CN103089349B - Combined cooling, heating and power device of distributed type industrial boiler - Google Patents

Combined cooling, heating and power device of distributed type industrial boiler Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103089349B
CN103089349B CN201310029365.2A CN201310029365A CN103089349B CN 103089349 B CN103089349 B CN 103089349B CN 201310029365 A CN201310029365 A CN 201310029365A CN 103089349 B CN103089349 B CN 103089349B
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steam
heat
heating
water
rankine cycle
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CN103089349A (en
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王海波
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Nanjing Reclaimer Environmental Technology Co Ltd
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Nanjing Reclaimer Environmental Technology Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a combined cooling, heating and power device of a distributed type industrial boiler. A steam Rankine cycle system positive pressure and closed type method is adopted, a condenser of an outlet steam exhaust of a steam turbine serves as heat sources for a heating plant and an absorption refrigeration device, and therefore gradient utilization of energy sources is achieved. High quality energy of fuel is recovered for generating electricity, more than 260 KWh electric quantity can be recovered from per ton evaporation capacity (or 0.7MW heating load), at the same time, cooling and heating combination is achieved, and exhaust gas waste heat can be effectively recovered. According to a steam Rankine cycle system, waste acid and waste alkali are not produced, and the problems of oxygen corrosion and scale formation of the boiler are effectively avoided. Therefore the distributed type industrial boiler is energy-saving, environment-friendly and very remarkable in social benefits.

Description

A kind of distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device, concrete genus energy-conserving and environment-protective technical field.
Background technique
Industrial boiler, as a kind of special equipment of pressure-bearing, is widely used in the every field of social production and people's lives.The energy of developed country and new developing country's industrial boiler consumption usually account for that various countries always consume energy about 25% ~ 45%, the waste gas that the temperature of its discharge is higher is also the arch-criminal of environmental pollution and the greenhouse effect caused.
For a long time, because industrial boiler structure is relatively simple, manufacture relatively easy, without examination & approval, the phenomenon not in accordance with energy-saving safe technical specification making and installation and use is of common occurrence, energy-conservationly makes people worried with emission reduction effect.According to statistics, the whole nation is being about 530,000,1,250,000 MW by industrial boiler recoverable amount, and close to 2 times of station boiler electric motor power, energy consumption reaches 4.2 hundred million tons of standard coals, accounts for 27.8% of national primary energy total quantity consumed.For efficiency, the average BTHE of China's coal-burned industrial boiler is only 65%, lower than foreign level 10 ~ 20 percentage points, every year on average many consumption about 60,000,000 tons, coals.For energy for building, China's builder area energy consumption and world level have larger gap, according to national central heating boiler net to the investigation of Northern Residential Buildings heating energy consumption, Beijing, Tianjin and one, the Northeast Heating Season every square metre heating energy consumption average out to 24.2kg standard coal, and the average only 6.2kg standard coal of Germany that weather conditions are close, unit of China heating energy consumption is 3.9 times of Germany.Therefore industrial boiler becomes China and carries out energy-saving and cost-reducing, to improve efficiency, decreasing pollution main object.
Distributed energy resource system is directly in the face of user, the middle-size and small-size multifunctional energy conversion system providing various form of energy energy by user's request.It is different from centralized production of energy and the supplying mode of traditional " large-sized unit, high-power station, bulk power grid ", but be dispersed in user side, reach more high-energy source utilization ratio, more lower energy cost, higher function Security and the better multi-functional target such as environmental-protecting performance with Integrated Energy cascade utilization pattern.Wherein cooling heating and power generation system is Main way and the principal mode of distributed energy development, also be one of most active system, it is one of focus of developed country's emphasis research and development and application, European Union member countries take the different modes such as tax revenue, subsidy to facilitate supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers project implementation energetically one after another, and the such as Italy way of deduction and exemption 20% to 40% fuel cost encourages building application cooling heating and power generation system.Classify by power subsystem types, mainly contain the cooling-heating treatment systems such as gas turbine-absorption refrigeration, internal-combustion engine-absorption refrigeration, steam turbine-absorption refrigeration, Stirling-electric hybrid-absorption refrigeration, fuel cell-absorption refrigeration.
