediately to electric inhibition, and polarization resistance is not immediately to show to electric inhibition, but to pass through the delay of hundreds of millisecond~several seconds, that is, after energising, the embodiment of Ohmage and polarization resistance is (time effect) that has a mistiming.Below, this phenomenon is specifically described.

Fig. 1 means the schematic diagram of the discharge process of battery under certain state of charge.

As shown in Figure 1, when battery starts, after electric discharge, have the pressure drop △ U of a moment 1, this be that Ohmage by battery causes.The change in voltage that Ohmage causes generally maintains the very short time, is generally a few tens of milliseconds.At this pressure drop △ U 1afterwards, voltage starts slow decreasing, and this is mainly because battery carries out electrochemical reaction, and the voltage drop in this stage has comprised that the pressure drop of polarization generation and the battery open circuit voltage that battery nuclear power state variation causes decline.The internal resistance of cell in this stage is mainly caused by electrochemical reaction intermediate ion concentration.

Therefore, in polarization resistance, also there is no the time period that participates in coming in is the pressure drop △ U of the moment in Fig. 1 1short time in the internal resistance that measures be exactly in fact Ohmage, and do not comprise polarization resistance.Therefore, by measuring the internal resistance of this time period, just can directly obtain Ohmage, according to Ohmage, just can learn that whether the physical connection of inside battery is good.In addition, if obtain Ohmage, the all-in resistance by further measurement battery, deducts Ohmage by all-in resistance, so just can obtain polarization resistance.According to polarization resistance, just can learn whether the chemical substance of battery has problem like this.

Based on above-mentioned discovery, in order to measure Ohmage in the time period not adding in polarization resistance, catch the pressure drop △ U of above-mentioned moment 1time period be a key issue.To this, inventor, by the starting process of research starter, has found can find out similar above-mentioned moment pressure drop △ U in the starting process of starter 1time period.Below be explained.

Fig. 2 means the structural representation of starter.

As shown in Figure 2, starter mainly comprises ignition starting switch 1, relay 2, adhesive spring 3, winding 4, adhesive electromagnet 5, clutch coupling 6, pinion wheel 7, accumulator 8, armature 9.Adhesive electromagnet 5 consists of armature, winding, contact etc., and the function of adhesive electromagnet 5 is that starter pinion 7 is pushed to engine flywheel gear ring, make their engagements, and contact is connected the main circuit of starter.

The starting process of simple declaration starter below.When firing key is during in enable position, connect start-up circuit, 5 work of adhesive electromagnet.The winding of adhesive electromagnet 5 attracts electromagnet armature and promotes starter pinion 7 by mesh rod to move axially to gear ring direction.In the ideal case, the tooth of pinion wheel 7 directly inserts in the teeth groove of gear ring, starter and engine engagement.Pinion wheel 7 approaches stroke end, and the armature of adhesive electromagnet 5 is connected the main circuit of starter by movable contact, and pinion wheel 7 starts to rotate and drives engine flywheel gear ring to rotate.

Wherein, utilize in the situation of adhesive spring 3 attracting electric relays 2, whole circuit is by the contacting of adhesive electromagnet 5.Relay 2 is when adhesive, and because the suction-combining force is very large, adhesive spring 3 can produce shake, and according to such shake, the contact of adhesive electromagnet 5 repeats the on/off of main circuit.This shake is to occur in before pinion wheel 7 do not insert gear ring, and each shake is all Microsecond grade, that is to say, each connection of main circuit is all in the time range of Microsecond grade.Owing to being the circuit connection of Microsecond grade, as the explanation to ohm motor and polarization motor above, in the connection of Microsecond grade, polarization resistance does not also have enough time to join wherein, therefore in above-mentioned connection, be only that Ohmage plays a role separately, therefore what reflect within this period is only just Ohmage.

According to such discovery, in order to measure Ohmage, the present inventor has proposed to gather in time period of after 2 adhesives of starting process repeat circuit adhesive spring 3 shakes the electric current and voltage value of the internal resistance of cell and has calculated the measurement scheme of internal resistance.

Below for utilizing the car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention of above-mentioned design to describe.

Fig. 3 means the schematic flow sheet of car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention.

As shown in Figure 3, car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention mainly comprises the following steps:

(1) starter is according to the set up procedure Step100 of key signal starting;

(2) measure the electric current at starter two ends and the measuring process Step200 of voltage;

(3) take this key signal is starting point, chooses the electric current and the voltage that in the stipulated time, measure, thus the calculation procedure Step300 of the internal resistance of calculating accumulator;

In above-mentioned calculation procedure Step300, during the afore mentioned rules time is the shake after relay 2 adhesives of finding according to the above-mentioned research institute to starting process, during this shake, be substantially equivalent to from key signal be starting point until the voltage of starter start decline during.Simultaneously, inventor finds through test of many times, the whole process of vehicle launch, from inserting key, send key signal to the process that completes starting generally the chances are hundreds of millisecond, 400 milliseconds of left and right for example, and this top very little part of 400 milliseconds is exactly the shake time after relay 2 adhesives.Through repeatedly repeated measurement and test, inventor draws it during 20 milliseconds from this key signal sends, is being to measure between the optimal period of Ohmage.

