CN103182246A - Membrane separation technological method of solution and system - Google Patents

Membrane separation technological method of solution and system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103182246A
CN103182246A CN2011104488345A CN201110448834A CN103182246A CN 103182246 A CN103182246 A CN 103182246A CN 2011104488345 A CN2011104488345 A CN 2011104488345A CN 201110448834 A CN201110448834 A CN 201110448834A CN 103182246 A CN103182246 A CN 103182246A
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China
Prior art keywords
solution
membrane
pressure
ion
process method
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Inventor
蔡军刚
黄浩勇
陈建翔
罗灼彪
段伟
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SINGAPORE SANTAI WATER TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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SINGAPORE SANTAI WATER TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Priority to CN2011104488345A priority Critical patent/CN103182246A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/131Reverse-osmosis

Abstract

The invention relates to a membrane separation technological method of a solution and a system. The method combines a forward osmosis membrane process and a pressure membrane separation process. Seawater, various sewage, fruit juice, drug solutions and the like can be used as the feed liquid, a concentrated brine is taken as the drawing liquid, and in the forward osmosis process, the osmotic pressure drives the water in the feed liquid enters the drawing liquid through a forward osmosis membrane. The diluted drawing liquid comes to the pressure membrane separation process, and the water drawn by the drawing liquid from the feed liquid becomes product water after permeating a pressure membrane. And the diluted drawing liquid is concentrated into a high concentration drawing liquid again, and is sent back to the forward osmosis process to serve as the drawing liquid. The method and the system provided in the invention can be used for seawater desalination, reuse of municipal sewage and industrial wastewater, and concentration, purification and the like of the food and drug processing industry. The process is simple, the energy consumption is low, the construction cost and operation cost are greatly reduced, so that the method and the system have remarkable social and economic benefits.

Description

A kind of membrane separation process method and system of solution
Technical field
The present invention relates to the separation process technique field of solution, especially relate to a kind of membrane separation process method and system of solution.
Background technology
The separating process of traditional solution is when multiple solute dissolves or is suspended in one or more solvents, by removing the concentration that partial solvent improves the target solute, perhaps by removing the purify a kind of separating process of solution of target solvent of solute and other solvents.
The separating process of traditional solution has the separated process, and it makes solvent take place to change mutually by heated solution, thereby obtains the solute of neat solvent and high concentration simultaneously.
For example in the application of concentration of juices, the fruit juice that extracts in the fruit can concentrate by the method for separated process heating evaporation large quantity of moisture.But the defective of this method is this method the nutritive value of fruit juice concentrates is reduced, and the nutritional labeling in the destruction fruit juice that heating can be comparatively serious.
Again for example, in the application of desalinization, also separated process commonly used is carried out desalinization as multistage flash evaporation and multiple-effect distillation.The method need heat to be undergone phase transition water to become steam, allows the steam condensation collect then, and its defective is that the heating process energy consumption is very big, and cost is higher.
Summary of the invention
At the deficiencies in the prior art, the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of membrane separation process method of solution, its energy consumption is low, the saving cost, and remarkable social benefit and economic benefit are arranged.
For realizing the membrane separation process method of a kind of solution that purpose of the present invention provides, comprising:
A) forward osmosis membrane separating process process:
Introduce in first side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit and to be dissolved in the first kind of solution that constitutes in first solvent by one or more first solutes;
Introduce in second side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit and to be dissolved in the second kind of solution that constitutes in second solvent by one or more second solutes; Wherein, described second kind of solution is as drawing liquid, its concentration is higher than first kind of solution, at least a portion first solvent that orders about in described first kind of solution flows to second kind of solution through described forward osmosis membrane, and described first kind of solution is concentrated the third solution of formation owing to losing at least a portion first solvent; Described second kind of solution makes second solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion first solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution.
More preferably, the membrane separation process method of described solution also comprises:
B) described pressure membrane separating process process:
With steps A) the forward osmosis membrane separating process separates described the 4th kind of solution obtain and collects and be used as first side that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane of pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about second side that first side that solvent in described the 4th kind of solution sees through described pressure membrane flows into described pressure membrane to being incorporated into described the 4th kind of solution in the pressure membrane unit, obtain pressure membrane first side the 5th kind of solution and at the 6th kind of solution of second side of pressure membrane.
More preferably, described step B) also comprise at least again the pressure membrane separating process process of one-level;
The pressure membrane separating process process of described one-level again comprises:
Upper level pressure membrane process is separated described the 6th kind of solution that obtains collect and be used as first side that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane of next stage pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about second side that first side that solvent in described the 6th kind of solution sees through the pressure membrane of described next stage pressure membrane unit flows into described pressure membrane to being incorporated into described the 6th kind of solution in the next stage pressure membrane unit, obtain pressure membrane first side the 7th kind of solution and at the 8th kind of solution of second side of pressure membrane;
Described the 8th kind of solution as the 6th kind of solution, is repeated said process up to the final products solution that obtains separation requirement.
More preferably, described step B) pressure membrane separating process process also comprises:
The 5th kind of solution is introduced in second side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit, uses as second kind of solution again.
More preferably, described step B) in, be introduced at described the 5th kind of solution before second side of forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit, also comprise:
Add second solute at described the 5th kind of solution, make it identical with second kind of solution concentration.
More preferably, described being introduced as continuously introduced; The described flow direction is for flowing to continuously.
More preferably, described feed liquid and/or draw the mechanical strength that hydraulic pressure that face upper reaches movable property that liquid is made in forward osmosis membrane gives birth to is lower than forward osmosis membrane.
More preferably, described with first kind of solution introducing forward osmosis membrane first side, comprising:
First side of described forward osmosis membrane is immersed in described first kind of solution;
Perhaps
Described first kind of flow of solution crossed first side of described forward osmosis membrane.
More preferably, the temperature of described forward osmosis membrane separating process is 4 ℃-50 ℃.
More preferably, described feed liquid and/or the pH value that draws liquid are between 2-11.
More preferably, described feed liquid and/or the pH value that draws liquid are between 6-8 or neutral.
More preferably, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
More preferably, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is cellulose acetate, a kind of in the material of Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types, the ceramic material or more than one combination.
More preferably, described forward osmosis membrane is the film spare that is assembled into following assembly:
Hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane and/or rolled film.
More preferably, described forward osmosis membrane structure is dissymmetrical structure or composite construction, comprises support membrane and composite membrane.
More preferably, the composition of described forward osmosis membrane is Triafol T, and its structure is the asymmetric membrane structure, is made of cortex and the high supporting layer of porosity; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
More preferably, described pressure membrane separating process is a kind of in counter-infiltration, nanofiltration or the ultrafiltration pressure membrane separation process method; Described pressure membrane is a kind of in reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane or the milipore filter.
More preferably, described pressure membrane is made into the assembly of hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane or rolled film for assembling.
More preferably, the structure of described pressure membrane is dissymmetrical structure or comprises support membrane and the composite construction of composite membrane.
More preferably, the material of described pressure membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
More preferably, described material is a kind of in the material, ceramic material of cellulose acetate, Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types.
More preferably, when described milipore filter is used to the pressure membrane separating process, second solute that disposes described second solution for sugar, protein, other have the compound of higher molecular weight or the solute of salt.
More preferably, when described NF membrane was used to the pressure membrane separating process, second solute that disposes described second solution was magnesium salts, calcium salt, sulfate, carbonate and other two valencys ion salts.
More preferably, when described reverse osmosis membrane is used to the pressure membrane separating technology, second solute that disposes second solution be sodium salt, sylvite, villaumite, nitrate, other multivalence salts and other all can not be by other salts of ultrafiltration and NF membrane effectively catching.
More preferably, described NF membrane is U.S. section formula NF membrane, is structure of composite membrane, is made up of cortex and many empty polysulfone supporting layer; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
More preferably, among the described step B, exert pressure to described the 4th kind of solution that is incorporated in the pressure membrane unit, comprising:
The working pressure pump is transported to the pressure membrane surface to the 4th kind of solution;
The pressure that described compression pump provides is enough big, makes the 4th kind of solvent in the solution can overcome resistance and sees through described pressure membrane.
More preferably, described compression pump is a kind of in plunger displacement pump, centrifugal pump or the membrane pump.
More preferably, the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is 40-60bar; Perhaps the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is for being higher than 80bar; Perhaps the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is 7.5-20bar; Perhaps the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is higher than 30bar.
More preferably, described the 4th kind of solution is cross-current type in the method for the effect on pressure membrane surface.
More preferably, the technological temperature of described pressure membrane separating process is 4 ℃-50 ℃.
