CN103076246A - Double-shaft high-low cycle complex fatigue tester - Google Patents

Double-shaft high-low cycle complex fatigue tester Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103076246A
CN103076246A CN2013100039219A CN201310003921A CN103076246A CN 103076246 A CN103076246 A CN 103076246A CN 2013100039219 A CN2013100039219 A CN 2013100039219A CN 201310003921 A CN201310003921 A CN 201310003921A CN 103076246 A CN103076246 A CN 103076246A
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China
Prior art keywords
connector
sample
fixture block
hole
shaped
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CN2013100039219A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103076246B (en
Inventor
石多奇
骆银银
杨晓光
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北京航空航天大学
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Abstract

A double-shaft high-low cycle complex fatigue tester comprises a hydraulic fatigue tester, an upper clamping head, a lower clamping head, an electromagnetic vibration exciter, a sample, a fixture, and a locating connecting device. The electromagnetic vibration exciter is connected with a middle clamping block 2 in the fixture via a cylindrical connector, a connecting rod and a U-shaped connector in a positioning connecting device; the middle clamping block 2 and a middle clamping block 1 are used for clamping a square mass boss at the middle part of the sample via a connecting piece, and the two ends of the sample are connected with a plywood in the fixture via the connecting piece; the plywood is connected with the connector in the fixture via bolts in the connecting piece; and the vertical ends of the connector are placed in the grooves of the upper clamping head and the lower clamping head of the hydraulic fatigue tester, contacted with the hydraulic fatigue tester, and clamped tightly via the hydraulic pressure of the tester. The tester is simple in structure and convenient to operate, solves the problems of load interference and load coordination in the vertical direction and the horizontal direction during bidirectional loading aiming at the plate-shaped sample, and can be used for simulating fatigue load borne by the blades of the rotor of a gas turbine engine.

Description

A kind of twin shaft composite fatigue test unit that just circulates
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of twin shaft composite fatigue test unit that just circulates, belong to material and structural fatigue performance test field.
Background technology
The design of modern gas turbine engines need to obtain overall equilbrium between high-performance, high reliability, good economy.The spinner blade of gas-turbine unit, when working, all bearing larger low frequency centrifugal force load owing to rotating such as fan, pneumatic plant and turbo blade, also be subject to simultaneously the high frequency load of air-flow forced vibration so that in engine rotor blade the ubiquity composite fatigue failure mode that just circulates.This just means the anti-fatigue performance that wants to design the essential raising of functional, reliable engine parts.
Improving the anti-fatigue performance of parts mainly realizes from the lifting of material property and modular construction fatigue behaviour.And wherein just need to various fatigue datas for the research of fatigue of materials performance.
In the process of gas-turbine unit work, because the High Rotation Speed of rotor is so that fan, pneumatic plant and turbo blade all bear higher centrifugal force.In the pneumatic plant and turbine of every one-level, stator blade and spinner blade are arranged simultaneously.The stator blade steering current flows through spinner blade, and the variation that the pressure of air-flow and speed can generating periods when each stator blade is presented as the periodicity exciting force to spinner blade.When satisfying certain condition, spinner blade need to bear high-frequency forced vibration load, causes high cycles fatigue; Simultaneously, also bear take centrifugal stress as main low-cycle fatigue at startup-docking process Leaf.Will produce composite fatigue when the fatigue behaviour of spinner blade is not enough destroys.
The present invention is the destruction that causes for height circulation Combined Fatigue Load that simulation that can be good occurs in spinner blade work, carries out the height composite fatigue test that circulates mainly for plate tensile sample.
Summary of the invention
1, goal of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of twin shaft composite fatigue test unit that just circulates, solve the problem that the two-way simultaneous for plate tensile sample loads.