For traditional heating system, although boiler converts useful heat energy (steam or hot water) to and is supplied to user by 60% to 90% of fuel combustion heat, but the high-temperature flue gas that burning produces can be used as generating (product merit) originally, directly be used as the steam or the hot water that heat lower temperature, acting capacity loss is very large; In refrigeration, the peak electric load that power plant brings to meet summer air-conditioning, expands electrical production, and the excessive waste heat produced cannot utilize, and causes the significant wastage of the energy; Independent absorption refrigeration, again because distance thermal source is far away or cold cannot long distance delivery, and application is restricted, even if also to a certain degree there is the acting capacity loss of high position heat for low temperature object of similar boiler in Gas Direct-fired type absorption system, in addition, the using energy source pattern for the treatment of after pollution causes energy and environment to be difficult to the basic reason coordinated especially.
For traditional cold, heat and power triple supply system, certainly there is huge vitality and wide development space, but also there is certain problem: the cooling-heating treatment systems such as gas turbine-absorption refrigeration, internal-combustion engine-absorption refrigeration, Stirling-electric hybrid-absorption refrigeration, fuel cell-absorption refrigeration, all need to use oil, gas fuel, incompatible with the energy resource structure of China based on coal; Steam turbine-absorption cold thermoelectricity triple combined supply system can be fuel with coal, but needs supporting one-level chemical deionization water system, and the operating cost of Water Treatment is very high, and produces certain pollution, must administer.
Therefore how to retain the advantage of cold, heat and power triple supply system, develop the wider cold, heat and power triple supply system of fuel tolerance, the shortcoming of the low-grade utilization of real solution industrial boiler high-grade fuel, break through traditional thinking and realize the cooling-heating treatment of industrial boiler, becoming the difficult point of this area research.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is for solving Problems existing in above-mentioned industrial boiler and traditional cold, heat and electricity triple supply technology, a kind of distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device is proposed, by malleation steam Rankine cycle power generation system, the high-grade energy reclaiming fuel is used for generating, steam output per ton can reclaim the electricity of more than 200 degree, realize cooling-heating treatment simultaneously, and high efficiente callback fume afterheat.Spent acid, salkali waste that steam Rankine cycle system produces without traditional chemical water treatment system, and because of the closed-circuit of steam Rankine cycle employing pure water, avoid oxygen corrosion and the scale problems of traditional station boiler, thus realizing the comprehensive cascade utilization of the energy, energy-saving and environmental protection and social benefit are very remarkable.
The object of the invention is to be realized by following measures:
A kind of distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device, this device comprises malleation steam Rankine cycle system, heating system, absorption system, it is characterized in that:
Described malleation steam Rankine cycle system, refers to by boiler body 1 saturated vapour 2 out, forms superheated vapor 3-1 through superheater 3, sends into steam turbine 4 drive electrical generators 5 and generates electricity; Steam turbine 4 exhaust steam 6 out condenses into condensed water 8 at condenser 7, and condensed water 8 sends into feed water preheater 10, boiler body 1 through feed water pump 9, and boiler body 1 produces saturated vapour again, thus forms malleation steam Rankine cycle circuit.
The steam condensation side of described condenser 7 adopts operation under positive pressure mode, i.e. the pressure of steam turbine 4 exhaust steam out higher than atmospheric pressure, thus avoids bleeding of air, without the need to arranging traditional oxygen-eliminating device in steam Rankine cycle circuit.
Described heating system, the outlet exhaust steam 6 of steam turbine 4 cools formation condensed water 8 through condenser 7 and returns steam Rankine cycle system; Be provided with the first heat exchanger 14: drawing gas of steam turbine 4 25 forms condensed water through the first heat exchanger 14 and return steam Rankine cycle system; Heat supply water 11 forms heating steam or hot water 15 through heat supply water pump 12, second heat exchanger 13, condenser 7, first heat exchanger 14.