More preferably, the pH value of described the 4th kind of solution is between 2-11.
More preferably, the pH value of described the 4th kind of solution is between 6-8 or neutral.
More preferably, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
Described first solute is the solute that comprises following composition: sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, villaumite, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and other salts, sugar, protein and other compounds.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is a kind of in seawater, salt solution, bitter, buck or the water for industrial use.
More preferably, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, lithium ion, arsenic ion, the boron ion, strontium ion, molybdenum ion, manganese ion, aluminium ion, cadmium ion, chromium ion, cobalt ions, copper ion, iron ion, lead ion, nickel ion, plasma selenium, silver ion, zinc ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion, iodide ion, bromide ion, fluorine ion, carbanion, phosphate anion, silicate ion.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is medicine or the relevant fluid of food, and its concentration is 0-100g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more compositions: one or more of salt, sugar, enzyme, protein, vitamin or microorganism.
More preferably, the concentration range of described second kind of solution is 0.01-6M;
Second solvent of described second kind of solution is water;
Second solute of described second kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, aluminium ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion and carbanion.
More preferably, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.7-3.0M scope.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is seawater, and the concentration of described first kind of solution is 35000mg/L.
More preferably, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.6-0.8M.
More preferably, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.1-0.5M scope.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is secondary effluent.
More preferably, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.05-0.4M.
More preferably, described membrane separation process method is applied to sewage disposal.
More preferably, described membrane separation process method is applied to food liquid processing.
For realizing that the present invention also provides a kind of film separation system of solution, comprising: positive permeability and separation unit;
Described positive permeability and separation unit comprises forward osmosis membrane, holds first Room of first kind of solution and second Room that holds second kind of solution, and described first Room and second Room are separated by forward osmosis membrane;
Be dissolved in the first kind of solution that constitutes in first solvent in the introducing of first Room of positive permeability and separation unit by one or more first solutes;
Be dissolved in the second kind of solution that constitutes in second solvent in the introducing of second Room of positive permeability and separation unit by one or more second solutes; Wherein, described second kind of solution is as drawing liquid, and its concentration is higher than first kind of solution, and at least a portion solvent that orders about in described first kind of solution flows to second kind of solution through described forward osmosis membrane; Described first kind of solution is concentrated the third solution of formation owing to losing at least a portion solvent; Described second kind of solution makes the solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution.
More preferably, the film separation system of described solution also comprises the pressure membrane unit;
Described pressure membrane unit comprises pressure membrane, holds the 3rd Room and the fourth ventricle that holds the 6th kind of solution of the 4th kind of solution, and described the 3rd Room and fourth ventricle are separated by pressure membrane;
Positive permeability and separation unit is separated described the 4th kind of solution that obtains collect and be used as the 3rd Room that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about solvent in described the 4th kind of solution and see through pressure membrane and flow into described fourth ventricle to introducing described the 4th kind of solution in the 3rd Room, obtain the 5th kind of solution and the 6th kind of solution in fourth ventricle in the 3rd Room.
More preferably, the film separation system of described solution also comprises the next stage pressure membrane unit of one-level at least;
Described next stage pressure membrane unit comprises the next stage pressure membrane, holds the 5th Room of the 6th kind of solution and the 6th Room that holds the 8th kind of solution, and described the 5th Room and the 6th Room are separated by the next stage pressure membrane;
Described the 6th kind of solution is collected and is used as the 5th Room that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into next stage pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about solvent in described the 6th kind of solution and see through the next stage pressure membrane and flow into described the 6th Room to introducing described the 6th kind of solution in the 5th Room, obtain the 7th kind of solution and the 8th kind of solution in the 6th Room in the 5th Room;
Described the 8th kind of solution as the 6th kind of solution, is repeated to separate in next stage pressure membrane unit, until obtaining satisfactory final products.
More preferably, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
More preferably, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is cellulose acetate, a kind of in the material of Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types, the ceramic material or more than one combination.
More preferably, described forward osmosis membrane is the film spare that is assembled into following assembly:
Hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane and/or rolled film.
More preferably, described forward osmosis membrane structure is dissymmetrical structure or composite construction, comprises support membrane and composite membrane.
More preferably, the composition of described forward osmosis membrane is Triafol T, and its structure is the asymmetric membrane structure, is made of cortex and the high supporting layer of porosity; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
More preferably, described pressure membrane is a kind of in reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane or the milipore filter.
More preferably, described pressure membrane is made into the assembly of hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane or rolled film for assembling.
More preferably, the structure of described pressure membrane is dissymmetrical structure or comprises support membrane and the composite construction of composite membrane.
More preferably, the material of described pressure membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
More preferably, described material is a kind of in the material, ceramic material of cellulose acetate, Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types.
More preferably, when described milipore filter is used to pressure membrane when separating, second solute that disposes described second solution for sugar, protein, other have the compound of higher molecular weight or the solute of salt.
More preferably, when described NF membrane was used to the pressure membrane separation, second solute that disposes described second solution was magnesium salts, calcium salt, sulfate, carbonate and other two valencys ion salts.
More preferably, when described reverse osmosis membrane is used to pressure membrane when separating, second solute that disposes second solution be sodium salt, sylvite, villaumite, nitrate, other multivalence salts and other all can not be by other salts of ultrafiltration and NF membrane effectively catching.
More preferably, described NF membrane is U.S. section formula NF membrane, is structure of composite membrane, is made up of cortex and many empty polysulfone supporting layer; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
More preferably, describedly exert pressure to described the 4th kind of solution that is incorporated in the pressure membrane unit, for:
The working pressure pump is transported to the pressure membrane surface to the 4th kind of solution;
The pressure that described compression pump provides is enough big, makes the 4th kind of solvent in the solution can overcome resistance and sees through described pressure membrane.
More preferably, described compression pump is a kind of in plunger displacement pump, centrifugal pump or the membrane pump.
More preferably, the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is 40-60bar.
More preferably, the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is for being higher than 80bar.
More preferably, the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is 7.5-20bar.
More preferably, the pressure that provides of described high-pressure pump is higher than 30bar.
More preferably, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
Described first solute is the solute that comprises following composition: sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, villaumite, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and other salts, sugar, protein and other compounds.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is a kind of in seawater, salt solution, bitter, buck or the water for industrial use.
More preferably, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, lithium ion, arsenic ion, the boron ion, strontium ion, molybdenum ion, manganese ion, aluminium ion, cadmium ion, chromium ion, cobalt ions, copper ion, iron ion, lead ion, nickel ion, plasma selenium, silver ion, zinc ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion, iodide ion, bromide ion, fluorine ion, carbanion, phosphate anion, silicate ion.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is medicine or the relevant fluid of food, and its concentration is 0-100g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more compositions: one or more of salt, sugar, enzyme, protein, vitamin or microorganism.
More preferably, the concentration range of described second kind of solution is 0.01-6M;
Second solvent of described second kind of solution is water;
Second solute of described second kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, aluminium ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion and carbanion.
More preferably, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.7-3.0M scope.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is seawater, and the concentration of described first kind of solution is 35000mg/L.
More preferably, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.6-0.8M.
More preferably, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.1-0.5M scope.
More preferably, described first kind of solution is secondary effluent.
More preferably, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.05-0.4M.
More preferably, described film separation system is applied to sewage disposal.
More preferably, described film separation system is applied to food liquid processing.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the membrane separation process method and system of solution disclosed by the invention, realize that by having used positive permeability and separation process and/or pressure membrane separating process solution separates, it is low with respect to conventional art distillation operation energy consumption, saves cost; The technical process operation energy consumption is relatively low, and the expense of equipment manufacturing cost and maintenance is also lower, and remarkable social benefit and economic benefit are arranged.And, in its application that concentrates, purifies at food and medicine, can prevent effectively that nutritional labeling and active ingredient are destroyed in the material liquid, thereby obtain product of high quality and at a reasonable price.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the film separation system schematic diagram of the solution of the embodiment of the invention.
The specific embodiment
In order to make purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer in detail, the membrane separation process method and system of solution of the present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with the drawings and the specific embodiments.Should be appreciated that the specific embodiment described herein only in order to explaining the present invention, and be not used in restriction the present invention.
The membrane separation process method of a kind of solution of the embodiment of the invention comprises:
A) forward osmosis membrane separating process process:
Introduce in first side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit and to be dissolved in the first kind of solution (feed liquid or stoste) that constitutes in first solvent by one or more first solutes;
Introduce in second side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit and to be dissolved in the second kind of solution that constitutes in second solvent by one or more second solutes; Wherein, described second kind of solution is as drawing liquid, and its concentration is higher than first kind of solution (feed liquid), and at least a portion solvent that orders about in described first kind of solution (feed liquid) flows to second kind of solution (drawing liquid) through described forward osmosis membrane; Described first kind of solution is concentrated formation the third solution (concentrate) owing to losing at least a portion solvent; Described second kind of solution makes the solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution.
