CN103163324A - Detecting system and measuring method of three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed temperature of wind power plant - Google Patents

Detecting system and measuring method of three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed temperature of wind power plant Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103163324A
CN103163324A CN2013100812654A CN201310081265A CN103163324A CN 103163324 A CN103163324 A CN 103163324A CN 2013100812654 A CN2013100812654 A CN 2013100812654A CN 201310081265 A CN201310081265 A CN 201310081265A CN 103163324 A CN103163324 A CN 103163324A
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China
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ultrasonic
wind speed
temperature
ultrasonic transducer
wind
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CN103163324B (en
Inventor
汪宁渤
夏慧
刘光途
刘国强
路亮
黄欣
马彦宏
李士强
赵龙
李艳红
王定美
邓棋文
马明
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Institute of Electrical Engineering of CAS
State Grid Gansu Electric Power Co Ltd
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Institute of Electrical Engineering of CAS
State Grid Gansu Electric Power Co Ltd
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Abstract

Provided are a detecting system and a measuring method of three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed temperature of a wind power plant. The detecting system is mainly composed of a base seat (1), an ultrasonic energy converter array, a supporting frame component, an electric circuit module and an upper computer, wherein the supporting frame component is fixed on the base seat (1), the ultrasonic energy converter array is installed on a supporting component, ultrasonic energy converters are connected with the electric circuit module, signals sent and received by the ultrasonic energy converters are fed into the upper computer (22) after the signals are processed by the electric circuit module, and the upper computer (22) can achieve functions of collecting wind speed wind direction temperature and analyzing the wind speed temperature and processes and stores data. Six ultrasonic energy converters of the ultrasonic energy converter array are divided into three groups, and the three groups are arranged in included angles of 120degrees, and furthermore two ultrasonic energy converters of each group of ultrasonic energy converters are oppositely arranged, alternately send ultrasonic signals, and receive ultrasonic signals sent by ultrasonic energy converters which are arranged oppositely to the two ultrasonic energy converters.

Description

A kind of wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature and measuring method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of ultrasonic measuring device, be specifically related to a kind of pick-up unit that utilizes ultrasonic measurement wind energy turbine set three-dimensional velocity, temperature.
Background technology
Along with the fast development of global economy, the demand of the energy is growing, and the energy security problem is by extensive concern.Wind energy is as a kind of pollution-free and contain the energy of huge energy, and its exploitation are subject to people and pay close attention to.The total amount of whole world wind energy is about 1.3*105GW according to statistics, and the main form of utilizing of wind energy is wind-power electricity generation, and the Global Wind-energy industry is just with annual 20% speedup expansion, and the wind energy industry gross output value in 2015 will increase to 5 times of current level.Although the Wind Power Utilization rapid development, it is still higher that the wind power generation cost is compared the current cost of other energy, and one of them major reason is exactly the stability problem of wind power generation.Randomness because wind speed changes, want to obtain maximum generation power, and the variation that just need to follow wind is controlled in real time blower fan and generated electricity, so precise real-time detection wind speed, wind direction are particularly important.
With traditional wind speed and direction equipment, compare, ultrasonic wind speed, wind direction detection system have measuring speed fast, accurately high, measurement range is wide, easy care, that wind speed starts threshold value is low.The advantage such as not needing to calibrate constantly, also have a wide range of applications at aspects such as Meteorological Services, commercial production, is a kind of very important surveying instrument.And utilize high-precision air-flow, temperature real time data can realize three-dimensional air-flow, the reconstruction of temperature flow field picture, meet the demand of wind energy turbine set to local ambient wind velocity wind direction and Temperature Distribution.Chinese patent 200810101288.6 " method of ultrasonic wind velocity indicator and utilization ultrasonic measurement wind speed and direction " can only be measured two-D wind speed.Chinese patent 201010608611.6 " a kind of wind power generating set ultrasonic wind speed and direction measuring device " also only can be measured two-D wind speed, wind direction; Chinese patent 201110123546.2 " the three-dimensional wind detection method of ultrasound wave and three-dimensional ultrasonic anemoclinograph " can obtain tri-dimensional wind speed wind direction, but can not obtain temperature parameter simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to overcome the existing three-dimensional ultrasonic detection technique deficiency of measuring wind, temperature simultaneously, propose a kind of new three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed, wind direction, temperature measuring equipment and measuring method thereof.The present invention has broad application prospects in fields such as environment, the energy and meteorologies.