At measuring process step200, comprise the voltage measurement sub-step of measuring starter voltage and the current measurement sub-step of measuring starter electric current.

In calculation procedure, Step300 comprises: take the selection of measuring point step of the 2 group measurement points of this key signal in starting point is chosen the stipulated time; According to the calculation procedure of the electric current of select 2 groups of measurement points and voltage calculating accumulator internal resistance.

As 2 groups of measurement points, be the peak point of selecting voltage, for example crest, trough best.Fig. 4 means the schematic diagram of choosing 2 groups of measurement point A1 and A2 in selecting step.As shown in Figure 4, suppose to select wave crest point A1 as the first measurement point, the voltage and the resistance that at measuring process, record this A1 are respectively U 1, I 1, as the second measurement point, select trough point A2, the voltage and the resistance that at measuring process, record this A2 are respectively U 2, I 2, utilize following formula (1) to try to achieve in internal resistance R.

 

As explained above, due to during this shake of 20 milliseconds, polarization resistance does not also have enough time to add, and therefore, at this moment recording internal resistance is in fact exactly Ohmage, i.e. R in=R ohm.

As an embodiment, above-mentioned voltage measurement sub-step can utilize ADC voltage sensor to realize, and above-mentioned current measurement sub-step can utilize hall device to realize.

Below, for being briefly described with ADC voltage sensor and hall device.

ADC is the abbreviation of A/D converter (Analog to Digital Converter), and it can realize analog voltage to the conversion of digital quantity.A/D converter can be divided into integration type and non-integration type conventionally.Integration type can be divided into again: dual integration, three skew product fractions, pulse width modulated (PWM) formula, voltage-frequency (V-F) transform etc.Non-integration type can be divided into again: ramp voltage (linear oblique wave, ladder oblique wave) formula, comparison expression (successive approximation, zero balancing formula) etc.In the present invention by the input end access starter voltage at ADC voltage sensor, thus, can utilize ADC voltage sensor in starting point is chosen the stipulated time, in surveying range, to measure the voltage at the two ends of starter take the key signal of starter.

A kind of Magnetic Sensor of Hall device element, can detect magnetic field and variation thereof with it, can in the various occasions relevant with magnetic field, use.Hall device be take Hall effect as its working foundation.Fig. 6 means the schematic diagram of the structure of the Hall current sensor consisting of Hall device element.As shown in Figure 6.With an annular permeability magnetic material, make magnetic core, be enclosed within on the wire that tested electric current flows through, the magnetic field of current-induced in wire is gathered together, on magnetic core, open an air gap, a built-in Hall linear unit, after device energising, the electric current that just can be obtained circulating in wire by its hall output voltage.

The feature of Hall current sensor is that " without the current potential " that can realize electric current detects.Be that metering circuit needn't access circuit-under-test and can realize current detecting, they are coupled by magnetic field.Therefore, the input of testing circuit, output circuit are electricity isolation completely.In testing process, the state of circuit-under-test is the impact of examined circuit not, and testing circuit is not rung by the scape of tested circuit yet.

Actual Hall current sensor mainly contains two kinds of forms of the composition, directly measures formula and zero magnetic flux type.

Directly measurement formula Hall current sensor refers to the output of hall device in Fig. 6 (can amplify if desired) is delivered on the display of calibration, can directly draw tested current value by the numerical value of hall output voltage.The advantage of this mode is simple in structure, and the precision of measurement result and the linearity are all higher.Can survey the electric current of direct current, interchange and various waveforms.But its measurement range, bandwidth etc. are subject to certain restrictions.In this application, hall device is magnetic field detector, and what it detected is the magnetic induction density in magnetic core air gap, and after electric current increases, magnetic core may reach capacity, and along with frequency raises, the eddy current loss in magnetic core, magnetic hysteresis loss etc. also can increase.These all can exert an influence to measuring accuracy.Certainly, also can take some innovative approachs to reduce these impacts, for example, select core material that saturation induction density is high, make layers of magnetic core, adopt a plurality of hall devices to detect etc.

Zero magnetic flux type (also referred to as magnetic balance type or feedback compensation type) Hall current sensor is that the output voltage of hall device is amplified, again after electric current amplifies, allow this electric current by compensating coil, and make the magnetic field of compensating coil generation contrary with the magnetic direction of tested electric current generation.

Under regard to the car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device of the present invention of realizing above-mentioned measuring method and describe.

Fig. 5 means the structured flowchart of car battery of the present invention essential resistance on-line measurement side device.

As shown in Figure 5, car battery of the present invention essential resistance on-line measurement side device 100 comprises voltage measurement module 101, current measurement module 102, signal processing module 103.Voltage measurement module 101 is for detection of the voltage at vehicle starter 200 two ends, current measurement module 102 is for detection of the electric current that flows through vehicle starter 200, signal processing module 103 is chosen and be take the voltage and current that described voltage measurement module 101 and described current measurement module 102 measure in the stipulated time that the key signal of starter 200 is starting point, according to the internal resistance of the voltage and current calculating accumulator of choosing.