Described second kind of solution (drawing liquid) has than the higher osmotic pressure of described first kind of solution (feed liquid), orders about first kind of at least a portion solvent in the solution and flows to second kind of solution through forward osmosis membrane.Under the effect of the driving force of osmotic pressure, at least a portion solvent in first kind of solution sees through forward osmosis membrane and flows to second side from first side and dissolve in second kind of solution.First kind of solution is concentrated formation the third solution (concentrate) owing to losing at least a portion solution; Second kind of solution makes the solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid).
B) pressure membrane separating process process:
The forward osmosis membrane separating process is separated described the 4th kind of solution obtain (dilution draw liquid) collect and be used as first side that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane of pressure membrane unit;
See through second side that flows into described pressure membrane to being incorporated into described the 4th kind of solution in the pressure membrane unit solvent (comprising first solvent and second solvent) that orders about in described the 4th kind of solution of exerting pressure, obtain the 5th kind of solution (again concentrate draw liquid) of first side of pressure membrane and at the 6th kind of solution of second side of pressure membrane.
Preferably, the membrane separation process method of the solution of the embodiment of the invention also comprises at least the pressure membrane separating process process of one-level again;
The pressure membrane separating process process of described one-level again comprises:
Upper level pressure membrane process is separated described the 6th kind of solution that obtains collect and be used as first side that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane of next stage pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about second side that first side that solvent in described the 6th kind of solution sees through the pressure membrane of described next stage pressure membrane unit flows into described pressure membrane to being incorporated into described the 6th kind of solution in the next stage pressure membrane unit, obtain pressure membrane first side the 7th kind of solution and at the 8th kind of solution of second side of pressure membrane;
Described the 8th kind of solution as the 6th kind of solution, is repeated said process up to the final products solution that obtains separation requirement.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, further, in pressure membrane separating process process, also comprise following process process:
Described the 5th kind of solution (again concentrate draw liquid) is introduced on second side of forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit, uses as second kind of solution again.
The 5th kind of solution (concentrate again draw liquid) can be used in again in the positive osmosis process as drawing liquid and be incorporated into recycling on second side of forward osmosis membrane, thereby reduces the addition of second solute of second kind of solution of preparation (drawing liquid);
Preferably, the 5th kind of solution (concentrate again draw liquid) also comprises following process process before being introduced on second side of forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit:
Can add second solute at described the 5th kind of solution (again concentrate draw liquid), make it identical with second kind of solution (drawing liquid) concentration.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described being introduced as continuously introduced; The described flow direction is for flowing to continuously.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described with first kind of solution introducing forward osmosis membrane first side, for first side of described forward osmosis membrane being immersed in described first kind of solution; Perhaps described first kind of flow of solution crossed first side of described forward osmosis membrane.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described pressure membrane is a kind of in reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane or the milipore filter.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, among the described step B, exert pressure to described the 4th kind of solution that is incorporated in the pressure membrane unit, for: the working pressure pump is transported to the pressure membrane surface to the 4th kind of solution; The pressure that described compression pump provides is enough big, makes the 4th kind of solvent in the solution can overcome resistance and sees through described pressure membrane.
Described compression pump is a kind of in plunger displacement pump, centrifugal pump or the membrane pump.
Further specify the solution film separating process process of the embodiment of the invention below:
Just permeating refer to water or other solvents by pellicle from high water chemistry gesture solution the transmittance process to low water chemistry gesture solution, the proposition of positive penetration theory is that new direction has been pointed out in the development of membrane separation process.
Just permeating and referring to that water or other solvents flow to the process in low territory, water chemistry gesture (or than a hyperosmosis) lateral areas by selection permeability film from territory, higher water chemistry gesture (or than a Hyposmolality) lateral areas.Introduce two kinds of solution with different osmotic respectively in the both sides with selection permeability film, a kind of for having the material liquid (Feed solution) than Hyposmolality, another kind of for having the driving liquid (Draw solution) than hyperosmosis, just permeating used film both sides solution just permeable pressure head as driving force, make water or other solvents see through to select the permeability film to arrive from material liquid one side and drive liquid one side.
For technology of the present invention can produce osmotic pressure target solvent can be extracted from solution, as a kind of embodiment, first kind of solution is in the embodiment of the invention, be called stoste or feed liquid, be introduced into the one side (first side) of forward osmosis membrane or other similar films and contact; Second kind of solution---in the embodiment of the invention, be called and draw liquid, its concentration always is higher than first kind of solution---is introduced into the other one side (second side) of forward osmosis membrane or other similar films and contacts.By feed liquid, forward osmosis membrane with draw in the system that liquid forms, the permeable pressure head that the salinity difference of two kinds of solution produces will become the driving force of system this.Under the effect of this driving force, the solvent in the feed liquid will enter through forward osmosis membrane and draw in the liquid, and the solvent that draws like this in the liquid increases and the solute concentration reduction.Along with the quantity of solvent of drawing in the liquid increases, draw liquid and diluted, become the liquid that draws of dilution.
As a kind of embodiment, first kind of solution (stoste or feed liquid) can be by dissimilar solutes and solvent composition.When being introduced into, first kind of solution contacts with the one side of forward osmosis membrane and when drawing liquid and being introduced in the another side of forward osmosis membrane, the solvent in the feed liquid will be extracted out because of just permeating.Like this, feed liquid will be concentrated the salt solution that forms higher solute concentration.
Preferably, according to the difference of feed liquid, the salt solution of described higher solute concentration can be collected then and use as being transported to downstream process; Produce single solute after also can further handling or contain salt solution or the precipitation of multiple solute, re-use as mineral matter or byproduct; Also can be by discharging after the suitable processing.
Preferably, in the embodiment of the invention, as a kind of embodiment, described forward osmosis membrane can be the pellicle of any kind, as long as they can allow solvent such as water etc. to pass through, but controlling various types of dissolving solutes passes through.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described first kind of solution is seawater, salt solution, bitter, buck or water for industrial use, and its concentration range is 0-50g/L;
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described first solute includes but not limited to comprise the solute of following composition: sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, villaumite, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and other salts, sugar, protein and other compounds.
Or, as another kind of embodiment, described first solute comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, lithium ion, arsenic ion, boron ion, strontium ion, molybdenum ion, manganese ion, aluminium ion, cadmium ion, chromium ion, cobalt ions, copper ion, iron ion, lead ion, nickel ion, plasma selenium, silver ion, zinc ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion, iodide ion, bromide ion, fluorine ion, carbanion, phosphate anion, silicate ion.
Described first solvent is pure water.
Preferably, described second kind of solution concentration scope is 0.01-6M (mole);
Described second solute includes but not limited to comprise the solute of following composition: following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, aluminium ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion and carbanion;
Described second solvent is pure water.
As a kind of embodiment, described forward osmosis membrane can be assembled the film spare of the assembly that is made into various structures, including, but not limited to hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane and rolled film.
As a kind of embodiment, the material of described forward osmosis membrane can be that organic material also can be inorganic material; These materials are including, but not limited to cellulose acetate, the material of Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types, ceramic material.
As a kind of embodiment, described forward osmosis membrane structure can be that dissymmetrical structure can be composite construction also, comprises support membrane and composite membrane.
Preferably, in the embodiment of the invention, described positive osmosis process method can be moved under different process conditions;
Described feed liquid and draw mode that liquid acts on the forward osmosis membrane surface both can be static also can be cross-current type;
Described temperature is little to technogenic influence, and preferably, described process temperature is 4 ℃-50 ℃ temperature range operation.
Described feed liquid and/or draw the pH value of liquid---according to the difference of forward osmosis membrane material, can be chosen between the 2-11.
Preferably, described feed liquid and/or the pH value that draws liquid are between 6-8 or neutral.
Preferably, in order to keep the structural intergrity of forward osmosis membrane, feed liquid and/or draw the mechanical strength that hydraulic pressure that face upper reaches movable property that liquid is made in forward osmosis membrane gives birth to is lower than forward osmosis membrane.
Draw liquid along with the solvent in the feed liquid enters by forward osmosis membrane, can be diluted the liquid that draws that forms dilution thereby draw liquid.As a kind of embodiment, in some applications, drawing that liquid can be collected and being transported to as intermediate product of this dilution removes to extract most of solvent in the separating technology of the second level, thereby produces final products---purification solvent.
