CN103089533B - 潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置 - Google Patents

潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置 Download PDF

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CN103089533B
CN103089533B CN201310050514.3A CN201310050514A CN103089533B CN 103089533 B CN103089533 B CN 103089533B CN 201310050514 A CN201310050514 A CN 201310050514A CN 103089533 B CN103089533 B CN 103089533B
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sea water
energy
seawater
desalination
water
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CN103089533A (zh
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宿晓辉
赵广
刘艳
宗智
贺高红
李明强
郭嘉楠
杨冉升
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Dalian University of Technology
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    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
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    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
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Abstract

一种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,属于海洋能源开发和海水淡化领域。这种海水淡化及发电装置用水轮机驱动设置在泵室中的海水增压泵,海水增压泵向采用非稳态反渗透膜的海水淡化装置、液流电池供给预处理后的海水,压力海水渗过非稳态反渗透膜进行海水淡化,浓盐水进入液流电池进行发电。该海水淡化及发电装置采用水轮机直接增压,通过非稳态增压操作,实现海水在高压范围内无规则变化,从而在不平整的膜表面形成湍动,显著降低了浓差极化,因此大大降低了反渗透压力,从而提高海水淡化效率;采用潮流能-机械能-压力能的简洁、有效循环模式,而仍有一定压力的浓盐水在液流电池中驱动泵旋转,转化为电能存储,实现了潮流能的高效、充分利用。

