CN103178581B - Electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack combination device and control method - Google Patents

Electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack combination device and control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103178581B
CN103178581B CN201310061749.2A CN201310061749A CN103178581B CN 103178581 B CN103178581 B CN 103178581B CN 201310061749 A CN201310061749 A CN 201310061749A CN 103178581 B CN103178581 B CN 103178581B
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battery
power brick
branch road
discharge
charging
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CN103178581A (en
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刘广敏
乔昕
贺冬梅
侯恩广
李杨
崔立志
王知学
李小伟
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QINGDAO VECCON ELECTRIC Co.,Ltd.
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Institute of Automation Shandong Academy of Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention particularly discloses an electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack combination device and a control method. A plurality of single-cell lithium batteries are parallelly connected and serially connected to form a certain-voltage certain-capacity battery pack, the plurality of battery packs integrating with a battery monitor are serially connected to form a low-voltage certain-capacity battery pack branch, and the battery pack branches are parallelly connected to form a low-voltage high-current lithium battery assembly. The combination means is flexible, and the requirements of lithium batteries with various voltages and capacities can be met. A control device for the lithium battery pack combination device is capable of controlling an IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) switch to charge and discharge in different ways according to the current states of the bather pack branches, the battery pack branches can operate in an optimal operation area to the maximum extent, the service life of each battery is prolonged as far as possible, the battery assembly is guaranteed to operate in the safe operation area, and the requirements of electric vehicles for power supply are also met.

Description

Electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack combination device and control method
Technical field
The present invention relates to electric automobile field, particularly a kind of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack combination device and control method.
Background technology
China has become automobile market the biggest in the world at present, according to estimates, will reach about 200,000,000 to the year two thousand twenty China's automobile guarantee-quantity, and vehicle fuel consumption therebetween will reach about 300,000,000 tons, and Chinese Automobile Industry must seek new alternative energy source.And the advantages such as lithium battery has that energy storage density is high, long service life, thermal adaptability strong, use safety, environmental protection, automobile industry starts the battery solution adopting lithium battery as electric automobile.Usually, the cell voltage needed for small-sized/medium-sized hybrid vehicle is between 60V to 200V.The motor driven systems of electric automobile requires that the capacity of battery is large, and overload capacity is strong, and consider from security standpoint, voltage can not be too high simultaneously.
At present, electric automobile lithium battery group has 2 kinds of compound modes, and a kind of compound mode is high voltage-small current battery pack, is formed by multiple single core lithium battery series stack, and the battery voltage formed like this can high pressure three hectovolt, four hectovolts.But due to the finite capacity of single cell battery, need direct single cell battery in parallel to expand battery capacity.Because the voltage of battery pack is very high, battery pack is installed to fail safe on electric automobile and is difficult to ensure.Another compound mode is low-voltage, high-current battery pack, is composed in series by after multiple single cell battery parallel connection again.Because this battery voltage is lower, it is fine to be installed to fail safe on electric automobile.But the consistency due to single cell battery is difficult to ensure, number of batteries therefore in parallel can not be too many, this just causes the capacity of battery pack little, can not meet the requirement of electric automobile.
Summary of the invention
For current electric automobile lithium battery group high voltage-small current battery pack poor safety performance, the problem of low-voltage, high-current battery capacity deficiency, the present invention devises that a kind of current capacity can adjust flexibly, the combination unit of the low-voltage, high-current lithium battery group of many power brick branch circuit parallel connection and control method.
Electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group combination unit, comprises several power brick branch roads; Several described power brick branch circuit parallel connections and each power brick branch road are connected with battery management system main frame; Described each power brick branch road comprises some power brick, a charging IGBT switch, discharge IGBT switch, a current sample module; Described power brick is formed by some battery cells in series, and described battery unit is composed in parallel by the single core lithium battery of some joints, and multiple power brick is connected into power brick branch road again, and multiple power brick branch circuit parallel connection forms battery pack; Described charging IGBT switch, discharge IGBT switch, current sample module are connected with power brick respectively; In several described power brick branch roads, power brick, charging IGBT switch, current sample module composition charge circuit, charging IGBT switch is as charge switch; Power brick, discharge IGBT switch, current sample module composition discharge loop, discharge IGBT switch is as discharge switch.