2, technical scheme
The present invention is a kind of twin shaft composite fatigue test unit that just circulates, and sees Fig. 1, and this device comprises hydraulic fatigue machine and upper and lower chuck, electromagnetic exciter (18), sample (7) and anchor clamps and locating connector.Position annexation between them is: the middle fixture block 2(11 that electromagnetic exciter (18) is connected with anchor clamps by cylindricality connector (16), connecting link (15), U-shaped connector (14) in the locating connector) connect; Middle fixture block 2(11), middle fixture block 1(10) clamp the square mass boss at sample (7) middle part by web member, sample (7) two ends are connected with clamping plate (3) in the anchor clamps by web member; Connector (2) links to each other by bolt in clamping plate (3) and the anchor clamps; The vertical end of connector (2) places the upper and lower chuck groove of hydraulic fatigue machine to contact with hydraulic fatigue machine, relies on this testing machine hydraulic coupling to clamp.
Described hydraulic fatigue machine is Shimadzu EHF-EM100K type hydraulic fatigue machine, can provide dynamic 100KN, the power of static 150KN.Its upper and lower chuck is this machine annex.
Described electromagnetic exciter is JZQ-80 type vibrator, and it is 1-1.5KHz that frequency can be provided, the exciting force of maximum 800N, and it is fixed on the large quality work platform by web member.This electromagnetic exciter is equipped with corresponding power amplifier and signal source simultaneously.
Described sample is seen Fig. 5, is to adopt symmetric design, and is middle with square mass boss, and two is square and with the bars of through hole; It act as: (a) can adjust its quality by the physical dimension of designing quality piece boss, and then change natural frequency and the mode of sample, with better natural frequency and the mode of Reality simulation blade; (b) the bending stress that high cycles fatigue load is caused of the transitional region between mass boss and the dull and stereotyped smooth section effectively concentrates on the examination position; (c) side plane of mass boss center provides the loading surface of horizontal exciting, avoids the surface damage that produces because directly being carried in other position of sample.Sample adopts symmetric design, so that when the side plane of middle boss loads high cycle motivation load, up and down the stress that causes of two parts is identical at sample, also can guarantee simultaneously in the situation that the sample two fixed ends, still can apply the high cycles fatigue load of horizontal direction.The sample two ends are designed through thickening, and with pin hole, can connect by pin and realize reliable location and transmission low-cycle fatigue load, avoid simultaneously low-cycle fatigue load to produce additional bending moment.
Described anchor clamps comprise clamping plate (3), connector (2), middle fixture block 1(10) and middle fixture block 2(11); The former two is bolted; The latter two clamp the square mass boss at sample (7) middle part by bolt; These clamping plate (3) are to adopt minute half design, and profile is the L-type structural member, and its facade and plane all are provided with connecting hole; Plane contact between clamping plate (3) and the sample produces certain pressure under the coupling bolt effect, can Effective Raise contact rigidity.Adopt transition fit between pin-and-hole on clamping plate (3) and the sample and the pin (6), not only be convenient to load and unload but also be unlikely to produce excessive gap affects loading accuracy, transition fit can so that pin (6) becomes the load parts, effectively avoid bolt owing to being subjected to shearing to produce destruction simultaneously.This connector (2) profile is T-shaped structural member, and its surface level is provided with connecting hole; It is vertically held and places the upper and lower chuck groove of hydraulic fatigue machine to contact with hydraulic fatigue machine.The bolt position design that disperses can improve rigidity effectively, can make sample centering by the fine setting that connects relative position simultaneously.This centre fixture block 1(10) be that the middle part has the rectangular-shaped piece that groove, two ends are provided with connecting hole; This centre fixture block 2(11) profile is T-shaped structural member, the profile of its surface level and size and middle fixture block 1(10) corresponding, it is vertically held and is provided with connecting hole, is connected with U-shaped connector (14) by little pin (13).