Then, enter processing step B), the liquid that draws of described dilution is collected and is used as first side that a kind of intermediate product (the 4th kind of solution) is transported to pressure membrane, by second level separating technology (pressure membrane separating process) most of solvent extraction of drawing in the liquid of dilution is come out to become final purification solvent product.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, second level separating technology can produce another one liquid (the 5th kind of solution), i.e. concentrate simultaneously.Described concentrate can be used in the positive permeability and separation process again as drawing liquid, thereby reduces the addition that the solute of liquid is drawn in preparation.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described dilution if to draw the liquid extension rate enough big and need not carry second level separating technology (pressure membrane separating process), just can namely need not carry out process step B directly as product solution) process.
In the invention process, be used as second level separating process with the pressure membrane separating process.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, described pressure membrane separating process is to include but not limited to counter-infiltration, nanofiltration or ultrafiltration equal pressure membrane separation process method.
Several factors is depended in the selection of described pressure membrane separating process, the solute species that uses in the positive osmosis process, quality of drawing the solvent that extracts in the liquid of dilution etc.
When utilizing the pressure membrane separating process to separate, under certain pressure, the liquid that draws of dilution is contacted with a kind of separation membrane surface by the pressure introducing, for example NF membrane.With process that NF membrane surface contact in, the liquid that draws of dilution obtains lasting pressure by compression pump.Like this, under the driving of hydraulic pressure, the solvent that draws in the liquid of dilution enters the solvent collection device by NF membrane, perhaps is called effluent collector, becomes first kind of product (the 6th kind of solution).Because what NF membrane can only allow dilution draws in the liquid solvent by holding back solute, so first kind of product in the effluent collector has been purified.
Simultaneously, after the separation of pressure membrane separating process, draw liquid and some remaining solvents and be collected together as second kind of product (the 5th kind of solution).
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, in many application, second kind of product (the 5th kind of solution) can draw the required solute consumption of liquid thereby reduce configuration by again as drawing liquid (second kind of solution) in the positive osmosis process.
As another kind of embodiment, in some other application, second kind of product (the 5th kind of solution) can be further processed, and produces the salt solution that contains solute or will draw the liquid solute to be precipitated out and to leave downstream process for and use.
Preferably, described pressure membrane can be the pellicle of any kind, as long as they can allow solvent such as water etc. to pass through, but controlling various types of dissolving solutes passes through, described solute is to comprise but do not limit the solute of following composition: sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, villaumite, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and other salts, sugar, protein and other compounds.
Described pressure membrane can be made into the assembly of various structures for assembling, including, but not limited to hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane or rolled film.
Described pressure membrane is including, but not limited to reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane, milipore filter.
The selection of described pressure membrane is depended on but is not limited to the solute species that uses in the positive osmosis process method, quality of the middle solvent of first kind of product (the 6th kind of solution) etc.
As a kind of embodiment, 1) when milipore filter is used to the pressure membrane separating process, the solute that liquid is drawn in configuration including, but not limited to sugar, protein, other have compound or the salt of higher molecular weight;
As another kind of embodiment, 2) when NF membrane is used to the pressure membrane separating process, dispose second solute of second solution (drawing liquid) including, but not limited to magnesium salts, calcium salt, sulfate, carbonate and other two valencys ion salts;
As another embodiment, 3) when reverse osmosis membrane is used to the pressure membrane separating technology, second solute that disposes second solution (drawing liquid) including, but not limited to sodium salt, sylvite, villaumite, nitrate, other multivalence salts and other all can not be by other salts of ultrafiltration and NF membrane effectively catching.
Preferably, the material of described pressure membrane can be that organic material also can be inorganic material.These materials are including, but not limited to cellulose acetate, the material of Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types, ceramic material.
Preferably, described pressure membrane structure can be that dissymmetrical structure also can be the composite construction that comprises support membrane and composite membrane.
Described pressure membrane separating process can move under different process conditions.Preferably, the mode that acts on the pressure membrane surface of described the 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid) is cross-current type.
As a kind of embodiment, the working pressure pump is transported to the pressure membrane surface to the liquid that draws of dilution.
Preferably, described compression pump can be but be not limited to plunger displacement pump, centrifugal pump and membrane pump.The pump material can be any material, have only this material can not react with the solute and the solvent that draw in the liquid of dilution, and this material also must can bear enough pressure, the pressure that described compression pump provides must be enough big, makes solvent can overcome resistance and see through diffusion barrier.
In the described pressure membrane separating process, preferably, as a kind of embodiment, its technological temperature moves 4 ℃-50 ℃ temperature range.The pH value of the 4th kind of solution in its process (dilution draw liquid)---according to the difference of diffusion barrier material, can be chosen between the 2-11.Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, in some concrete application, the pH value scope can be between 6-8 or is neutral.
As shown in Figure 1, the embodiment of the invention also provides a kind of film separation system of solution, comprising: positive permeability and separation unit 100;
Described positive permeability and separation unit 100 comprises forward osmosis membrane 101, holds first Room 102 of first kind of solution and second Room 103 that holds second kind of solution, and described first Room 102 and second Room 103 are separated by forward osmosis membrane 101;
First Room, 102 introducings in positive permeability and separation unit 100 are dissolved in the first kind of solution that constitutes in first solvent by one or more first solutes;
Second Room, 103 introducings in positive permeability and separation unit 100 are dissolved in the second kind of solution that constitutes in second solvent by one or more second solutes; Wherein, described second kind of solution is as drawing liquid, and its concentration is higher than first kind of solution, and at least a portion solvent that orders about in described first kind of solution flows to second kind of solution through described forward osmosis membrane 101; Described first kind of solution is concentrated the third solution of formation owing to losing at least a portion solvent; Described second kind of solution makes the solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, the film separation system of described solution also comprises pressure membrane unit 110;
Described pressure membrane unit 110 comprises pressure membrane 111, holds the 3rd Room 112 and the fourth ventricle 113 that holds the 6th kind of solution of the 4th kind of solution, and described the 3rd Room 112 and fourth ventricle 113 are separated by described pressure membrane 111;
Positive permeability and separation unit is separated described the 4th kind of solution that obtains collect and be used as the 3rd Room 112 that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into pressure membrane unit 110;
Exert pressure and order about solvent in described the 4th kind of solution and see through pressure membrane 111 and flow into described fourth ventricle 113 to introducing described the 4th kind of solution in the 3rd Room 112, obtain the 5th kind of solution and the 6th kind of solution in fourth ventricle 113 in the 3rd Room 112.
More excellent, the film separation system of described solution also comprises the next stage pressure membrane unit 120 of one-level at least;
Next stage pressure membrane unit 120 comprises next stage pressure membrane 121, holds the 5th Room 122 of the 6th kind of solution and the 6th Room 123 that holds the 8th kind of solution;
Described the 6th kind of solution is collected and is used as the 5th Room 122 that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into next stage pressure membrane unit 120;
Exert pressure and order about solvent in described the 6th kind of solution and see through next stage pressure membrane 121 and flow into described the 6th Room 123 to introducing described the 6th kind of solution in the 5th Room 122, obtain the 7th kind of solution and the 8th kind of solution in the 6th Room 123 in the 5th Room 122;
Described the 8th kind of solution as the 6th kind of solution, is repeated to separate in next stage pressure membrane unit 120, until obtaining satisfactory final products.
The film separation system of the solution of the embodiment of the invention is described in further detail below.
As shown in Figure 1, described feed liquid is transported to Room 102 102, the first, first Room directly and first contacts side surfaces of forward osmosis membrane 101, shown in the direction of arrow;
As a kind of embodiment, described first kind of solution feed liquid can be seawater, bitter, sewage, contaminant water, fruit juice, low solutes content liquid or other solution.
Simultaneously, second kind of solution (drawing liquid) is incorporated into second Room 103, with second contacts side surfaces of forward osmosis membrane 101, makes and draw liquid directly and second contacts side surfaces of forward osmosis membrane; Described second kind of solution produces the solvent that enough big osmotic pressure orders about in first solution and is penetrated into second side from first side of forward osmosis membrane 101.
Second kind of solution is called and draws liquid, be dissolved in second solvent by second solute and form, it has very high solutes content, can produce enough big osmotic pressure and order about first solvent in first kind of solution (feed liquid) and see through forward osmosis membrane 101 and enter second kind of solution (drawing liquid).
As a kind of embodiment, in a lot of the application, water also is the target solvent (first solvent) that need extract from first solution (feed liquid) as second solvent of second kind of solution (drawing liquid) simultaneously.
The extracted amount of first solvent depends on the solute concentration difference between first kind of solution (feed liquid) and the second kind of solution (drawing liquid) in first kind of solution (feed liquid), solute concentration difference is more big, the solute concentration that is to say second kind of solution (drawing liquid) is more high, and the solvent that positive osmosis process method is extracted is more many.