The present invention is by the following technical solutions:
Wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature principle of the present invention is: adopt direct time difference method, utilize wind speed and the ultrasonic velocity of the difference calculating ultrasonic wave propagation path direction of ultrasonic signal forward-propagating time and backpropagation time.Utilize three pairs of nonopiate ultrasonic transducers, obtain respectively the wind speed component of three nonopiate directions, then by calculating comprehensive wind speed and direction.Last according to the relation between ultrasonic velocity, steam dividing potential drop, atmospheric pressure and absolute temperature, under known steam dividing potential drop and atmospheric condition, by the ultrasonic velocity calculated, can calculate corresponding temperature value.
Wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature of the present invention mainly is comprised of base, ultrasound transducer array, bracket assembly, circuit module and host computer.Described bracket assembly is fixed on base, described ultrasound transducer array is arranged on supporting component, ultrasonic transducer is connected with circuit module, and the signal of ultrasonic transducer sending and receiving is sent into host computer and processed and store after circuit module is processed.
Described base mainly plays fixation, and according to tested surrounding environment, base can be circle or square, can be also other arbitrary shape, and purpose is guarantee bracket assembly and ultrasound transducer array stable.Ultrasound transducer array comprises 6 ultrasonic transducers, and 6 ultrasonic transducers are a pair of in twos is divided into three groups, becomes 120 ° of angles between three groups.Two ultrasonic transducer alternate emission ultrasonic signals in each group ultrasonic transducer, and receive the ultrasonic signal that the ultrasonic transducer of subtend layout sends with it.Described bracket assembly mainly is comprised of stainless steel cylinder, bracing frame and 6 gage beams.The bottom of stainless steel cylinder is fixed by screws on base, and the top of stainless steel cylinder connects bracing frame, and the central shaft of stainless steel cask is vertical with base.Bracing frame is C shape structure, and the two ends up and down of bracing frame connect respectively 3 gage beams.Described 6 gage beams are divided into two groups, one group of upper end that is fixed on bracing frame, and another group is fixed on the lower end of bracing frame.The bending of gage beam camber, the other end of gage beam connects ultrasonic transducer, and three groups of ultrasonic transducers facing each other become 120 ° of angles.Described bracing frame and gage beam inside are cavity, and the wire be connected between ultrasonic transducer and circuit module is through this cavity.
Described circuit module comprises CPU (central processing unit), ultrasonic drive circuit, ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit, signal condition unit, serial port driving unit, host computer and power supply unit.The control end of CPU (central processing unit) connects the control end of ultrasonic drive circuit and the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit.Power supply unit connects the power input of CPU (central processing unit), ultrasonic drive circuit, ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit, signal condition unit and serial port driving unit, is each unit power supply of circuit module.The input end of signal condition unit directly connects the output terminal of ultrasonic transducer, and the output terminal of signal condition unit connects the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit.The control end of serial port driving unit connects CPU (central processing unit), and connects host computer by serial ports.Signal transmission form is as follows: at first the control signal of CPU (central processing unit) emission is sent to control end and the corresponding counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit of ultrasonic drive circuit simultaneously.When ultrasonic drive circuit drives ultrasonic transducer emission ultrasonic signal, the corresponding counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit starts counting.The ultrasonic transducer of arranging with the ultrasonic transducer subtend of emission ultrasonic signal receives ultrasonic signal, send into the signal condition unit and carry out preposition amplification and filtering, trigger transmitting-receiving treatment circuit counting unit and stop counting, then by CPU (central processing unit) according to the distance between two ultrasonic transducers of the counting of counting unit and sending and receiving ultrasonic signal, calculate wind speed, wind direction, temperature parameter in conjunction with wind speed and direction temperature computation algorithm.The serial port driving unit of the wind speed finally, calculated, wind direction and temperature parameter process CPU (central processing unit) is transferred to host computer and is shown and store.
Described wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature adopts the fpga chip of the STM32F103RBT6 of STM32 family and altera corp as CPU (central processing unit), controls ultrasonic drive circuit, ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit, signal condition unit and serial port driving unit.The signal input part of at first described ultrasonic drive circuit receives the control command of CPU (central processing unit), produce the drive pulse signal that drives ultrasonic transducer, and order ultrasonic transducer emission ultrasonic signal, the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit receives the control command of CPU (central processing unit) simultaneously, produce count pulse, the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit starts counting, the ultrasonic transducer of the ultrasonic transducer positioned opposite for the treatment of and launching receives ultrasonic signal, through carrying out preposition amplification in the signal condition unit, after secondary amplification and filtering, the flip-flop number unit makes counting unit stop counting, obtain the count value that ultrasonic signal is propagated from being transmitted into reception, CPU (central processing unit) calculates wind speed by wind speed and direction temperature computation unit, wind direction, temperature value.Serial port driving unit is transferred to the wind speed and direction temperature data calculated host computer and carries out real-time demonstration and the storage of data by the wind speed and direction temperature collecting cell by serial ports.Power supply unit converts the 220V alternating current of input to wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature each several part needed voltage.