Description

潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置
技术领域
[0001] 本发明属于海洋可再生能源开发和海水淡化领域,涉及一种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置。
背景技术
[0002] 能源和环境是人类可持续发展面临的重大问题,随着对能源资源的开发日趋激烈,在环境污染加重的同时环保压力也随之增大,世界各国政府都对可再生能源与清洁能源的开发利用给予了高度重视。海洋蕴藏着巨大的可再生清洁能源(如波浪能、潮流能、风能、太阳能等)和资源(如海水等),开发应用前景分广阔,海洋能源和资源的开发和利用是建设资源节约型和环境友好型社会的重要基础。
[0003] 随着淡水资源稀缺性的日益突显,各国对海水的利用越来越重视。尤其是对于海岛、海上钻井平台等,对电力和淡水依赖程度高,能源、资源匮乏,开发利用成本高。即使在岛屿密集海域,集中修建大型海水淡化和发电基础设施,其投入成本高,风险大,且共享困难。
[0004] 风、光及海潮流清洁能源海水淡化装置(申请号201010198014.0),采用风力发电机组、太阳能电池板和海潮流发电装置共同为海水淡化装置提供电能,进行海水淡化,使海水淡化装置不再受电力供应的限制;但该发明中风能、海流能分别通过风力涡轮和浮球转变为机械能,机械能通过发电机转化为电能,电能通过蓄电池存储,蓄电池中的电能通过电动机转化为高压泵的机械能为海水增压,因此整个循环效率极低。采用浮球吸收海流中波浪的能量,而未采用水轮机利用海流中潮流能。反渗透法海水淡化以后,浓水直接排放而余压没有回收,海水淡化能耗高。综上,该发明循环效率低,海水淡化本身效率低。
[0005] 利用潮汐能驱动的海水淡化及发电的方法与装置(申请号201010581552.8),它利用涨潮时大海中的高位海水在流向蓄水池内的过程中冲击水轮机转动和/或退潮后蓄水池中的高位海水在流向大海的过程中冲击水轮机转动,水轮机带动高压泵工作产生高压海水,高压海水经过反渗透膜组件淡化,从反渗透膜组件中排出的高压浓海水冲击涡轮机转动,涡轮机带动发电机转动产生电能,实现潮汐能的综合利用和转化。但在海边修建蓄水池,对生态环境影响大。
[0006] 利用海洋能源进行海水淡化和发电的方法及装置(申请号200910038665.0),通过采能器采集海洋波涌的能量,用海水加压泵对海水进行加压,然后通过海水高压管输入到海水淡化系统中进行淡水生产;尾水导入水轮发电机系统进行发电。
[0007] 综上所述,采用海洋可再生能源如风能、太阳能、波浪能等为动力进行反渗透法海水淡化或发电是一种清洁、绿色、环保的制淡和发电方法。理论上,正渗透可以采用具有非常高的渗透压的驱动溶液而实现比反渗透更大的水通量,然而研究发现实际通量远远小于预期值。这是由于正渗透过程特有的浓差极化现象造成的。而在反渗透的膜分离过程中,同样存在浓差极化。浓差极化层的存在不同程度地妨害膜的传递效率,例如增高膜表面溶液渗透压、明显缩短其寿命,甚至带来严重后果。一般可以通过增加膜表面的剪切力和湍流来降低浓差极化对膜过程的影响。
[0008]目前海水淡化存在的问题集中于:1、缺乏将潮流能直接用于增压进行海水淡化的技术;2、如何消除反渗透淡化中的浓差极化问题;3、反渗透法海水淡化后的浓盐水余压较高,如果不进行回收,将显著提高海水淡化成本。
发明内容
[0009] 本发明针对海岛或海洋设施淡水和电力供应不便、基础投资大、不便共享的问题,结合海洋可再生能源进行海水淡化或发电的难点,提出潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置。
[0010] 本发明采用的技术方案是:一种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,包括一个水轮机和本体,所述本体与中间体和端盖固定连接,把本体的内腔分割成封闭的一个泵室和一个海水淡化发电室;所述水轮机通过联轴器连接转轴,转轴驱动设置在泵室中的海水增压泵,转轴与本体之间设有密封组件和增压泵轴承,联轴器上设有刹车装置;所述海水淡化发电室中设有海水预处理装置、采用非稳态反渗透膜的海水淡化装置、液流电池和控制器,所述海水增压泵采用增压泵入口管路与海水预处理装置连接,采用增压泵出口管路与海水淡化装置连接,海水淡化装置采用高压浓盐水管路与液流电池连接;所述本体与水轮机之间设有流线型导流体,在端盖的一端设有方向舵,在本体上设有支撑架、海水入口、淡水管路和浓盐水排放管路。
[0011] 所述海水增压泵采用柱塞式转子泵,在泵室中设有与本体固定连接的斜盘座,转轴与缸体固定连接,设置在缸体中的柱塞和复位弹簧与位于斜盘座中的可调斜盘相配合,转轴另一端设有位于中间体中的支承轴承;所述缸体上的柱塞腔与多通道配流盘上的增压泵入口管路和增压泵出口管路相配合。
[0012] 所述可调斜盘采用流量调节组件调整倾斜角度。
[0013] 所述转轴为水平轴时,水轮机采用水平轴水轮机;转轴为竖直轴时,水轮机采用竖直轴水轮机。
[0014] 本发明的有益效果是:这种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置把本体的内腔分割成封闭的一个泵室和一个海水淡化发电室;水轮机通过转轴驱动设置在泵室中的海水增压泵,海水增压泵向采用非稳态反渗透膜的海水淡化装置、液流电池供给预处理后的海水,压力海水渗过非稳态反渗透膜进行海水淡化,浓盐水进入液流电池进行发电。该海水淡化及发电装置采用水轮机直接增压,通过非稳态增压操作,实现海水在高压范围内无规则变化,从而在不平整的膜表面形成湍动,显著降低了浓差极化,因此大大降低了反渗透压力,从而提高海水淡化效率;采用潮流能-机械能-压力能的简洁、有效循环模式,而仍有一定压力的浓盐水在液流电池中驱动泵旋转,转化为电能存储,实现了潮流能的高效、充分利用。
附图说明
[0015] 图1是一种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置的结构图。
[0016] 图2是图1中的A-A视图。
[0017] 图3是图1中的B-B视图。
[0018] 图中:1、水轮机,2、联轴器,3、转轴,4、密封组件,5、本体,5a、中间体,5b、端盖,6、流量调节组件,7、可调斜盘,7a、斜盘座,8、柱塞,9、缸体,10、复位弹簧,11、多通道配流盘,12、增压泵出口管路,13、制淡入口溢流阀,14、非稳态反渗透膜,15、淡水管路,16、高压浓盐水管路,17、制淡出口溢流阀,18、液流电池,19、浓盐水排放管路,20、控制器,21、海水入口,
22、海水预处理装置,23、增压泵入口管路,24、增压泵轴承,25、刹车装置,26、方向舵,27、支撑架。
具体实施方式
[0019] 图1、2、3示出了一种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置的结构。图中,潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置包括一个水平轴式水轮机I和本体5,本体5与中间体5a和端盖5b固定连接,把本体5的内腔分割成封闭的一个泵室和一个海水淡化发电室。水轮机I通过联轴器2连接转轴3,转轴3驱动设置在泵室中的海水增压泵,转轴3与本体5之间设有密封组件4和增压泵轴承24,联轴器2上设有刹车装置25。
[0020] 海水增压泵采用柱塞式转子泵,在泵室中设有与本体5固定连接的斜盘座7a,转轴3与缸体9之间采用键固定连接,设置在缸体9中的柱塞8和复位弹簧10与位于斜盘座7a中的可调斜盘7相配合,可调斜盘7采用流量调节组件6调整倾斜角度。转轴3另一端设有位于中间体5a中的支承轴承;缸体9上的柱塞腔与多通道配流盘11上的增压泵入口管路23和增压泵出口管路12相配合。
[0021] 海水淡化发电室中设有海水预处理装置22、采用非稳态反渗透膜14的海水淡化装置、液流电池18和控制器20,海水增压泵采用增压泵入口管路23与海水预处理装置22连接,采用增压泵出口管路12与海水淡化装置连接,海水淡化装置采用高压浓盐水管路16与液流电池18连接,在增压泵出口管路12中设有制淡入口溢流阀13,在高压浓盐水管路16中设有制淡出口溢流阀17。
[0022] 本体5与水轮机I之间设有流线型导流体,在端盖5b的一端设有方向舵26,在本体5上还设有支撑架27、海水入口 21、淡水管路15和浓盐水排放管路19。
[0023] 采用上述技术方案的潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,其工作原理为:天然海水通过海水入口 21进入海水预处理装置22,净化后的海水通过增压泵入口管路23进入多通道配流盘11 ;潮流驱动水轮机I旋转,水轮机I通过联轴器2带动转轴3、缸体9并在增压泵轴承支承下一起旋转,在静止的可调斜盘7和复位弹簧10作用下,柱塞8沿缸体9内的柱塞缸轴向运动,将多通道配流盘11中的海水增压,高压海水通过增压泵出口管路12、制淡入口溢流阀13,进入非稳态反渗透膜14,一部分穿过渗透膜变成淡水,进入淡水管路存储起来,另一部分变成高压浓盐水通过高压浓盐水管路16和制淡出口溢流阀17进入液流电池18,高压浓盐水驱动液流电池18中的泵做功,将化学能转化为电能,存储起来;高压浓盐水经过液流电池18变成浓盐水,通过浓盐水排放管路19排放到海洋中。工作过程中,密封组件用于阻挡海水进入本体中;当需要改变增压流量时,通过控制器20调节流量调节组件6,改变可调斜盘7的倾角;当潮流方向改变时,方向舵26自动调整水轮机I的方向;在极端天气情况下,可以通过控制器20控制刹车装置25进行刹车保护,让水轮机I停止旋转。