After losing most of first solvent, first kind of solution (feed liquid) becomes the third solution, be called the third solution (concentrate), as a kind of embodiment, described the third solution (concentrate) is if be regarded as dud then can be further processed or discharge; As another kind of embodiment, in other was used, described the third solution (concentrate) was regarded as useful product, therefore can be collected further to process or use in the downstream process method.
Second kind of solution (drawing liquid) has been because drawn first solvent and diluted from first kind of solution (feed liquid), forms the 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid), is transported in the 3rd Room (drawing liquid chamber) 112 to collect.
The 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid) is incorporated into the 3rd Room (drawing liquid chamber) 112 and then in pressure membrane 111 first sides of pressure membrane unit 110, therefrom extract first solvent and second solvent by the pressure membrane separating process, produce the 6th kind of solution (product fluid), enter into fourth ventricle 113.
The pressure membrane separating process also produces the 5th kind of solution (again concentrate draw liquid), can be recovered utilization and use as second kind of solution (drawing liquid).Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, before recycling, the 5th kind of solution (concentrate again draw liquid) is the 3rd Room (drawing liquid chamber) 112, regulate its concentration by the method for adding highly concentrated solution or solid solute, it has been had and the identical concentration of initial second kind of solution (drawing liquid).
Further describe the film separation system of the solution of the embodiment of the invention below.
First kind of solution (feed liquid) is collected in first Room 102.
First kind of solution (feed liquid) can be the dissimilar aqueous solution, comprises being not limited to seawater, salt solution, bitter, buck and industry water solution; The 6th kind of solution (product water) that can obtain is drinking water or high-quality industry water.
As a kind of embodiment, described first kind of solution (feed liquid) can be to comprise in sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, lithium salts, arsenic salt, boron salt, strontium salt, molybdenum salt, manganese salt, aluminium salt, cadmium salt, chromic salts, cobalt salt, mantoquita, molysite, lead salt, nickel salt, selenium salt, silver salt, zinc salt, villaumite, nitrate anion salt, sulfate radical salt, salt compounded of iodine, bromine salt, villiaumite, carbonate salt, phosphate radical salt, the silicate salt one or more as first solute, with the aqueous solution of first solvent (water) combination.
As another kind of embodiment, in some applications, described first kind of solution (feed liquid) can be waste water, comprises industrial wastewater, municipal wastewater, contains the contaminated aqueous solution (first solvent is water) of ion and all kinds organic compound (first solute).
As another embodiment, under the other situation, described first kind of solution (feed liquid) may contain one or more first solutes, target is to concentrate and reuse, for example aqueous solution of fruit juice, medicine, protein, other organic compounds or even microorganism (first solvent is water).
First kind of solution (feed liquid) is transported to first contacts side surfaces of first Room 102 and forward osmosis membrane 101.
Then, introduce second kind of solution (drawing liquid) in second Room 103.
Described second kind of solution (drawing liquid) forms by adding and dissolving in one or more salt, organic compound and the water.
As a kind of embodiment, the salt in described second kind of solution can be the salt (second solvent is water) that comprises the combination of one or more (second solutes) in sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, aluminium ion, chlorion, nitrate ion and the carbanion.
As another kind of embodiment, in some applications, described second kind of solution (drawing liquid) can contain organic compound (second solute), and these organic compounds and water (second solvent) have very strong affinity, and formation highly concentrated solution fully can be dissolved in the water.
Described second kind of solution (drawing liquid) is introduced into second contacts side surfaces with forward osmosis membrane 101, like this, concentration difference between first kind of solution (feed liquid) and the second kind of solution (drawing liquid) will produce permeable pressure head, orders about first solvent (water) and enters second kind of solution (drawing liquid) from first kind of solution (feed liquid) through forward osmosis membrane 101.
Lose most of first solvent (water) in positive osmosis process method after, the first kind of solution (feed liquid) that concentrates is collected as the third solution (concentrate).
As a kind of embodiment, in some cases, the third solution (concentrate) is further processed back discharging or directly discharging.
As another kind of embodiment, under the other situation, the third solution (concentrate) can provide final products, can be that the third solution (concentrate) also can be the sediment that forms through further processing back.
As another embodiment, second kind of solution (drawing liquid) is drawing the dilution of first solvent (water) back in positive osmosis process method, and collecting is the 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid).
For first solvent (water) of purifying and from first kind of solution (feed flow material), drawing, in the embodiment of the invention, further adopt the pressure membrane separating process to separate.
As a kind of embodiment, the 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid) is introduced into and is delivered to the high-pressure pump (not shown), and high-pressure pump is pressed into the 4th kind of solution in the 3rd Room (high-pressure bottle) 112 of being equipped with as the pellicle of pressure membrane.
Under sufficiently high pressure, the pellicle that first solvent and second solvent (pure water) see through as pressure membrane 111 becomes the 6th kind of solution (product water).
Reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane or milipore filter can be loaded as pressure membrane 111 in the 3rd Room (high-pressure bottle) 112.
As a kind of embodiment, in some cases, the 6th kind of solution (product water) that first class pressure membrane separation process method obtains just can reach drinking water or industry water standard.
As another kind of embodiment, preferably, in some cases, if contain a small amount of solute in the 6th kind of solution (product water), water quality can't reach product requirement, then needs to use further the 6th kind of solution (product water) of purifying of secondary pressure membrane separation process method to make it to reach drinking water or industry water standard.
As a kind of embodiment, the 4th kind of solution (dilution draw liquid) is after separating by the pressure membrane separating process, because having passed through pressure membrane, most of solvent (water) therefore is concentrated, become the 5th kind of solution (again concentrate draw liquid), be transported to after the energy recycle device (not shown) recovers energy, the 5th kind of solution (concentrate again draw liquid) is carried go back to second Room, and second kind of solution (drawing liquid) of positive osmosis process method is done in recycling.
Preferably, as a kind of embodiment, in some cases, may be different with the concentration of second kind of solution (initially drawing liquid) at the 5th kind of solution (concentrate again draw liquid), therefore need to add concentrated solution or solid solute makes it identical with second kind of initial solution concentration.
Adopt sodium sulphate to carry out desalinization as second solute of second kind of solution (drawing liquid) below by an embodiment, solution film separating process and the system of the embodiment of the invention is described.
Carry out in the desalination process method in the application of embodiment of the invention solution film separating process, the typical salinity of first kind of solution---seawater is 35000mg/L, is transported in first Room 102.
Seawater component
Figure BDA0000125749680000191
First kind of solution (seawater) is transported to first side of first Room, 102 contact forward osmosis membranes 101, first contacts side surfaces of first kind of solution (seawater) and forward osmosis membrane 101.As a kind of embodiment, the composition of described forward osmosis membrane 101 is Triafol T, and its structure is the asymmetric membrane structure, is made of as thin as a wafer cortex and the high supporting layer of porosity; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
Second kind of solution---sodium sulphate draws liquid and is incorporated in second Room 103.In some applications, the concentration of second kind of solution (sodium sulphate draws liquid) is in 0.7-1.2M (mole) scope.In other was used, this concentration can be up to 3.0M.Sodium sulphate draws second contacts side surfaces that liquid is transported to second Room 103 and forward osmosis membrane 101.Like this, the concentration difference that seawater and sodium sulphate draw between the liquid (second kind of solution) will produce permeable pressure head, orders about water (first solvent) and sees through forward osmosis membrane from seawater (first kind of solution) and enter sodium sulphate and draw the liquid (second kind of solution).The seawater that concentrates is collected that to become concentrate be the third solution.
In some cases, after being further processed, discharges concentrate (the third solution) or directly discharging.
Sodium sulphate draws liquid and is transported to the sodium sulphate that becomes dilution in the 3rd Room 103 draws liquid after having drawn big water gaging (first solvent), i.e. the 4th kind of solution.
In some cases, the concentration of the metabisulfite solution in the 3rd Room 103 is in the 0.6-0.8M scope.
Further, the water that draws from seawater in order to purify has adopted one-level nanofiltration technique method to carry out solution film as the pressure membrane separating process and has separated.
The sodium sulphate of dilution draws liquid and is transported to high-pressure pump, passes through first side that is transported to from the 3rd Room 103 after pressurizeing and contacts the one-level NF membrane.As a kind of embodiment, described NF membrane is U.S. section formula NF membrane, is structure of composite membrane, is made up of as thin as a wafer cortex and many empty polysulfone supporting layer; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
In some applications, preferably, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is in the scope of 40-60bar (1bar=10000Pa).