Described ultrasonic drive circuit is the important component part of wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature, drives signal directly to affect the quality that receives signal.Ultrasonic drive circuit must be complementary with the ultrasonic transducer parameter.The ultrasonic transducer centre frequency of selecting in the present invention is 400KHz, ultrasonic drive circuit adopts MOSFET to drive chip, with bipolar transistor, compare, MOSFET drives chip to have that switching speed is fast, conducting resistance is low, control the advantages such as flexible, produce pulse signal by CPU (central processing unit) FPGA and drive chip to produce the instantaneous pressure that can drive ultrasonic transducer by controlling MOSFET, make ultrasonic transducer produce ultrasonic signal.When by FPGA, producing pulse signal, be also that the counting unit of FPGA produces an enable signal, start counting.The signal condition unit comprises pre-amplification circuit, second amplifying circuit and filtering circuit, the input end of pre-amplification circuit connects the output terminal of ultrasonic transducer, output terminal connects the input end of second amplifying circuit, and the output terminal of second amplifying circuit connects the input end of filtering circuit.The aerial decay of ultrasonic signal is very large, therefore be transmitted into the ultrasonic transducer reception on opposite after the transmission range of 12cm from ultrasonic transducer, the ultrasonic signal that ultrasonic transducer receives is very faint, it is only the mV magnitude, therefore need to be amplified signal, the present invention selects the main chip of OPA2134 as pre-amplification circuit, this chip has following technical characterstic: voltage gain is 120dB, gain bandwidth (GB) 8MHz, supply voltage ± 2.5V to ± 18V is adjustable, the supply voltage adopted in the present invention is ± 5V.The pre-amplification circuit that adopts mutual conductance to amplify mode after the ultrasonic signal that ultrasonic transducer receives is amplified; the input end of amplifier adopts and holds the resistance coupling, low frequency signal is carried out to filtering, and adopt amplitude limit mode in parallel; utilize diode pair to drive signal to carry out amplitude limit, guard amplifier.The signal be exaggerated is again after the capable of regulating second amplifying circuit carries out the secondary amplification, carry out the laggard signal input part that enters ultrasound wave transmitting-receiving treatment circuit of filtering through 4 rank Butterworth bandwidth-limited circuits, because this signal is simulating signal, therefore at first through the dual channel high speed voltage comparator, obtain the Transistor-Transistor Logic level signal.Signal amplitude after high speed voltage comparator is 5V, and the pin input signal of FPGA is 3.3V, delivers to the FPGA system of CPU (central processing unit) after therefore signal being isolated, as the stop signal of counting unit.The function of counting unit is to measure from ultrasonic transducer to transmit signals to the aerial transmission time of ultrasound wave the process that ultrasonic transducer receives signal, measuring method is to utilize a reference clock to go actuation counter, stop counting when receiving stop signal, obtain count pulse, thereby obtain Measuring Time.
The STM32F103RBT6 of CPU (central processing unit) has higher data-handling capacity, controls driving force and powerful circuit interface designed capacity, therefore the time that the present invention calculates each group ultrasonic transducer deposits in chip STM32F103RBT6, obtain the tri-dimensional wind speed wind direction value by time difference method, and obtain temperature value by the method for searching, the computing method of concrete wind speed and direction temperature computation unit are described below:
In the present invention, the first ultrasonic transducer is relative with the 6th ultrasonic transducer, the hyperacoustic time from the other side that the first ultrasonic transducer and the 6th ultrasonic transducer utilize the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit to measure respectively to receive.
In the present invention, the second ultrasonic transducer is relative with the 5th ultrasonic transducer, the hyperacoustic time from the other side that the second ultrasonic transducer and the 5th ultrasonic transducer utilize the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit to measure respectively to receive.
In the present invention, the 3rd ultrasonic transducer is relative with the 4th ultrasonic transducer, the hyperacoustic time from the other side that the 3rd ultrasonic transducer and the 4th ultrasonic transducer utilize the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit to measure respectively to receive.