Described locating connector comprises U-shaped connector (14), connecting link (15) and cylindricality connector (16), screw thread on the thread end of connecting link (15) and the U-shaped connector (14) is spirally connected, and the spheric end of connecting link (15) is connected 16 with the cylindricality connector) the ball pivot connection.This U-shaped connector (14) is to have rectangular-shaped of U-lag, and U-lag is provided with connecting hole, and the U-lag lower end is provided with threaded connection hole.This connecting rod (15) is round bar spare, and an end of round bar is screw thread, and the other end is set to ball pivot shape.The profile of this cylindricality connector (16) is the sleeve-like part, excircle is provided with three uniform screw thread fixed orifices, it is hinged that endoporus one end is processed into the ball pivot end of ball pivot shape and connecting link (15), the endoporus other end links to each other with the excitation head of electromagnetic exciter (18), adopts three uniform screws of circumferencial direction to clamp.
Install anchor clamps and sample and locating connector in the test, load low-cycle fatigue load, the adjusting vibration exciter height makes itself and sample middle part exciting point keep sustained height afterwards, namely can carry out horizontal high cycles fatigue load and load.The horizontal load scope that loads should can be born transverse load less than the maximum of vertical direction fatigue tester.
3, advantage and effect
(1) efficiently solves the interference problem that vertical and horizontal both direction loads.Can be in the situation that the sample two fixed ends realizes the loading of high cycles fatigue load to sample middle part exciting; Adopt pin to be connected with ball between vibrator and the specimen holder, can effectively avoid producing moment of flexure because of the displacement that vertical direction load subtle change causes.
(2) parts are few, and are simple in structure.Adopt comparatively simple anchor clamps to clamp for the sample two ends, carry out exciting in the centre, avoided needing the complicated anchor clamps of special design because load simultaneously vertical load and horizontal load.This scheme only needs on common fatigue tester simultaneously, and the vibrator that is equipped with certain power can be finished.
(3) sample design is more representative.This centre with the sample design of boss can well the Reality simulation blade natural frequency and the vibration shape, the stress of biaxial loadings is also more near the stress in the spinner blade work.When the frequency of horizontal exciting force equals the first order resonance frequency of sample, can simulate preferably the stress of blade under resonance state simultaneously.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1: the twin shaft of the present invention composite fatigue test unit structure that just circulates is always schemed
Fig. 2: connector 3 dimensional drawing
Fig. 3: clamping plate 3 dimensional drawing
Fig. 4: sample 3 dimensional drawing
Fig. 5: middle fixture block 13 dimensional drawing
Fig. 6: middle fixture block 23 dimensional drawings
Fig. 7: U-shaped connector 3 dimensional drawing
Fig. 8: cylindricality connector 3 dimensional drawing
Fig. 9: connecting link 3 dimensional drawing
Figure 10: ball pivot junction sectional view
Figure 11: the sample finite element analysis loads schematic diagram
Figure 12: sample stress distribution the results schematic diagram under the tensile force effect
Figure 13: sample one first order mode the results schematic diagram under the effect of stretching prestress
Figure 14: load horizontal harmonic excitation sample vibration shape response the results schematic diagram
Figure 15: load horizontal harmonic excitation sample bending stress and be distributed with the finite element analysis result schematic diagram
Symbol description is as follows among the figure:
1 Shimadzu E-100K fatigue tester lower chuck, 2 connectors, 3 clamping plate
4 hexagon socket head cap screws, 15 hexagon socket head cap screws, 26 large pins
7 samples, 8 hexagon socket head cap screws, 39 outer-hexagonal nuts 1
Fixture block 2 12 Shimadzu E-100K fatigue tester upper grips in the middle of the fixture block 1 11 in the middle of 10
13 little pin 14U type connector 15 connecting links
16 cylindricality connectors, 17 trip bolts, 18 electromagnetic exciters
19T type bolt 20 outer-hexagonal nuts 2 21 pads
22 large quality work platforms
Embodiment
See Fig. 1---Figure 10, the present invention is a kind of twin shaft composite fatigue test unit that just circulates, and this device mainly comprises hydraulic fatigue machine and upper and lower chuck (1), (12), electromagnetic exciter (18), sample (7) and anchor clamps and locating connector.Position annexation between them is: the middle fixture block 2(11 that electromagnetic exciter (18) is connected with anchor clamps by cylindricality connector (16), connecting link (15), U-shaped connector (14) in the locating connector) connect; Middle fixture block 2(11), middle fixture block 1(10) by hexagon socket head cap screw 3(8), outer-hexagonal nut 1(9) clamp the square mass boss at sample (7) middle part, sample (7) two ends are by hexagon socket head cap screw 2(5), pin (6) is connected with clamping plate (3) in the anchor clamps greatly; The planar ends of connector (2) is spirally connected in clamping plate (3) and the anchor clamps; The vertical end of connector (2) places the upper and lower chuck of hydraulic fatigue machine (1), (12) groove to contact with hydraulic fatigue machine, clamps under the testing machine action of hydraulic force.