In other was used, more preferably, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides was for being higher than 80bar.
Under sufficiently high pressure effect, obtained that the 6th kind of solution---intermediate products water is collected in the fourth ventricle.
As a kind of embodiment, in some applications, intermediate products water contains very a spot of sodium sulphate, and electrical conductivity is between 0.8-1.5ms/cm.This intermediate products water can be used for some can accept the occasion of this water quality.
In some other application, the intermediate products electrical conductivity of water can be transported to the secondary low-lift pump then between 0.8-2.5ms/cm, is transported to the secondary NF membrane again and further purifies.
After the sodium sulphate of dilution draws liquid and concentrates through the one-level NF membrane, the 5th kind of solution---concentrated sodium sulphate draws liquid can heavily to concentrate formation, and be transported to the energy recycle device (not shown) and recover energy, the sodium sulphate that concentrates draws liquid (the 5th kind of solution) and is transferred go back to second Room 103 and is drawn liquid (second kind of solution) by reuse as sodium sulphate.As a kind of embodiment, draw the concentration of liquid (the 5th kind of solution) when the sodium sulphate that concentrates and draw liquid (second kind of solution) concentration not simultaneously with initial sodium sulphate, concentrated sulfuric acid sodium solution or solid sodium sulfate can be added into, make both concentration identical.
Experiment shows, after the processing of intermediate products water through the secondary nanofiltration, produces final products water, and its conductance is in 10-500 μ s/cm scope, and final products water can be used for drinking or other industrial uses.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, the secondary nanofiltration technique can replace with the two-pass reverse osmosis technology generations.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, thereby can turn back to the rate of recovery that the 3rd Room 112 increases water after the nanofiltration of residue intermediate products water process secondary.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, residue intermediate products water emits.
Adopt sodium sulphate to carry out the secondary effluent from sewage treatment plant advanced treating as drawing the liquid solute below by another embodiment, solution film separating process and the system of the embodiment of the invention is described.
In this process, the typical water quality of first kind of solution---secondary effluent is as shown in the table, is transported in first Room 102.
Secondary effluent water quality table
Figure BDA0000125749680000201
Be transported to forward osmosis membrane 101 and forward osmosis membrane 101 then from first Room 102 first contacts.The composition of this forward osmosis membrane 101 is Triafol T, and its structure is the asymmetric membrane structure, is made of as thin as a wafer cortex and the high supporting layer of porosity; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
Second kind of solution---sodium sulphate draws liquid and is stored in second Room 103.
In some applications, as a kind of embodiment, sodium sulphate draws the concentration of liquid in 0.1-0.5M (mole) scope.Sodium sulphate draws second contacts side surfaces of liquid and forward osmosis membrane 101.Like this, the concentration difference that secondary effluent (first kind of solution) and sodium sulphate draw between the liquid (second kind of solution) will produce permeable pressure head, orders about water and sees through forward osmosis membrane from secondary effluent and enter sodium sulphate and draw the liquid.The secondary effluent that concentrates is collected that to become concentrate be the third solution.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, concentrate (the third solution) is further processed back discharging or directly discharging.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, sodium sulphate draws liquid and is diluted after having drawn big water gaging and be transported to the sodium sulphate that becomes dilution in the 3rd Room 112 then and draw liquid, i.e. the 4th kind of solution.Experiment shows that in some cases, the concentration of the 4th kind of solution (metabisulfite solution) in the 3rd Room 112 is in the 0.05-0.4M scope.
Further, the water that draws from secondary effluent in order to purify has adopted the one-level nanofiltration technique to handle as the pressure membrane separation method.
The sodium sulphate of dilution draws liquid and is transported to high-pressure pump, through being transported to the 3rd Room 112 and contacting the one-level NF membrane after the pressurization.
As a kind of embodiment, described NF membrane is U.S. section formula NF membrane, is structure of composite membrane, is made up of as thin as a wafer cortex and many empty polysulfone supporting layer; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
As a kind of embodiment, in some applications, preferably, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is in the scope of 7.5-20bar (1bar=10000Pa).In other was used, more preferably, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides was higher than 30bar.
Under sufficiently high pressure effect, obtained the 6th kind of solution---intermediate products water, be collected in fourth ventricle, described fourth ventricle has a floss hole (not shown) discharging intermediate products water.
In some applications, experiment shows that intermediate products water (the 6th kind of solution) may contain very a spot of sodium sulphate, and electrical conductivity is between 100-200 μ s/cm.This intermediate products water can be used for some can accept the occasion of this water quality.In some other application, experiment shows that the intermediate products electrical conductivity of water as a kind of embodiment, is transported to the secondary low-lift pump between 100-200 μ s/cm, be transported to the secondary NF membrane again and further purify.
The sodium sulphate of remaining dilution draws liquid through after the one-level NF membrane, heavily concentrates to form that the 5th kind of solution---concentrated sodium sulphate draws liquid, and is transported to the energy recycle device (not shown) and recovers energy.As a kind of embodiment, concentrated sodium sulphate draws liquid (the 5th kind of solution) and is transported to second Room 103 and is recovered as sodium sulphate and draws liquid (second kind of solution).
As a kind of embodiment, draw the concentration of liquid (the 5th kind of solution) when the sodium sulphate that concentrates and draw liquid (second kind of solution) concentration not simultaneously with initial sodium sulphate, concentrated sulfuric acid sodium solution or solid sodium sulfate can be added into, make both concentration identical.
As a kind of embodiment, after the processing of intermediate products water (the 6th kind of solution) through the secondary nanofiltration, produce final products water (the 8th kind of solution), its conductance is in 10-100 μ s/cm scope.Final products water (the 8th kind of solution) can be used for drinking or other industrial uses.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, secondary nanofiltration technique method can replace with the two-pass reverse osmosis process.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, thereby can turn back to the rate of recovery that the 3rd Room increases water after the nanofiltration of residue intermediate products water process secondary.
In some cases, as a kind of embodiment, residue intermediate products water emits.
The membrane separation process method and system of the solution of the embodiment of the invention realizes that by having used positive permeability and separation process and/or pressure membrane separating process solution separates, and it is low with respect to conventional art distillation operation energy consumption, saves cost; The technical process operation energy consumption is relatively low, and the expense of equipment manufacturing cost and maintenance is also lower, and remarkable social benefit and economic benefit are arranged.And, in its application that concentrates, purifies at food and medicine, can prevent effectively that nutritional labeling and active ingredient are destroyed in the material liquid, thereby obtain product of high quality and at a reasonable price.
Just in order better to explain the present invention, it should not be construed limitation of the present invention to the above-mentioned specific embodiment.Those skilled in the art is according to equivalents of the present invention or be equal to the technical scheme that replacement forms, and all drops in the rights protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (84)

1. the membrane separation process method of a solution is characterized in that, comprising:
A) forward osmosis membrane separating process process:
Introduce in first side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit and to be dissolved in the first kind of solution that constitutes in first solvent by one or more first solutes;
Introduce in second side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit and to be dissolved in the second kind of solution that constitutes in second solvent by one or more second solutes; Wherein, described second kind of solution is as drawing liquid, its concentration is higher than first kind of solution, at least a portion first solvent that orders about in described first kind of solution flows to second kind of solution through described forward osmosis membrane, and described first kind of solution is concentrated the third solution of formation owing to losing at least a portion first solvent; Described second kind of solution makes second solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion first solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution.
2. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 1 is characterized in that, also comprises:
B) described pressure membrane separating process process:
With steps A) the forward osmosis membrane separating process separates described the 4th kind of solution obtain and collects and be used as first side that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane of pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about second side that first side that solvent in described the 4th kind of solution sees through described pressure membrane flows into described pressure membrane to being incorporated into described the 4th kind of solution in the pressure membrane unit, obtain pressure membrane first side the 5th kind of solution and at the 6th kind of solution of second side of pressure membrane.
3. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 2 is characterized in that, described step B) also comprise at least again the pressure membrane separating process process of one-level;
The pressure membrane separating process process of described one-level again comprises:
Upper level pressure membrane process is separated described the 6th kind of solution that obtains collect and be used as first side that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane of next stage pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about second side that first side that solvent in described the 6th kind of solution sees through the pressure membrane of described next stage pressure membrane unit flows into described pressure membrane to being incorporated into described the 6th kind of solution in the next stage pressure membrane unit, obtain pressure membrane first side the 7th kind of solution and at the 8th kind of solution of second side of pressure membrane;
Described the 8th kind of solution as the 6th kind of solution, is repeated said process up to the final products solution that obtains separation requirement.