It is V1 with the wind speed on the relative rectilinear direction of the 6th ultrasonic transducer that the present invention utilizes time difference method to calculate respectively the first ultrasonic transducer, the second ultrasonic transducer is V2 with the wind speed on the relative rectilinear direction of the 5th ultrasonic transducer, the 3rd ultrasonic transducer is V3 with the wind speed on the relative rectilinear direction of the 4th ultrasonic transducer, then according to the orientation of setting up of wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature, determine V1, V2, tri-direction projections in the horizontal direction of V3 and the angle of geographical co-ordinate system, suppose that angle is θ, can calculate and calculate horizontal direction parallel wind speed V xwith vertical velocity V yand the wind speed V of vertical direction z:
Wherein for the angle of ultrasonic transducer and central vertical shaft, in the present invention be 60 °.
Known V x, V y, V z, can obtain mean wind speed V and horizontal wind angle φ:
V = V x 2 + V y 2 + V z 2
φ = arctan ( V x V y )
The measurement of temperature: the propagation of the velocity of sound depends on the absolute temperature of air, when rough thinking do not rely on atmospheric pressure and when weak with the dependence of air humidity yet.The corresponding relation of velocity of sound c and temperature T can be expressed as:
c = 331.5 m / s × 1 + T / 273.15
Wherein c is the ultrasonic velocity calculated.
If ignore the correlativity between the velocity of sound and air humidity, utilize the dry air that reference air humidity is 0% to be supposed:
T v=c 2/402.31466-273.15
C is wind speed, T vfor the virtual temperature obtained is calculated in ultrasonic measurement.But virtual temperature compared with normal temperature is high, an approximate relation is arranged between them:
T r=T v-0.135K*m 3/g*a
T wherein rthe actual air temperature, T vbe the virtual temperature of measuring by ultrasonic equipment, a is the quality of hydrone in every cubic metres of air, and unit is g.For the air themperature of 20 ℃, when relative humidity is 100%, the high 2K of about virtual temperature meeting, therefore, the present invention avoids measuring temperature to obtain larger error, and then according to the situation of change of surveyed area chemical composition over the years, the virtual temperature calculated is compensated, and obtains temperature value.
Described host computer mainly completes wind speed and direction temperature acquisition and 2 functions of wind speed temperature analysis.The wind speed and direction temperature acquisition is for real-time demonstration and the storage of the wind speed, wind direction and the temperature that are gathered.Can preserve in real time wind speed, wind direction, temperature value when carrying out data acquisition, during preservation, according to time sequencing, preserve into textual form.Three-dimensional wind direction shows in real time by the three-dimensional coordinate mode, and three-dimensional velocity, mean wind speed, temperature and ultrasonic velocity show by icon and two kinds of modes of numeral.Wind speed temperature analysis function dynamically shows and analyzes at wind speed, the temperature data of co-altitude collection mainly for many typhoons electric field three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature.Analytic function can be realized analysis and the dynamically demonstration continuously of wind speed and the temperature data of 20*20 different acquisition point.The size that shows data utilizes color to mean, the setting of data area can be adjusted according to actual wind speed, temperature value.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 wind energy turbine set ultrasonic wind speed Bracket for Inspection;
Fig. 3 wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature principle schematic;
1 base, 2 stainless steel cylinders, 3 bracing frames, 4 first gage beams, 5 first ultrasonic transducers, 6 second gage beams, 7 second ultrasonic transducers, 8 the 3rd gage beams, 9 the 3rd ultrasonic transducers, 10 the 4th ultrasonic transducers, 11 the 4th gage beams, 12 the 5th ultrasonic transducers, 13 the 5th gage beams, 14 the 6th gage beams, 15 the 6th ultrasonic transducers, 16 bracing frames, 17 ultrasonic drive circuits, 18 ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuits, 19 signal condition unit, 20 CPU (central processing unit), 21 serial port driving units, 22 host computers, 23 power supply units.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention will be further described.
A kind of wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature mainly is comprised of base 1, ultrasound transducer array, bracket assembly, circuit module and host computer.Described bracket assembly is fixed on base 1, described ultrasound transducer array is arranged on supporting component, ultrasonic transducer is connected with circuit module, and the ultrasonic signal of ultrasonic transducer sending and receiving is sent into host computer 22 and processed and store after circuit module is processed.