Described hydraulic fatigue machine is Shimadzu EHF-EM100K type hydraulic fatigue machine, and the power of dynamic 100KN, static 150KN can be provided.
Described electromagnetic exciter is JZQ-80 type vibrator, and it is 1-1.5KHz that frequency can be provided, and the exciting force of maximum 800N, it is by T-shaped bolt (19), outer-hexagonal nut 2(20), pad (21) is fixed on the large quality work platform (22).This electromagnetic exciter is equipped with corresponding power amplifier and signal source simultaneously.
Described sample (7) is seen Fig. 5, is to adopt symmetric design, and is middle with square mass boss, and two is square and with the bars of through hole; It act as: (a) can adjust its quality by the physical dimension of designing quality piece boss, and then change natural frequency and the mode of sample, with better natural frequency and the mode of Reality simulation blade; (b) the bending stress that high cycles fatigue load is caused of the transitional region between mass boss and the dull and stereotyped smooth section effectively concentrates on the examination position; (c) side plane of mass boss center provides the loading surface of horizontal exciting, avoids because directly being carried in other position of sample honorific Buddhist monk's surface damage.Sample (7) adopts symmetric design, so that when the side plane of middle boss loads high cycle motivation load, the stress that causes of two parts is identical up and down at sample (7), also can guarantee simultaneously in the situation that sample (7) two fixed ends, still can apply the high cycles fatigue load of horizontal direction.The sample two ends are designed through thickening, and with pin hole, can connect by pin and realize reliable location and transmission low-cycle fatigue load, avoid simultaneously low-cycle fatigue load to produce additional bending moment.
Described anchor clamps comprise clamping plate (3), connector (2), middle fixture block 1(10) and middle fixture block 2(11); The former two is by hexagon socket head cap screw 1(4) connect; The latter two are by hexagon socket head cap screw 3(8) clamp the square mass boss at sample (7) middle part; These clamping plate (3) are to adopt minute half design, and profile is the L-type structural member, and its facade and plane all are provided with connecting hole; Plane contact between clamping plate (3) and the sample produces certain pressure under the coupling bolt effect, can Effective Raise contact rigidity.Adopt transition fit between pin-and-hole on clamping plate (3) and the sample (7) and the large pin (6), not only be convenient to load and unload but also be unlikely to produce excessive gap affects loading accuracy, transition fit can so that pin (6) becomes the load parts, effectively avoid bolt to be produced destruction owing to cutting simultaneously.This connector (2) profile is T-shaped structural member, and its surface level is provided with connecting hole; It is vertically held and places the upper and lower chuck groove of hydraulic fatigue machine to contact with hydraulic fatigue machine.The bolt position design that disperses can improve rigidity effectively, can make sample centering by the fine setting that connects relative position simultaneously.This centre fixture block 1(10) be that the middle part has the rectangular-shaped piece that groove, two ends are provided with connecting hole; This centre fixture block 2(11) profile is T-shaped structural member, the profile of its surface level and size and middle fixture block 1(10) corresponding, it is vertically held and is provided with connecting hole, is connected with U-shaped connector (14) by little pin (13).