The control device of the combination unit of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group, as follows:
The control device of described electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group comprises battery management system main frame, charging IGBT switch, discharge IGBT switch, current sample module and battery monitoring device; Battery monitoring device is integrated in power brick inside, and detect the voltage of the inner single cell battery of power brick, temperature and estimation SOC and cell health state, battery monitoring device is dealt into battery management system main frame by bus the signal of single cell battery; Battery management system main frame is responsible for detecting the electric current of each power brick branch road, SOC state and health status, and controls the charge and discharge system of power brick branch road according to the current state of each power brick branch road; Received the control command of battery management system main frame by charging IGBT module, control IGBT switch realizes charging; Receive the control command from battery management system main frame by discharge IGBT module, control IGBT switch realizes electric discharge; The charging and discharging currents of current sample module acquires battery is also sent to battery management system main frame in the mode of analog quantity.
The control method of control device is as follows:
The charge circuit of each power brick branch road of described electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack and discharge loop are separately, respectively by charging IGBT switch and discharge IGBT switch control rule charge circuit and discharge loop switch, by current sample module samples charge circuit electric current and discharge loop electric current; Battery pack is by being integrated in the battery management system battery monitoring device of power brick inside to detect voltage and the temperature of each battery core battery, by current sample module acquires electric current, according to the voltage of core lithium battery single in each power brick branch road, electric current and temperature whole battery state to be monitored by battery management system main frame and calculate each power brick branch road SOC and health status, and controlling charging, the discharge mode of each power brick branch road according to the SOC of power brick branch road and health status by charging IGBT control module and discharge IGBT control module.
Described charging modes is as follows: during charging, decides charging modes by battery management system main frame according to the SOC state of each power brick branch road of present battery group and health status; When battery management system Host Detection to power brick branch road need charging and health status good time, open the charging IGBT switch of respective battery bag branch road, battery core serial charging in each branch road, described battery management system main frame is by the SOC state detecting the voltage of single core lithium battery, charging current, temperature monitor battery, when monitor a certain branch road be full of after the corresponding IGBT switch of shutoff, other branch roads continue charging, until all branch roads are all full of;
Described discharge mode is as follows: during electric discharge, and battery management system main frame decides the discharge mode of this branch road according to the SOC state of each power brick branch road of present battery group and health status; After electric discharge request received by battery management system main frame, control the output amount of respective branch according to the current state of each power brick branch road; According to each power brick branch road SOC from high to low, health status, by smooth to bad arrangement well, determines that the electric discharge of each power brick branch road exports amount to battery management system main frame.The power brick branch road that SOC capacity is large, health status is good normally exports, and the power brick branch road degradation that SOC capacity is little, health status is bad exports.By battery management system main frame output pwm signal controlled discharge IGBT switch, analyze SOC state and the health status of present battery bag branch road, when needs degradation exports, the duty ratio of adjustment pwm signal adjusts the actual switch time of IGBT switch, to reach the object of the output of adjustment power brick branch road.The switch of each power brick branch road is Parallel Control, the IGBT switch motion of Synchronization Control power brick branch road.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The battery pack designed in the present invention, independently be made up of with the power brick branch circuit parallel connection of battery monitoring device, IGBT switch and current sample module multiple, compound mode is versatile and flexible, can meet the low-voltage and high-current lithium battery group requirement of various voltage and capacity; Simultaneously, corresponding IGBT switch is controlled according to the current state of each power brick branch road by battery management system main frame, take different charge and discharge control modes, under the prerequisite meeting electric automobile power reguirements, each power brick branch road can be made to greatest extent to work in optimized working zone, extend battery life as much as possible, ensure that battery pack works in safety operation area.