The main fixation that rises of described base 1, according to tested surrounding environment, base 1 can be circular or square, can be also other arbitrary shape, purpose is guarantee bracket assembly and ultrasound transducer array stable.Ultrasound transducer array comprises 6 ultrasonic transducers, is respectively the first ultrasonic waves transducer 5, the second ultrasonic waves transducer 7, the 3rd ultrasonic waves transducer 9, the 4th ultrasonic waves transducer 10, the 5th ultrasonic waves transducer 12, the 6th ultrasonic waves transducer 15.6 ultrasonic transducers, in twos with respect to being divided into into three groups, become 120 ° of angles between three groups.Two ultrasonic transducer alternate emission ultrasonic signals in each group ultrasonic transducer, and receive the ultrasonic signal that the opposite ultrasonic transducer sends.Wherein the first ultrasonic waves transducer 5,9 one-tenth 120 ° of angles of the second ultrasonic waves transducer 7 and the 3rd ultrasonic waves transducer, be positioned at the lower end of C shape bracing frame 3.The 4th ultrasonic waves transducer 10,15 one-tenth 120 ° of angles of the 5th ultrasonic waves transducer 12 and the 6th ultrasonic waves transducer, be positioned at the upper end of C shape bracing frame 3.Three ultrasonic transducers in each group become 120 ° of angles.The first ultrasonic transducer 5 is relative with the 6th ultrasonic transducer 15, the second ultrasonic transducer 7 is relative with the 5th ultrasonic transducer 12, the 3rd ultrasonic transducer 9 is relative with the 4th ultrasonic transducer 10, and the distance between ultrasonic transducer facing each other is consistent, is 12cm.Guarantee two ultrasonic transducer alternate emission ultrasonic signals in ultrasonic transducer facing each other simultaneously and receive the ultrasonic signal of opposite ultrasonic transducer.
Described bracket assembly mainly is comprised of stainless steel cylinder 2, bracing frame 3 and 6 gage beams.The bottom of stainless steel cylinder 2 is connected by screw base 1, and the top of stainless steel cylinder 2 connects bracing frame 3, and the central shaft of stainless steel cask 2 is vertical with base 1.Bracing frame 3 is C shape structure, and the two ends up and down of bracing frame 3 connect respectively 3 gage beams.Bracing frame 3 can be also other structure.As shown in Figure 2, the lower end of bracing frame 16 is connected with the upper end of stainless steel cylinder 2.Described 6 gage beams are respectively the first gage beam 4, the second gage beam 6, the 3rd gage beam 8, the 4th gage beam 11, the 5th gage beam 13, the 6th gage beam 14.6 gage beams are divided into two groups, wherein the first gage beam 4, the second gage beam 6 and the 3rd gage beam 8 are one group, be fixed on the lower end of bracing frame 3, the 4th gage beam 11, the 5th gage beam 13 and the 6th gage beam 14 are one group, be fixed on the upper end of bracing frame 3, the other end of 6 described gage beams connects ultrasonic transducer.The angled bending of gage beam, guarantee that three groups of ultrasonic transducers facing each other become 120 ° of angles.Described bracing frame 3 is cavity with gage beam inside, and the wire be connected between ultrasonic transducer and circuit module passes this cavity.
As shown in Figure 3, described circuit module comprises CPU (central processing unit) 20, ultrasonic drive circuit 17, ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18, signal condition unit 19, serial port driving unit 21 and power supply unit 23.Circuit module is placed in stainless steel cylinder 2, and circuit module is connected with ultrasonic transducer by wire.The control end of CPU (central processing unit) 20 connects the control end of ultrasonic drive circuit 17 and the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18.Power supply unit 23 connects the power input of CPU (central processing unit) 20, ultrasonic drive circuit 17, ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18, signal condition unit 19 and serial port driving unit 21, is each unit power supply of circuit module.The input end of signal condition unit 19 connects the output terminal of ultrasonic transducer, and the output terminal of signal condition unit connects the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18.The control end of serial port driving unit 21 connects CPU (central processing unit) 20, and connects host computer 22 by serial ports.Signal transmission form is as follows, at first the control signal of CPU (central processing unit) 19 emissions is delivered to the control end of ultrasonic drive circuit 17 and the corresponding counts unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 simultaneously, when ultrasonic drive circuit 17 drives ultrasonic transducer emission ultrasonic signal, the corresponding counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 starts counting.The ultrasonic transducer of arranging with the ultrasonic transducer subtend of emission ultrasonic signal receives ultrasonic signal, send into signal condition unit 19 and carry out preposition amplification and filtering, the counting unit that triggers ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 stops counting, then by CPU (central processing unit) 20 according to the distance between two ultrasonic transducers of the counting of counting unit and transmission and received ultrasonic signal, calculate wind speed, wind direction, temperature parameter in conjunction with wind speed and direction temperature computation algorithm.The serial port driving unit 21 of the wind speed finally, calculated, wind direction and temperature parameter process CPU (central processing unit) 20 is transferred to host computer 22 and is shown and store.