Voltage measurement module 101 can utilize above-mentioned ADC voltage sensor to realize.Current measurement module 102 can utilize above-mentioned Hall current sensor to realize.

Signal processing module 103 is according to the key signal from starter 200, take this key signal chooses the stipulated time as starting point, for example 2 groups of measurement points in 20 milliseconds preferably, try to achieve internal resistance R according to the electric current of select 2 groups of measurement points and voltage according to above-mentioned formula (1) in.Here the R trying to achieve inin fact be exactly the size of Ohmage.

Utilize the car battery essential resistance on-line measurement side device 100 of the invention described above except accessing Ohmage, can also calculate polarization resistance according to total internal resistance of Ohmage and battery.Particularly, signal processing module 103 outside the time, for example, in the time period after 20 milliseconds of sons, is chosen 2 groups of measurement points at the afore mentioned rules that is starting point from key signal in addition, according to electric current and the voltage of select 2 groups of measurement points, according to above-mentioned formula (1), calculate similarly the total internal resistance R of battery in total.Then according to following formula (2), calculate polarization resistance R polarization.

 

R polarization=R in total-R ohm

Like this, utilize car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention and device, can measure respectively Ohmage and the all-in resistance of accumulator, thus, can distinguish Ohmage and polarization resistance.On this basis, can judge whether internal storage battery exists physical damnification according to Ohmage, or, can judge whether internal storage battery exists chemometamorphism according to polarization resistance.Therefore, separated by Ohmage and polarization resistance, can more effectively test, monitor the performance of accumulator, can be online and grasp in real time internal storage battery situation.

Above example has mainly illustrated car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method of the present invention and car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device.Although only some of them embodiments of the present invention are described, those of ordinary skills should understand, and the present invention can be within not departing from its purport and scope implements with many other forms.Therefore, the example of showing and embodiment are regarded as illustrative and not restrictive, and in the situation that not departing from spirit of the present invention as defined in appended each claim and scope, the present invention may be contained various modifications and replacement.

Claims (15)

1. a car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
Starter starts and produces the set up procedure of key signal;
Measure the electric current at starter two ends and the measuring process of voltage; And
Take the key signal of the starter surveying range in starting point is chosen the stipulated time, according to the calculation procedure of the internal resistance of the electric current measuring in this stipulated time of choosing and voltage calculating accumulator.
2. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that,
Stipulated time in described calculation procedure refer to from the key signal of starter be starting point until the voltage of starter start to decline during in.
3. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that,
The described stipulated time refers to from the key signal of starter be starting point in 20 milliseconds during in.
4. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that,
Described measuring process comprises:
Measure the voltage measurement sub-step of starter voltage; And
Measure the current measurement sub-step of starter electric current.
5. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that,
Described voltage measurement sub-step utilizes ADC voltage sensor to realize.
6. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 5, is characterized in that,
Described current measurement sub-step utilizes Hall current sensor to realize.
7. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 5, is characterized in that,
Described calculation procedure comprises:
Choose the selection of measuring point step of 2 groups of measurement points;
According to the calculation procedure of the electric current of select 2 groups of measurement points and voltage calculating accumulator internal resistance.
8. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement method as claimed in claim 5, is characterized in that,
Described 2 groups of measurement points are the peak point of voltage.
9. a car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device, is characterized in that, comprising:
Voltage measurement module, for detection of the voltage at vehicle starter two ends;
Current measurement module, for detection of the electric current that flows through vehicle starter; And
Signal processing module, chooses and take the voltage and current that described voltage measurement module and described current measurement module measure in the stipulated time that the key signal of starter is starting point, according to the internal resistance of the voltage and current calculating accumulator of choosing.
10. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement device as claimed in claim 9, is characterized in that,
The described stipulated time refer to from the key signal of starter be starting point until the voltage of starter start to decline during in.
11. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement devices as claimed in claim 10, is characterized in that,
The described stipulated time refers to from the key signal of starter be starting point in 20 milliseconds during in.
12. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement devices as claimed in claim 11, is characterized in that,
Described voltage measurement module utilizes ADC voltage sensor to realize.
13. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement devices as claimed in claim 11, is characterized in that,
Described current measurement submodule utilizes Hall current sensor to realize.
14. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement devices as claimed in claim 11, is characterized in that,
Described signal processing module is chosen 2 groups of measurement points and is carried out calculating accumulator internal resistance according to the electric current of these 2 groups of measurement points that utilize described current measurement module and described voltage measurement module to measure and voltage within the described stipulated time.
15. car battery essential resistance on-line measurement devices as claimed in claim 14, is characterized in that,
Described 2 groups of measurement points are the peak point of voltage.
CN201210226817.1A 2012-07-03 2012-07-03 Online measuring method for internal resistance of automotive battery and online measuring device for internal resistance of automotive battery CN103529301A (en)

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