Claims (4)

1.一种潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,包括一个水轮机(I)和本体(5),其特征是:所述本体(5)与中间体(5a)和端盖(5b)固定连接,把本体(5)的内腔分割成封闭的一个泵室和一个海水淡化发电室;所述水轮机(I)通过联轴器(2)连接转轴(3),转轴(3)驱动设置在泵室中的海水增压泵,转轴(3)与本体(5)之间设有密封组件(4)和增压泵轴承(24),联轴器(2)上设有刹车装置(25);所述海水淡化发电室中设有海水预处理装置(22)、采用非稳态反渗透膜(14 )的海水淡化装置、液流电池(18 )和控制器(20 ),所述海水增压泵采用增压泵入口管路(23)与海水预处理装置(22)连接,采用增压泵出口管路(12)与海水淡化装置连接,海水淡化装置采用高压浓盐水管路(16)与液流电池(18)连接;所述本体(5)与水轮机(I)之间设有流线型导流体,在端盖(5b)的一端设有方向舵(26),在本体(5)上设有支撑架(27 )、海水入口( 21)、淡水管路(15)和浓盐水排放管路(19 )。
2.根据权利要求1所述的潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,其特征是:所述海水增压泵采用柱塞式转子泵,在泵室中设有与本体(5)固定连接的斜盘座(7a),转轴(3)与缸体(9)固定连接,设置在缸体(9)中的柱塞(8)和复位弹簧(10)与位于斜盘座(7a)中的可调斜盘(7)相配合,转轴(3)另一端设有位于中间体(5a)中的支承轴承;所述缸体(9)上的柱塞腔与多通道配流盘(11)上的增压泵入口管路(23)和增压泵出口管路(12)相配合。
3.根据权利要求2所述的潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,其特征是:所述可调斜盘(7)采用流量调节组件(6)调整倾斜角度。
4.根据权利要求1所述的潮流能增压海水淡化及发电装置,其特征是:所述转轴(3)为水平轴时,水轮机(I)采用水平轴水轮机;转轴(3 )为竖直轴时,水轮机(I)采用竖直轴水轮机。
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