Described wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature adopts the fpga chip of the STM32F103RBT6 of STM32 family and altera corp as CPU (central processing unit) 20, controls ultrasonic drive circuit 17, ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18, signal condition unit 19 and serial port driving unit 21.The signal input part of at first described ultrasonic drive circuit 17 receives the control command of CPU (central processing unit) 20, produce the drive pulse signal that drives ultrasonic transducer, and order ultrasonic transducer emission ultrasonic signal, the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 receives the control command of CPU (central processing unit) 20 simultaneously, produce count pulse, the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 starts counting, the ultrasonic transducer of the ultrasonic transducer positioned opposite for the treatment of and launching receives ultrasonic signal, through carrying out preposition amplification in signal condition unit 19, after secondary amplification and filtering, the flip-flop number unit makes counting unit stop counting, obtain the count value that ultrasonic signal is propagated from being transmitted into reception, CPU (central processing unit) 20 calculates wind speed by wind speed and direction temperature computation unit, wind direction, temperature value.Serial port driving unit 21 is transferred to by serial port drive circuit 21 real-time demonstration and the storage that host computer 22 carries out data to the wind speed and direction temperature data calculated.Power supply unit 23 converts the 220V alternating current of input to wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature each several part needed voltage.
Described ultrasonic drive circuit 17 is important component parts of wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature, drives signal directly to affect the quality that receives signal.Ultrasonic drive circuit must be complementary with the ultrasonic transducer parameter.The ultrasonic transducer centre frequency of selecting in the present invention is 400KHz, ultrasonic drive circuit 17 adopts MOSFET to drive chip, with bipolar transistor, compare, MOSFET drives chip to have that switching speed is fast, conducting resistance is low, control the advantages such as flexible, produce pulse signal by CPU (central processing unit) 20FPGA and drive chip to produce the instantaneous pressure that can drive ultrasonic transducer by controlling MOSFET, make ultrasonic transducer produce ultrasonic signal.When by FPGA, producing pulse signal, be also that the counting unit of FPGA produces an enable signal, start counting.Signal condition unit 19 comprises pre-amplification circuit, second amplifying circuit and filtering circuit, the input end of pre-amplification circuit connects the output terminal of ultrasonic transducer, output terminal connects the input end of second amplifying circuit, and the output terminal of second amplifying circuit connects the input end of filtering circuit.The aerial decay of ultrasonic signal is very large, therefore being transmitted into the opposite ultrasonic transducer from ultrasonic transducer receives after the transmission range of 12cm, the ultrasonic signal that ultrasonic transducer receives is very faint, it is only the mV magnitude, therefore need to be amplified signal, the present invention selects the main chip of OPA2134 as pre-amplification circuit, this chip has following technical characterstic: voltage gain is 120dB, gain bandwidth (GB) 8MHz, supply voltage ± 2.5V to ± 18V is adjustable, the supply voltage adopted in the present invention is ± 5V.The pre-amplification circuit that adopts mutual conductance to amplify mode after the ultrasonic signal that ultrasonic transducer receives is amplified; the input end of amplifier adopts and holds the resistance coupling, low frequency signal is carried out to filtering, and adopt amplitude limit mode in parallel; utilize diode pair to drive signal to carry out amplitude limit, guard amplifier.The signal be exaggerated is again after the capable of regulating second amplifying circuit carries out the secondary amplification, carry out the laggard signal input part that enters ultrasound wave transmitting-receiving treatment circuit 18 of filtering through 4 rank Butterworth bandwidth-limited circuits, because this signal is simulating signal, therefore at first through the dual channel high speed voltage comparator, obtain the Transistor-Transistor Logic level signal.Signal amplitude after high speed voltage comparator is 5V, and the pin input signal of FPGA is 3.3V, delivers to the FPGA system of CPU (central processing unit) 20 after therefore signal being isolated, as the stop signal of counting unit.The function of counting unit is to measure from ultrasonic transducer to transmit signals to the aerial transmission time of ultrasound wave the process that ultrasonic transducer receives signal.