Described absorption system, refers to the thermal source of heating steam (hot water) 15 as absorption type refrigerating unit 16, after cooling, form condensed water.
Be provided with air preheater 29: air 27, through gas fan 28, air preheater 29, forms the fuel-burning equipment 31 that hot air 30 sends into boiler.
The high-temperature flue gas that fuel combustion produces enters air after the attached heating surface superheater 3 in boiler body 1 and flue 26, the cooling of feed water preheater 10, second heat exchanger 13.
When the second described heat exchanger 13 adopts separated type heat exchange mode, the second heat exchanger 13 comprises working medium vaporizer 13-1, working fluid condenses device 13-2, and phase-change working substance wherein adopts water or other suitable materials;
The heat that phase-change working substance absorbs flue gas in working medium vaporizer 13-1 produces saturated vapour, saturated vapour is by working fluid condenses device 13-2 and heat supply water wall-type heat exchange, form condensation water is absorbed flue gas again heat generation steam by working medium vaporizer 13-1 after cooling, thus form the inner cyclic process of phase-change working substance; Phase-change working substance adopts natural circulation or pump circulation mode, completes the inner cyclic process of phase-change working substance working medium vaporizer 13-1, working fluid condenses device 13-2 in the second heat exchanger 13; Preferred method is vaporizer, the split type layout of condenser, working medium vaporizer 13-1 is arranged in flue 26, working fluid condenses device 13-2 is arranged in outside flue, adopts natural circulation mode: the high-temperature flue gas that fuel combustion produces enters air after the working medium vaporizer 13-1 of boiler body 1, heating surface superheater 3, feed water preheater 10, second heat exchanger 13 lowers the temperature; Heat supply use water 11 sends into condenser 7 through heat supply water pump 12, working fluid condenses device 13-2, forms heating steam (hot water) 15.
Be provided with the makeup Water System supporting with steam Rankine cycle system: the distilled water 19 in distilled water tank 20, after small pump 21, normal temp. deaerator 22 deoxygenation, mixed bed 23 desalination, fill into steam Rankine cycle system.
Be provided with thermal accumulator 18: heating system and absorption system fluctuation of load larger time, available thermal accumulator 18 balance sysmte, makes steam Rankine cycle system energy safety, stable operation.
Described feed water preheater 10, second heat exchanger 13, superheater 3, thermal accumulator 18, condenser 7, first heat exchanger 14 can arrange one or more respectively, adopt series, parallel or series-parallel connection mode to connect.
Device of the present invention can be applied to station boiler equally, through condenser 7 add thermogenetic hot water or steam may be used for existing station boiler or in addition steam generator system use as boiler working substance.
The heat-exchanging element of aforementioned device mentioned in the present invention can adopt tubulation, fin tube, coiler or spiral groove pipe, or adopts the pipe of other augmentation of heat transfer measures or the hollow cavity heat-exchanging element of other patterns.
Control a little higher than flue gas acid dew point temperature of wall surface temperature of the working medium vaporizer 13-1 heat exchanger surface of the second heat exchanger 13, or adopt corrosion-resistant material effectively to alleviate the cold end corrosion of flue gas, can effectively reduce temperature of exhaust fume, avoid flue gas low-temperature corrode while, high efficiente callback fume afterheat.
Unaccounted equipment and standby system, pipeline, instrument, valve in the present invention, be incubated, there is regulatory function bypass facility etc. adopt known mature technology to carry out supporting.
Be provided with the safety regulating device with distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply matched with devices of the present invention, device energy economy, safety, high thermal efficiency run, reaches energy-saving and cost-reducing, the object of environmental protection.
The present invention compared to existing technology tool has the following advantages:
1, energy-saving effect is remarkable: in the present invention, the pressure energy of malleation Kanicme cycle vapor breaks through the restriction of traditional Rankine cycle technology, conveniently can adopt high pressure, subcritical, overcritical even ultra-supereritical pressure and without the need to using reheat vapor cycle technology, vapor (steam) temperature is warm in can selecting, secondary high temperature, effective reduction engineering cost, thus effectively improve thermal efficiency of cycle and circulating generation amount, the completely sure generated energy reduced when to offset in traditional Rankine cycle unit from back pressure to negative pressure condensing temperature, only steam output per ton (or 0.7MW heating load) just can reclaim the electricity of more than 260 degree, the thermal efficiency of whole Integrated Energy gradient utilization system can reach more than 80%.