1), battery voltage is low, capacity is large, can meet driving motor for electric automobile system requirements;
2), operating voltage lower security performance is high;
3), battery pack is made up of multiple power brick, and car load counterweight is convenient, and repair and replacement are simple;
4), the independent charging of each power brick branch road, discharge IGBT control, battery operated in safety operation area;
5), compound mode is flexible, can meet the low-voltage and high-current lithium battery group requirement of various voltage and capacity.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery structure figure;
Fig. 2 electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group control device structure chart;
Fig. 3 discharges PWM Synchronization Control sequential chart.
In figure: 1, power brick branch road, 2, battery management system main frame, 3, power brick, 4, discharge IGBT switch, 5, charging IGBT switch, 6, current sample module.
Specific embodiments
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail;
Because the capacity of single core lithium battery, voltage are limited, so will Large Copacity be formed, there is the battery pack of certain voltage, the string of single cell battery must be had and operate.But due to the consistency problem of single cell battery, single cell battery can not be in parallel too many, otherwise battery consistency difference in battery pack is very large, and the performance of battery can be greatly affected.
Power brick described in electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group is formed by some battery cells in series, described battery unit is composed in parallel by the single core lithium battery of some joints, multiple power brick is connected into power brick branch road again, and multiple power brick branch circuit parallel connection forms battery pack; Structure chart as shown in Figure 1.Specifically: some single cell batteries are in parallel, form the baby battery group with certain current capacity, general meeting is limited in current capacity between 30A to 60A, afterwards again the baby battery group series connection with certain capacity, form the power brick 3 with the certain current capacity of certain voltage, power brick 3 inside is integrated with battery monitoring device; Some Battery pack bags 3 are connected again, and its series voltage just can reach nominal requirement, and coating-forming voltage reaches nominal voltage (such as 60V, 72V), the power brick branch road 1 of certain current capacity, connected in power brick branch road 1 discharge IGBT switch 4 and charging IGBT switch 5, current sample module 6; Several power brick branch roads 1 are in parallel, form the low-voltage and high-current lithium battery group reaching nominal current requirements and voltage request.
Such as, if adopt nominal voltage 3.2V capacity be 1A ferric phosphate in single cell battery, the lithium battery group of composition voltage 60V electric current 500A, first adopt the 50 joint baby battery bag forming 50A capacity in parallel, 10 baby battery bags are connected again, the power brick of coating-forming voltage 32V electric current 50A capacity, the power brick series connection of 2 voltage 32V electric current 30A capacity, the power brick branch road 1 of coating-forming voltage 64V electric current 50A.Finally adopt 10 power brick branch roads 1 in parallel, the battery pack of composition voltage 60V electric current 500A.
The battery pack of composition low-voltage and high-current must be equipped with control device to battery pack.Control device comprises battery management system main frame 2, discharge IGBT switch 4, charging IGBT switch 5, these parts of current sample module 6.Whole battery management system has a battery management system main frame 2, is in charge of the condition monitoring of whole battery pack, and charge and discharge switch manages, the management of whole system and finish message record.Each power brick branch road 1 is connected one IGBT switch 4, discharge IGBT switch 5, current sample module 6 of charging.The charge circuit of battery pack and discharge loop respectively have an independent loop.Power brick 3, charging IGBT switch 4, current sample module 6 constitute charge circuit; Power brick 3, discharge IGBT switch 5, current sample module 6 constitute discharge loop.Charging IGBT switch 4 and discharge IGBT switch 5 adopt intelligent object to control; Intelligent object realizes Synchronization Control, synchronously opens, asynchronous shutoff; Each branch road has a current sample module.