CPU (central processing unit) STM32F103RBT6 has higher data-handling capacity, controls driving force and powerful circuit interface designed capacity, therefore the time that the present invention calculates each group ultrasonic transducer deposits in STM32F103RBT6, obtain the tri-dimensional wind speed wind direction value by time difference method, and obtain temperature value by the method for searching, circular is described below:
In the present invention, the first ultrasonic transducer 5 is relative with the 6th ultrasonic transducer 15, the hyperacoustic time from the other side that the first ultrasonic transducer 5 and the 6th ultrasonic transducer 15 utilize the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 to measure respectively to receive.
In the present invention, the second ultrasonic transducer 7 is relative with the 5th ultrasonic transducer 12, the hyperacoustic time from the other side that the second ultrasonic transducer 7 and the 5th ultrasonic transducer 12 utilize the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit 18 to measure respectively to receive.
In the present invention, the 3rd ultrasonic transducer 9 is relative with the 4th ultrasonic transducer 14, the hyperacoustic time from the other side that the 3rd ultrasonic transducer 9 and the 4th ultrasonic transducer 14 utilize the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit to measure respectively to receive.
It is V1 with the wind speed on the relative rectilinear direction of the 6th ultrasonic transducer 15 that the present invention utilizes time difference method to calculate respectively the first ultrasonic transducer 5, the second ultrasonic transducer 7 is V2 with the wind speed on the relative rectilinear direction of the 5th ultrasonic transducer 12, the 3rd ultrasonic transducer 9 is V3 with the wind speed on the relative rectilinear direction of the 4th ultrasonic transducer 14, then according to the orientation of setting up of wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature, determine V1, V2, tri-direction projections in the horizontal direction of V3 and the angle of geographical co-ordinate system, suppose that angle is θ, can calculate can calculate and calculate horizontal direction parallel wind speed V xwith vertical velocity V yand the wind speed V of vertical direction z:
Wherein for the angle of ultrasonic transducer and central vertical shaft, in the present invention be 60 °.
Known V x, V y, V z, can obtain mean wind speed V and horizontal wind angle φ:
V = V x 2 + V y 2 + V z 2
φ = arctan ( V x V y )
The measurement of temperature: the propagation of the velocity of sound depends on the absolute temperature of air, when rough thinking do not rely on atmospheric pressure and when weak with the dependence of air humidity yet.The corresponding relation of velocity of sound c and temperature T can be expressed as:
c = 331.5 m / s × 1 + T / 273.15
Wherein c is the ultrasonic velocity calculated.
If ignore the correlativity between the velocity of sound and air humidity, utilize the dry air that reference air humidity is 0% to be supposed:
T v=c 2/402.31466-273.15
C is wind speed, T vfor the virtual temperature obtained is calculated in ultrasonic measurement.But virtual temperature compared with normal temperature is high, an approximate relation is arranged between them:
T r=T v-0.135K*m 3/g*a
T wherein rthe actual air temperature, T vbe the virtual temperature of measuring by ultrasonic equipment, a is the quality of hydrone in every cubic metres of air, and unit is g.For the air themperature of 20 ℃, when relative humidity is 100%, the high 2K of about virtual temperature meeting, therefore, the present invention avoids measuring temperature to obtain larger error, and then according to the situation of change of surveyed area chemical composition over the years, the virtual temperature calculated is compensated, and obtains temperature value.
Described host computer 22 mainly completes wind speed and direction temperature acquisition and 2 functions of wind speed temperature analysis.The wind speed and direction temperature acquisition is for real-time demonstration and the storage of the wind speed, wind direction and the temperature that are gathered.Can preserve in real time wind speed, wind direction, temperature value when carrying out data acquisition, during preservation, according to time sequencing, preserve into textual form.Three-dimensional wind direction shows in real time by the three-dimensional coordinate mode, and three-dimensional velocity, mean wind speed, temperature and ultrasonic velocity show by icon and two kinds of modes of numeral.Wind speed temperature analysis function dynamically shows and analyzes at wind speed, the temperature data of co-altitude collection mainly for many typhoons electric field three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature.Analytic function can be realized analysis and the dynamically demonstration continuously of wind speed and the temperature data of 20*20 different acquisition point.The size that shows data utilizes color to mean, the setting of data area can be adjusted according to actual wind speed, temperature value.

Claims (7)

1. a wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature, is characterized in that, described detection system mainly is comprised of base (1), ultrasound transducer array, bracket assembly, circuit module and host computer; Described bracket assembly is fixed on base (1), described ultrasound transducer array is arranged on supporting component, ultrasonic transducer is connected with circuit module, the signal of ultrasonic transducer sending and receiving is sent into host computer (22) after circuit module is processed, host computer (22) is realized the function of wind speed and direction temperature acquisition and wind speed temperature analysis, and carries out data processing and storage.
2. wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described ultrasound transducer array comprises 6 ultrasonic transducers, 6 ultrasonic transducers are divided into three groups, between three groups, become 120 ° of angles to arrange: two ultrasonic transducer positioned opposite in each group ultrasonic transducer, the alternate emission ultrasonic signal, and receive the ultrasonic signal that the ultrasonic transducer of subtend layout sends with it.
3. wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described bracket assembly is comprised of stainless steel cylinder (2), bracing frame (3) and 6 gage beams; It is upper that the bottom of stainless steel cylinder (2) is fixed on base (1), and the top of stainless steel cylinder (2) connects bracing frame (3), and the central shaft of stainless steel cask (2) is vertical with (1); Circuit module is placed in stainless steel cylinder (2); Bracing frame (3) is C shape structure; Described 6 gage beams are divided into two groups, one group of upper end that is fixed on bracing frame (3), and another group is fixed on the lower end of bracing frame (3); The bending of gage beam camber, the other end of gage beam connects ultrasonic transducer; Described bracing frame (3) and gage beam inside are cavity, and the wire be connected between ultrasonic transducer and circuit module passes this cavity.
4. wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, in described 6 gage beams, the first gage beam (4), the second gage beam (6) and the 3rd gage beam (8) are one group, be fixed on the lower end of bracing frame (3): the 4th gage beam (11), the 5th gage beam (13) and the 6th gage beam (14) are another group, are fixed on the upper end of bracing frame (3).
5. wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described circuit module comprises CPU (central processing unit) (20), ultrasonic drive circuit (17), ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit (18), signal condition unit (19), serial port driving unit (21) and power supply unit (23); Circuit module is placed in stainless steel cylinder (2), and circuit module is connected with ultrasonic transducer by wire; The control end of CPU (central processing unit) (20) connects the control end of ultrasonic drive circuit (17) and the counting unit of ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit (18); Power supply unit (23) connects the power input of CPU (central processing unit) (20), ultrasonic drive circuit (17), ultrasonic transmission/reception treatment circuit (18), signal condition unit (19) and serial port driving unit (21), is each unit power supply of circuit module.
6. application rights requires 1 described detection system to measure the method for temperature, it is characterized in that, described method is the corresponding relation utilized between the velocity of sound and virtual temperature, according to the velocity of sound calculated, further calculate virtual temperature, in the situation that known measured zone chemical composition over the years compensates the virtual temperature calculated by the method for searching, obtain temperature value.
7. the method for measurement temperature according to claim 6, it is characterized in that, described measurement temperature methods is to utilize time difference method to calculate respectively the first ultrasonic transducer (5) and wind speed V1 on the relative rectilinear direction of the 6th ultrasonic transducer (15), the second ultrasonic transducer (7) and wind speed V2 on the relative rectilinear direction of the 5th ultrasonic transducer (12), the 3rd ultrasonic transducer (9) and wind speed V3 on the relative rectilinear direction of the 4th ultrasonic transducer (14); Then according to the orientation of setting up of described wind energy turbine set three-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed system for detecting temperature, determine tri-direction projections in the horizontal direction of wind speed V1, wind speed V2 and wind speed V3 and the angle of geographical co-ordinate system, suppose that angle is θ, calculates horizontal direction parallel wind speed V xwith vertical velocity V yand the wind speed V of vertical direction z:
Wherein for the angle of ultrasonic transducer and central vertical shaft, in the present invention be 60 °;
Known V x, V y, V z, can obtain mean wind speed V and horizontal wind angle φ:
V = V x 2 + V y 2 + V z 2
φ = arctan ( V x V y )
Utilize the dry air that reference air humidity is 0% to be supposed:
T v=c 2/402.31466-273.15
Wherein c is the velocity of sound T calculated vfor the virtual temperature obtained is calculated in ultrasonic measurement; Approximate pass between virtual temperature and normal temperature is:
T r=T v-0.135K*m 3/g*a
T wherein rthe actual air temperature, T vbe the virtual temperature of measuring by ultrasonic equipment, a is the quality of hydrone in every cubic metres of air; And then according to the situation of change of surveyed area chemical composition over the years, the virtual temperature calculated is compensated, obtain temperature value.
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CN103472252A (en) * 2013-09-17 2013-12-25 国家电网公司 Ultrasonic wind speed measurement device based on bus communication mode
CN103884863A (en) * 2014-02-21 2014-06-25 国家电网公司 Monitoring device and monitoring method for monitoring wind power plant supersonic wave wind speed based on FPGA
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