2, indirect heating mode is adopted: steam Rankine cycle system adopts indirect heating, malleation, closed operation mode to heat user, for heat user and absorption system provide thermal source, be different from the direct open type heat-supplying mode of traditional back pressure or sucking condensing type unit, using the condenser of steam Rankine cycle system as the outer heater for steam or hot water, the whole closed-circuit retrieval system of condensed water and without loss of steam and water.
3, low equipment investment, operating cost significantly decline:
(1) eliminate that traditional vapour condenser negative pressure operation technique inevitably leaks gas, water leakage phenomenon, without the need to arranging oxygen-eliminating device, air ejector in Rankine cycle circuit, avoiding traditional oxygen-eliminating device, air ejector etc. and running the loss of steam and water caused; Avoid pollution and loss of steam and water that conventional art reclaims water of condensation, only need the water loss that the turbine shaft leak sealing vapour of supplementary minute quantity causes, fill into system by outsourcing or self-control distilled water;
(2) because of malleation, closed operation, avoid the oxygen corrosion of traditional Rankine cycle steam generator system, scaling phenomenon, system loss of steam and water significantly declines, without the need to being equipped with huge, complicated chemical water treatment system, the operating cost of water treatment system significantly declines, and absolute value can reduce by 90%.
(3) because of much smaller than traditional vapour condenser of the exhaust steam specific volume of steam turbine, the volume of steam turbine can significantly reduce, vapour condenser volume ratio conventional art much smaller, and thus the relative price of steam turbine, condenser apparatus reduces a lot;
4, fume afterheat high efficiente callback: when the heat exchanger that back-end ductwork is arranged adopts phase-change heat-exchanger, can the waste heat of high efficiente callback flue gas, and temperature of exhaust fume can be reduced to about 120 DEG C; Owing to adopting the outer air preheater technology of stove, the short-circuit of air phenomenon that air preheater causes because of dust contained flue gas, cold end corrosion etc. is effectively avoided, and layout is very convenient, and air preheater heating process is in conjunction with phase-change heat transfer, and facility compact, heat transfer are efficiently.
5, safety in operation significantly improves:
(1) because back pressure adopts malleation mode to run, steam turbine outlet exhaust steam can ensure certain degree of superheat, overcome design that traditional Rankine cycle power generator turbine exhaust stage blade brings because of wet vapor, operation and safety problem, steam turbine back pressure operation under positive pressure, outlet vapor is superheated vapor, fundamentally eliminate the problem that in conventional vapor Rankine cycle, last stage vane of steam turbine brings because of wet vapor to design, manufacture and operation problem, the operating conditions of steam turbine is optimized, and obviously improves before the vibration comparatively of steam turbine generator set;
(2) the oxygen corrosion Safety performance of steam boiler system is obviously improved, and avoids conventional vapor Rankine cycle generator set because of the operation of vapour condenser negative pressure, the oxygen corrosion harm that air unavoidably bleeds and causes service system;
(3) scale hazard of steam Rankine cycle system is eliminated, and effectively alleviate the generation of the accidents such as the overheated booster of heating surface, the operating conditions of superheater obviously improves, and Security significantly improves.
6, conveniently cascaded utilization of energy can be realized: fuel tolerance is wide, can adopt coal, biomass fuel, oil gas etc. easily.Than traditional technology, achieve consuming energy according to its quality very easily, can conveniently realize supplying superheated vapor, high-temperature-hot-water, effectively realize the trilogy supply of cool and thermal power, the cascade utilization rate of energy is high, and overall energetic efficiency is apparently higher than Generator Set.