The parallel connection of multiple single core lithium battery is connected the power brick 3 of a formation certain capacity certain voltage afterwards, and is integrated with a battery monitoring device in inside, the voltage of monitoring single cell battery and temperature, the SOC of estimation single cell battery and health status.Multiple power brick 3 is connected, and forms the branch road reaching specification requirement voltage, and multiple branch circuit parallel connection forms the battery pack meeting current capacity and require;
The charge circuit of each power brick branch road 1 of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current battery pack and discharge loop are separately, control charge circuit and discharge loop switch by charging IGBT switch 4 and discharge IGBT switch 5 respectively, to be sampled charge circuit electric current and discharge loop electric current by current sample module 6; Battery pack is by being integrated in the battery management system battery monitoring device of power brick inside to detect voltage and the temperature of each battery core battery, by current sample module acquires electric current, according to the voltage of core lithium battery single in each power brick branch road 1, electric current and temperature whole battery state to be monitored by battery management system main frame 2 and calculate each power brick branch road 1SOC and health status, and controlling charging, the discharge mode of each power brick branch road 1 according to the SOC of power brick branch road 1 and health status by charging IGBT control module 4 and discharge IGBT control module 5.
Described charging modes is as follows: during charging, decides charging modes by battery management system main frame 2 according to the SOC state of each power brick branch road 1 of present battery group and health status; When battery management system main frame 2 detects the charging of power brick branch road 1 needs and health status is good, open the charging IGBT switch 5 of respective battery bag branch road 1, battery core serial charging in each branch road, described battery management system main frame 2 is by the SOC state detecting the voltage of single core lithium battery, charging current, temperature monitor battery, when monitor a certain branch road be full of after the corresponding IGBT switch of shutoff, other branch roads continue charging, until all branch roads are all full of;
Described discharge mode is as follows: during electric discharge, and battery management system main frame 2 decides the discharge mode of this branch road according to the SOC state of each power brick branch road 1 of present battery group and health status; After electric discharge request received by battery management system main frame 2, control the output amount of respective branch according to the current state of each power brick branch road 1; According to each power brick branch road 1SOC from high to low, health status, by smooth to bad arrangement well, determines that the electric discharge of each power brick branch road 1 exports amount to battery management system main frame 2.The power brick branch road 1 that SOC capacity is large, health status is good normally exports, and the power brick branch road 1 that SOC capacity is little, health status is bad is demoted and exported.By battery management system main frame 2 output pwm signal controlled discharge IGBT switch 4, analyze SOC state and the health status of present battery bag branch road 1, when needs degradation exports, the duty ratio of adjustment pwm signal adjusts the actual switch time of IGBT switch, to reach the object of the output of adjustment power brick branch road 1.The switch of each power brick branch road 1 is Parallel Control, the IGBT switch motion of Synchronization Control power brick branch road 1.
During electric discharge, battery management system main frame 2 decides the discharge mode of this branch road according to the SOC state of current each power brick branch road 1 and health status.After electric discharge request received by battery management system main frame 2, control the output amount of respective branch according to the current state of each power brick branch road 1.Battery management system main frame 2 according to each power brick branch road 1SOC from high to low, health status is smooth by the arrangement well to bad, determine that the electric discharge of each power brick branch road 1 exports amount, the power brick branch road 1 that SOC capacity is little for those, health status is bad is demoted and is exported.In practical operation, realized by the duty ratio of controlled discharge IGBT switch 5.Switch due to each branch road is Parallel Control, and therefore the IGBT of these branch roads controls to need synchronously, and battery management system main frame 2 decides the duty ratio of each branch road according to the SOC state of current each power brick branch road 1.