4. according to the membrane separation process method of claim 2 or 3 described solution, it is characterized in that described step B) pressure membrane separating process process also comprises:
The 5th kind of solution is introduced in second side of the forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit, uses as second kind of solution again.
5. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 4 is characterized in that, described step B) in, be introduced at described the 5th kind of solution before second side of forward osmosis membrane of positive permeability and separation unit, also comprise:
Add second solute at described the 5th kind of solution, make it identical with second kind of solution concentration.
6. according to the membrane separation process method of claim 2 or 3 described solution, it is characterized in that:
Described being introduced as continuously introduced;
The described flow direction is for flowing to continuously.
7. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described feed liquid and/or draw the mechanical strength that hydraulic pressure that face upper reaches movable property that liquid is made in forward osmosis membrane gives birth to is lower than forward osmosis membrane.
8. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 1 is characterized in that, and is described with first kind of solution introducing forward osmosis membrane first side, comprising:
First side of described forward osmosis membrane is immersed in described first kind of solution;
Perhaps
Described first kind of flow of solution crossed first side of described forward osmosis membrane.
9. according to claim 2 or 3 described solution film separating process, it is characterized in that the temperature of described forward osmosis membrane separating process is 4 ℃-50 ℃.
10. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 9 is characterized in that, described feed liquid and/or the pH value that draws liquid are between 2-11.
11. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 10 is characterized in that, described feed liquid and/or the pH value that draws liquid are between 6-8 or neutral.
12. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
13. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 12, it is characterized in that, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is cellulose acetate, a kind of in the material of Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types, the ceramic material or more than one combination.
14. the membrane separation process method according to claim 12 or 13 described solution is characterized in that, described forward osmosis membrane is the film spare that is assembled into following assembly:
Hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane and/or rolled film.
15. the membrane separation process method according to claim 12 or 13 described solution is characterized in that, described forward osmosis membrane structure is dissymmetrical structure or composite construction, comprises support membrane and composite membrane.
16. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 12 is characterized in that, the composition of described forward osmosis membrane is Triafol T, and its structure is the asymmetric membrane structure, is made of cortex and the high supporting layer of porosity; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
17. the membrane separation process method according to claim 2 or 3 described solution is characterized in that, described pressure membrane separating process is a kind of in counter-infiltration, nanofiltration or the ultrafiltration pressure membrane separation process method; Described pressure membrane is a kind of in reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane or the milipore filter.
18. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 17 is characterized in that, described pressure membrane is made into the assembly of hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane or rolled film for assembling.
19. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 18 is characterized in that, the structure of described pressure membrane is dissymmetrical structure or comprises support membrane and the composite construction of composite membrane.
20. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 19 is characterized in that, the material of described pressure membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
21. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 20 is characterized in that, described material is a kind of in the material, ceramic material of cellulose acetate, Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types.
22. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 17, it is characterized in that, when described milipore filter is used to the pressure membrane separating process, second solute that disposes described second solution for sugar, protein, other have the compound of higher molecular weight or the solute of salt.
23. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 17, it is characterized in that, when described NF membrane was used to the pressure membrane separating process, second solute that disposes described second solution was magnesium salts, calcium salt, sulfate, carbonate and other two valencys ion salts.
24. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 17, it is characterized in that, when described reverse osmosis membrane is used to the pressure membrane separating technology, second solute that disposes second solution be sodium salt, sylvite, villaumite, nitrate, other multivalence salts and other all can not be by other salts of ultrafiltration and NF membrane effectively catching.
25. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 17 is characterized in that, described NF membrane is U.S. section formula NF membrane, is structure of composite membrane, is made up of cortex and many empty polysulfone supporting layer; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
26. the membrane separation process method according to claim 2 or 3 described solution is characterized in that, among the described step B, exerts pressure to described the 4th kind of solution that is incorporated in the pressure membrane unit, comprising:
The working pressure pump is transported to the pressure membrane surface to the 4th kind of solution;
The pressure that described compression pump provides is enough big, makes the 4th kind of solvent in the solution can overcome resistance and sees through described pressure membrane.
27. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 26 is characterized in that, described compression pump is a kind of in plunger displacement pump, centrifugal pump or the membrane pump.
28. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 27 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is 40-60bar.
29. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 27 is characterized in that the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is for being higher than 80bar.
30. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 27 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is 7.5-20bar.
31. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 27 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is higher than 30bar.
32. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 26 is characterized in that, described the 4th kind of solution is cross-current type in the method for the effect on pressure membrane surface.
33. the membrane separation process method according to claim 2 or 3 described solution is characterized in that, the technological temperature of described pressure membrane separating process is 4 ℃-50 ℃.
34. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 33 is characterized in that, the pH value of described the 4th kind of solution is between 2-11.
35. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 33 is characterized in that, the pH value of described the 4th kind of solution is between 6-8 or neutral.
36. the membrane separation process method according to each described solution of claim 1 to 3 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
Described first solute is the solute that comprises following composition: sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, villaumite, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and other salts, sugar, protein and other compounds.
37. the membrane separation process method of solution according to claim 36 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is a kind of in seawater, salt solution, bitter, buck or the water for industrial use.
38. the membrane separation process method according to each described solution of claim 1 to 3 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, lithium ion, arsenic ion, the boron ion, strontium ion, molybdenum ion, manganese ion, aluminium ion, cadmium ion, chromium ion, cobalt ions, copper ion, iron ion, lead ion, nickel ion, plasma selenium, silver ion, zinc ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion, iodide ion, bromide ion, fluorine ion, carbanion, phosphate anion, silicate ion.
39. the membrane separation process method according to each described solution of claim 1 to 3 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is medicine or the relevant fluid of food, and its concentration is 0-100g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more compositions: one or more of salt, sugar, enzyme, protein, vitamin or microorganism.
40. the membrane separation process method according to claim 2 or 3 described solution is characterized in that, the concentration range of described second kind of solution is 0.01-6M;
Second solvent of described second kind of solution is water;
Second solute of described second kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, aluminium ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion and carbanion.
41. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 40 is characterized in that, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.7-3.0M scope.
42. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 40 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is seawater, and the concentration of described first kind of solution is 35000mg/L.
43. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 42 is characterized in that, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.6-0.8M.
44. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 40 is characterized in that, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.1-0.5M scope.
45. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 44 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is secondary effluent.
46. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 45 is characterized in that, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.05-0.4M.
47. the membrane separation process method according to claim 2 or 3 described solution is characterized in that, described membrane separation process method is applied to sewage disposal.
48. the membrane separation process method according to claim 2 or 3 described solution is characterized in that, described membrane separation process method is applied to food liquid processing.
49. the film separation system of a solution is characterized in that, comprising: positive permeability and separation unit;
Described positive permeability and separation unit comprises forward osmosis membrane, holds first Room of first kind of solution and second Room that holds second kind of solution, and described first Room and second Room are separated by forward osmosis membrane;
Be dissolved in the first kind of solution that constitutes in first solvent in the introducing of first Room of positive permeability and separation unit by one or more first solutes;
Be dissolved in the second kind of solution that constitutes in second solvent in the introducing of second Room of positive permeability and separation unit by one or more second solutes; Wherein, described second kind of solution is as drawing liquid, and its concentration is higher than first kind of solution, and at least a portion solvent that orders about in described first kind of solution flows to second kind of solution through described forward osmosis membrane; Described first kind of solution is concentrated the third solution of formation owing to losing at least a portion solvent; Described second kind of solution makes the solute concentration of second kind of solution reduce owing to increased at least a portion solvent, forms the 4th kind of solution.
50. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 49 is characterized in that, also comprises the pressure membrane unit;
Described pressure membrane unit comprises pressure membrane, holds the 3rd Room and the fourth ventricle that holds the 6th kind of solution of the 4th kind of solution, and described the 3rd Room and fourth ventricle are separated by pressure membrane;
Positive permeability and separation unit is separated described the 4th kind of solution that obtains collect and be used as the 3rd Room that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into the pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about solvent in described the 4th kind of solution and see through pressure membrane and flow into described fourth ventricle to introducing described the 4th kind of solution in the 3rd Room, obtain the 5th kind of solution and the 6th kind of solution in fourth ventricle in the 3rd Room.
51. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 50 is characterized in that, also comprises the next stage pressure membrane unit of one-level at least;
Described next stage pressure membrane unit comprises the next stage pressure membrane, holds the 5th Room of the 6th kind of solution and the 6th Room that holds the 8th kind of solution, and described the 5th Room and the 6th Room are separated by the next stage pressure membrane;
Described the 6th kind of solution is collected and is used as the 5th Room that a kind of intermediate product is incorporated into next stage pressure membrane unit;
Exert pressure and order about solvent in described the 6th kind of solution and see through the next stage pressure membrane and flow into described the 6th Room to introducing described the 6th kind of solution in the 5th Room, obtain the 7th kind of solution and the 8th kind of solution in the 6th Room in the 5th Room;
Described the 8th kind of solution as the 6th kind of solution, is repeated to separate in next stage pressure membrane unit, until obtaining satisfactory final products.
52. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 49 is characterized in that, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
53. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 52, it is characterized in that, the material of described forward osmosis membrane is cellulose acetate, a kind of in the material of Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types, the ceramic material or more than one combination.
54. the film separation system according to claim 52 or 53 described solution is characterized in that, described forward osmosis membrane is the film spare that is assembled into following assembly:
Hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane and/or rolled film.
55. the film separation system according to claim 52 or 53 described solution is characterized in that, described forward osmosis membrane structure is dissymmetrical structure or composite construction, comprises support membrane and composite membrane.
56. the membrane separation process method according to the described solution of claim 52 is characterized in that, the composition of described forward osmosis membrane is Triafol T, and its structure is the asymmetric membrane structure, is made of cortex and the high supporting layer of porosity; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
57. the film separation system according to claim 50 or 51 described solution is characterized in that, described pressure membrane is a kind of in reverse osmosis membrane, NF membrane or the milipore filter.
58. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 57 is characterized in that, described pressure membrane is made into the assembly of hollow-fibre membrane, tubular membrane, capillary-pipe film, Flat Membrane or rolled film for assembling.
59. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 58 is characterized in that, the structure of described pressure membrane is dissymmetrical structure or comprises support membrane and the composite construction of composite membrane.
60. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 59 is characterized in that, the material of described pressure membrane is organic material or inorganic material.
61. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 60 is characterized in that, described material is a kind of in the material, ceramic material of cellulose acetate, Triafol T, polysulfones, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyamide, other compound types.
62. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 60, it is characterized in that, when described milipore filter is used to pressure membrane when separating, second solute that disposes described second solution for sugar, protein, other have the compound of higher molecular weight or the solute of salt.
63. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 60 is characterized in that, when described NF membrane was used to the pressure membrane separation, second solute that disposes described second solution was magnesium salts, calcium salt, sulfate, carbonate and other two valencys ion salts.
64. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 60, it is characterized in that, when described reverse osmosis membrane is used to the pressure membrane separation, second solute that disposes second solution be sodium salt, sylvite, villaumite, nitrate, other multivalence salts and other all can not be by other salts of ultrafiltration and NF membrane effectively catching.
65. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 60 is characterized in that, described NF membrane is U.S. section formula NF membrane, is structure of composite membrane, is made up of cortex and many empty polysulfone supporting layer; Wherein, the thickness of described cortex is 1-20 μ m.
66. the film separation system according to claim 50 or 51 described solution is characterized in that, describedly exerts pressure to described the 4th kind of solution that is incorporated in the pressure membrane unit, for:
The working pressure pump is transported to the pressure membrane surface to the 4th kind of solution;
The pressure that described compression pump provides is enough big, makes the 4th kind of solvent in the solution can overcome resistance and sees through described pressure membrane.
67. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 66 is characterized in that, described compression pump is a kind of in plunger displacement pump, centrifugal pump or the membrane pump.
68. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 67 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is 40-60bar.
69. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 67 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is for being higher than 80bar.
70. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 67 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is 7.5-20bar.
71. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 67 is characterized in that, the pressure that described high-pressure pump provides is higher than 30bar.
72. the film separation system according to each described solution of claim 49 to 51 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
Described first solute is the solute that comprises following composition: sodium salt, sylvite, magnesium salts, calcium salt, villaumite, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and other salts, sugar, protein and other compounds.
73. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 72 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is a kind of in seawater, salt solution, bitter, buck or the water for industrial use.
74. the film separation system according to each described solution of claim 49 to 51 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution concentration scope is 0-50g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is pure water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, lithium ion, arsenic ion, the boron ion, strontium ion, molybdenum ion, manganese ion, aluminium ion, cadmium ion, chromium ion, cobalt ions, copper ion, iron ion, lead ion, nickel ion, plasma selenium, silver ion, zinc ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion, iodide ion, bromide ion, fluorine ion, carbanion, phosphate anion, silicate ion.
75. the film separation system according to each described solution of claim 49 to 51 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is medicine or the relevant fluid of food, and its concentration is 0-100g/L;
First solvent of described first kind of solution is water;
First solute of described first kind of solution comprises following one or more compositions: one or more of salt, sugar, enzyme, protein, vitamin or microorganism.
76. the film separation system according to claim 50 or 51 described solution is characterized in that, the concentration range of described second kind of solution is 0.01-6M;
Second solvent of described second kind of solution is water;
Second solute of described second kind of solution comprises following one or more ions: sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, aluminium ion, chlorion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion and carbanion.
77. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 76 is characterized in that, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.7-3.0M scope.
78. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 73 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is seawater, and the concentration of described first kind of solution is 35000mg/L.
79. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 78 is characterized in that, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.6-0.8M.
80. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 79 is characterized in that, described second kind of solution is aqueous sodium persulfate solution, and concentration is in the 0.1-0.5M scope.
81. the film separation system according to the described solution of claim 73 is characterized in that, described first kind of solution is secondary effluent.
82. the film separation system of 1 described solution is characterized in that according to Claim 8, the concentration of described the 4th kind of solution is 0.05-0.4M.
83. the film separation system according to claim 50 or 51 described solution is characterized in that described film separation system is applied to sewage disposal.
84. the film separation system according to claim 50 or 51 described solution is characterized in that, described film separation system is applied to food liquid processing.
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CN111661953A (en) * 2020-06-16 2020-09-15 包头稀土研究院 Method for separating fluorine and phosphorus in mixed rare earth alkaline wastewater and application
CN112919668A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-06-08 山东大学 Reverse osmosis-fertilizer driven forward osmosis seawater desalination method
CN114291955A (en) * 2022-01-18 2022-04-08 龙佰集团股份有限公司 Method for jointly utilizing iron pigment wastewater and reduced titanium tail gas

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WO2016064689A3 (en) * 2014-10-20 2016-07-28 Albemarle Corporation Forward osmosis process for concentration of lithium containing solutions
JP2017532197A (en) * 2014-10-20 2017-11-02 アルベマール・コーポレーシヨン Process for concentration of lithium-containing solutions
CN104624052A (en) * 2015-01-13 2015-05-20 杭州天创环境科技股份有限公司 Circulating recovery method of forward osmosis absorbing liquid
CN105254731A (en) * 2015-10-19 2016-01-20 湖州森诺膜技术工程有限公司 Cocoon boiling wastewater fibroin concentration and recycling system
CN105254731B (en) * 2015-10-19 2018-11-13 湖州森诺膜技术工程有限公司 A kind of cocoon boiling wastewater fibroin concentration recycling system
CN106006682A (en) * 2016-05-16 2016-10-12 北京鑫佰利科技发展有限公司 Method for preparing potassium carbonate through film method
CN106006682B (en) * 2016-05-16 2017-09-01 北京鑫佰利科技发展有限公司 The method that embrane method prepares potassium carbonate
CN108341420A (en) * 2017-01-24 2018-07-31 马培华 The method that lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate are directly produced from salt lake brine with high magnesium-lithium ratio
CN108341421A (en) * 2017-01-24 2018-07-31 马培华 The method that lithium carbonate is directly produced from salt lake brine with high magnesium-lithium ratio
CN108341420B (en) * 2017-01-24 2022-02-08 马培华 Method for directly preparing lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate from salt lake brine with high magnesium-lithium ratio
CN108341421B (en) * 2017-01-24 2022-02-08 马培华 Method for directly preparing lithium carbonate from salt lake brine with high magnesium-lithium ratio
CN107460315A (en) * 2017-08-24 2017-12-12 中国有色集团刚果矿业有限公司 A kind of method using copper, cobalt in NF membrane concentrating and separating-neutralization precipitation recovery copper raffinate
CN109987739A (en) * 2017-12-29 2019-07-09 杭州水处理技术研究开发中心有限公司 A kind of container-type seawater desalination system
CN111661953A (en) * 2020-06-16 2020-09-15 包头稀土研究院 Method for separating fluorine and phosphorus in mixed rare earth alkaline wastewater and application
CN112919668A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-06-08 山东大学 Reverse osmosis-fertilizer driven forward osmosis seawater desalination method
CN114291955A (en) * 2022-01-18 2022-04-08 龙佰集团股份有限公司 Method for jointly utilizing iron pigment wastewater and reduced titanium tail gas

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