7, solving traditional small capacity industrial boiler because of reasons such as water treatments cannot use the technical barrier of cogeneration of heat and power, it is the breakthrough to conventional art, alleviate the spent acid in traditional Rankine cycle technology largely, pollution problem that salkali waste causes, the sewer of the minute quantity of steam generator system also can be effectively addressed by water charging system.
8, the power-off of supply system, short of electricity self-insurance ability strengthen, when external power supply system power-off, the power generation system of industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device can carry out power supply self-insurance to key equipment, enhance safety operation elasticity and the flexibility of whole system, be convenient to the rapid enforcement of safe emergency measure.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device schematic flow sheet of the present invention.
In Fig. 1: 1-boiler body, 2-saturated vapour, 3-superheater, 3-1-superheated vapor, 4-steam turbine, 5-generator, 6-exhaust steam, 7-condenser, 8-condensed water, 9-feed water pump, 10-feed water preheater, 11-heat supply water, 12-heat supply water pump, 13-second heat exchanger, 13-1-working medium vaporizer, 13-2-working fluid condenses device, 14-first heat exchanger, 15-heating steam (hot water), 16-absorption type refrigerating unit, 17-condensed water, 18-thermal accumulator, 19-distilled water, 20-distilled water tank, 21-small pump, 22-normal temp. deaerator, 23-mixed bed, 24-backflows waterpipe, 25-draws gas, 26-flue, 27-air, 28-gas fan, 29-air preheater, 30-hot air, 31-fuel-burning equipment.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in further detail.
Embodiment 1:
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device, specific embodiment is as follows:
Described malleation steam Rankine cycle, refers to by boiler body 1 saturated vapour 2 out, forms superheated vapor 3-1 through superheater 3, sends into steam turbine 4 drive electrical generators 5 and generates electricity; Steam turbine 4 exhaust steam 6 out condenses into condensed water 8 at condenser 7, and condensed water 8 sends into feed water preheater 10, boiler body 1 through feed water pump 9, and boiler body 1 produces saturated vapour again, thus forms malleation steam Rankine cycle circuit.
The steam condensation side of described condenser 7 adopts operation under positive pressure mode, i.e. the pressure of steam turbine 4 exhaust steam out higher than atmospheric pressure, thus avoids bleeding of air, without the need to arranging traditional oxygen-eliminating device in steam Rankine cycle circuit.
Described heating system, refers to that heat supply water 11 is through heat supply water pump 12, second heat exchanger 13, condenser 7, forms heating steam (hot water) 15.
Described absorption system, refers to the thermal source of heating steam (hot water) 15 as absorption type refrigerating unit 16, after cooling, form condensed water 17.
Be provided with air preheater 29: air 27, through gas fan 28, air preheater 29, forms the fuel-burning equipment 31 that hot air 30 sends into boiler; The high-temperature flue gas that fuel combustion produces enters air after the attached heating surface in boiler body 1 and flue 26 and superheater 3, feed water preheater 10, the cooling of air preheater 29, second heat exchanger 13.
The second described heat exchanger 13 adopts separated type heat exchange mode, second heat exchanger 13 comprises working medium vaporizer 13-1, working fluid condenses device 13-2, phase-change working substance wherein adopts water, adopt natural circulation mode, the high-temperature flue gas that fuel combustion produces enters air after the working medium vaporizer 13-1 of boiler body 1, heating surface superheater 3, feed water preheater 10, second heat exchanger 13 lowers the temperature; Heat supply use water 11 sends into condenser 7 through heat supply water pump 12, working fluid condenses device 13-2, forms heating steam (hot water) 15.
Be provided with the makeup Water System supporting with steam Rankine cycle system: the distilled water 19 in distilled water tank 20, fill into steam Rankine cycle system through small pump 21, normal temp. deaerator 22.
Be provided with the first heat exchanger 14: what adopt steam turbine 4 draws gas 25 as thermal source, heat supply water 11 forms heating steam (hot water) 15 after heat supply water pump 12, second heat exchanger 13, the heating of condenser 7, first heat exchanger 14.