Claims (4)

1. the control method of the control device of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group combination unit, is characterized in that: comprise several power brick branch roads; Several described power brick branch circuit parallel connections and each power brick branch road are connected with battery management system main frame; Described each power brick branch road comprises some power brick, a charging IGBT switch, discharge IGBT switch, a current sample module; Described power brick is formed by some battery cells in series, and described battery unit is composed in parallel by the single core lithium battery of some joints, and multiple power brick branch circuit parallel connection forms battery pack; Described charging IGBT switch, discharge IGBT switch, current sample module are connected with power brick respectively; In several described power brick branch roads, power brick, charging IGBT switch, current sample module composition charge circuit, charging IGBT switch is as charge switch; Power brick, discharge IGBT switch, current sample module composition discharge loop, discharge IGBT switch is as discharge switch;
The control device of described combination unit, comprises battery management system main frame, charging IGBT switch, discharge IGBT switch, current sample module and battery monitoring device; Battery monitoring device is integrated in power brick inside, and detect the voltage of the inner single cell battery of power brick, temperature and estimation SOC and cell health state, battery monitoring device is dealt into battery management system main frame by bus the signal of single cell battery; Battery management system main frame is responsible for detecting the electric current of each power brick branch road, SOC state and health status, and controls the charge and discharge system of power brick branch road according to the current state of each power brick branch road; Received the control command of battery management system main frame by charging IGBT module, control charging IGBT switch and realize charging; Receive the control command from battery management system main frame by discharge IGBT module, controlled discharge IGBT switch realizes electric discharge; The charging and discharging currents of current sample module acquires battery is also sent to battery management system main frame in the mode of analog quantity;
The control method of described control device refers to, the charge circuit of each power brick branch road of described electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group and discharge loop are separately, respectively by charging IGBT switch and discharge IGBT switch control rule charge circuit and discharge loop switch, by current sample module samples charge circuit electric current and discharge loop electric current; Battery pack is by being integrated in the battery monitoring device of power brick inside to detect voltage and the temperature of each battery core battery, by current sample module acquires electric current, according to the voltage of core lithium battery single in each power brick branch road, electric current and temperature whole battery state to be monitored by battery management system main frame and calculate each power brick branch road SOC and health status, and controlling charging, the discharge mode of each power brick branch road according to the SOC of power brick branch road and health status by charging IGBT module and discharge IGBT module.
2. the control method of the control device of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group combination unit as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described charging modes is as follows: during charging, decide charging modes by battery management system main frame according to the SOC state of each power brick branch road of present battery group and health status; When battery management system Host Detection to power brick branch road need charging and health status good time, open the charging IGBT switch of respective battery bag branch road, battery core serial charging in each branch road, described battery management system main frame is by the SOC state detecting the voltage of single core lithium battery, charging current, temperature monitor battery, when monitor a certain branch road be full of after the corresponding IGBT switch of shutoff, other branch roads continue charging, until all branch roads are all full of.
3. the control method of the control device of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group combination unit as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described discharge mode is as follows: during electric discharge, battery management system main frame decides the discharge mode of this branch road according to the SOC state of each power brick branch road of present battery group and health status; After electric discharge request received by battery management system main frame, control the output amount of respective branch according to the current state of each power brick branch road; According to each power brick branch road SOC from high to low, health status, by arranging to bad order well, determines that the electric discharge of each power brick branch road exports amount to battery management system main frame; The power brick branch road that SOC capacity is large, health status is good normally exports, and the power brick branch road degradation that SOC capacity is little, health status is bad exports; By battery management system main frame output pwm signal controlled discharge IGBT switch, analyze SOC state and the health status of present battery bag branch road, when needs degradation exports, the duty ratio of adjustment pwm signal adjusts the actual switch time of discharge IGBT switch, to reach the object of the output of adjustment power brick branch road; The switch of each power brick branch road is Parallel Control, the discharge IGBT switch motion of Synchronization Control power brick branch road.
4. the control method of the control device of electric vehicle low-voltage high-current lithium battery group combination unit as claimed in claim 1, be is characterized in that: described discharge mode, in practical operation, is realized by the duty ratio of controlled discharge IGBT switch; Battery management system main frame decides the duty ratio of each branch road according to the SOC state of current each power brick branch road.
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