Be provided with thermal accumulator 18: heating system and absorption system fluctuation of load larger time, available thermal accumulator 18 balance sysmte, makes steam Rankine cycle system energy safety, stable operation.
Described feed water preheater 10, second heat exchanger 13, superheater 3, thermal accumulator 18, condenser 7, first heat exchanger 14 can arrange one or more respectively, adopt series, parallel or series-parallel connection mode to connect.
The heat-exchanging element of aforementioned device mentioned in the present invention can adopt tubulation, fin tube, coiler or spiral groove pipe, or adopts the pipe of other augmentation of heat transfer measures or the hollow cavity heat-exchanging element of other patterns.
Control a little higher than flue gas acid dew point temperature of wall surface temperature of the working medium vaporizer 13-1 heat exchanger surface of the second heat exchanger 13, or adopt corrosion-resistant material effectively to alleviate the cold end corrosion of flue gas, can effectively reduce temperature of exhaust fume, avoid flue gas low-temperature corrode while, high efficiente callback fume afterheat.
Unaccounted equipment and standby system, pipeline, instrument, valve in the present invention, be incubated, there is regulatory function bypass facility etc. adopt known mature technology to carry out supporting.
Be provided with the safety regulating device with distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply matched with devices of the present invention, device energy economy, safety, high thermal efficiency run, reaches energy-saving and cost-reducing, the object of environmental protection.
Although the present invention with preferred embodiment openly as above, they are not for limiting the present invention, being anyly familiar with this those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, from ought making various changes or retouch, belong to the protection domain of the present invention equally.What therefore protection scope of the present invention should define with the claim of the application is as the criterion.

Claims (2)

1. a distributed industrial boiler cold, heat and electricity triple supply device, this device comprises steam Rankine cycle system, heating system and absorption system, it is characterized in that:
Described steam Rankine cycle system, refers to by boiler body (1) saturated vapour out (2), forms superheated vapor (3-1) through superheater (3), sends into steam turbine (4) drive electrical generators (5) generating; Steam turbine (4) exhaust steam out (6) pressure is higher than barometric pressure, condensed water (8) is condensed at condenser (7), send into boiler body (1) through feed water pump (9), feed water preheater (10), then produce saturated vapour (2), thus form malleation steam Rankine cycle circuit;
Be provided with normal temp. deaerator (22): the distilled water (19) in distilled water tank (20), fill into steam Rankine cycle system through small pump (21), normal temp. deaerator (22), mixed bed (23);
Described heating system: the outlet exhaust steam (6) of steam turbine (4) forms condensed water (8) through condenser (7) cooling and returns steam Rankine cycle system; Be provided with the first heat exchanger (14): draw gas (25) of steam turbine (4) form condensed water through the first heat exchanger (14) and return steam Rankine cycle system; Heat supply use water (11) forms heating steam or hot water (15) through heat supply water pump (12), the second heat exchanger (13), condenser (7), the first heat exchanger (14);
Described absorption system: heating steam or hot water (15), as the thermal source of absorption type refrigerating unit (16), form condensed water after absorption type refrigerating unit (16) cooling;
Described the second heat exchanger (13) comprises working medium vaporizer (13-1), working fluid condenses device (13-2); Working medium vaporizer (13-1) is arranged in fume side, and by phase-change working substance with flue gas wall-type heat exchange, phase-change working substance heat absorption produces steam, discharges after flue gas cool-down; Phase-change working substance steam is by working fluid condenses device (13-2) and heat supply use water (11) wall-type heat exchange, and the heat that after cooling, formation condensation water absorbs flue gas by working medium vaporizer (13-1) again produces steam, thus forms the inner cyclic process of phase-change working substance.
2. device according to claim 1, is characterized in that:
Be provided with thermal accumulator (18): heating system and absorption system fluctuation of load larger time, heating steam or hot water (15) carry out stand-by heat through thermal accumulator (18).
CN201310029365.2A 2013-01-27 2013-01-27 Combined cooling, heating and power device of distributed type industrial boiler Expired - Fee Related CN103089349B (en)

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