Described locating connector comprises U-shaped connector (14), connecting link (15) and cylindricality connector (16), screw thread on the thread end of connecting link (15) and the U-shaped connector (14) is spirally connected, and the spheric end of connecting link (15) is connected 16 with the cylindricality connector) the ball pivot connection.This U-shaped connector (14) is to have rectangular-shaped of U-lag, and U-lag is provided with connecting hole, and the U-lag lower end is provided with threaded connection hole.This connecting link (15) is round bar spare, and an end of round bar is screw thread, and the other end is set to ball pivot shape.The profile of this cylindricality connector (16) is the sleeve-like part, excircle is provided with three uniform screw thread fixed orifices, it is hinged that endoporus one end is processed into the ball pivot end of ball pivot shape and connecting link (15), the endoporus other end links to each other with the excitation head of electromagnetic exciter (18), adopts uniform three trip bolts (17) of circumferencial direction to clamp.
1, carries out finite element analysis for sample (7), determine the excitation frequency of low-cycle fatigue load and high cycles fatigue load.Figure 11 loads schematic diagram in the finite element analysis.Figure 12-Figure 15 is for adopting the result of ABAQUS software analysis: Figure 12 to show as low cyclic loading F for certain titanium alloy sample 1Maximal value when being 64KN, sample stress concentration portion position maximum stress is 844MPa, with and stress distribution; Figure 13 is the single order mode on stress distribution shown in Figure 12 basis, and the first natural frequency of sample is 1410Hz; Figure 14, Figure 15 are respectively and load F 2The vibration shape of sample during=625Sin8860t N, and the stress distribution of Z direction.By these analyses can confirmed test the time maximum, force of low circulation be 64KN, the power amplitude on the high cyclical level direction is 625N, frequency is 1410Hz, i.e. the resonant frequency of sample, estimating and loading high cycle stress ratio is R=0.43.Realize the loading of design stress level and stress ratio in the test by regulating above each parameter size.
2, sample (7) and anchor clamps are connected, and in the vertical direction connects with fatigue tester, make sample (7) centering by the position of finely tuning coupling bolt.
3, middle fixture block is clamped sample (7) middle part with bolt, in the vertical direction loads low-cycle fatigue load to maximal value afterwards.Adopt displacement-control mode when loading low-cycle fatigue load, the stable loading of the low cyclic loading of assurance.
4, adjust electromagnetic exciter (18) highly this moment, make its excitation head and sample exciting point remain on sustained height, with connecting link (15), little pin (13) and bolt electromagnetic exciter (18) is connected.Adjust the degree of tightness that connects, make it can transmit well exciting force.
5, set the vialog position, so that the Measurement accuracy vibration displacement.Vialog monitoring point stress concentration point as shown in Figure 11, perhaps its symmetric position.
6, high circulation Vibrating Load spectrum and hang down cyclic loading spectrum is set, carries out twin shaft height cycling fatigue experiment.
7, after the off-test for the displacement that records, utilize finite element analysis to obtain examining a little true stress state, and analyze and reach a conclusion.

Claims (1)

1. twin shaft composite fatigue test unit that just circulates, it is characterized in that: this device comprises hydraulic fatigue machine and upper and lower chuck, electromagnetic exciter (18), sample (7) and anchor clamps and locating connector; The middle fixture block 2(11 that electromagnetic exciter (18) is connected with anchor clamps by cylindricality connector (16), connecting link (15), U-shaped connector (14) in the locating connector) connects; Middle fixture block 2(11), middle fixture block 1(10) clamp the square mass boss at sample (7) middle part by web member, sample (7) two ends are connected with clamping plate (3) in the anchor clamps by web member; Connector (2) links to each other by bolt in clamping plate (3) and the anchor clamps; The vertical end of connector (2) places the upper and lower chuck groove of hydraulic fatigue machine to contact with hydraulic fatigue machine, relies on this testing machine hydraulic coupling to clamp;
Described hydraulic fatigue machine is Shimadzu EHF-EM100K type hydraulic fatigue machine, provides dynamic 100KN, the power of static 150KN; Its upper and lower chuck is this machine annex;
Described electromagnetic exciter is JZQ-80 type vibrator, and it is 1-1.5KHz that frequency is provided, the exciting force of maximum 800N, and it is fixed on the large quality work platform by web member; This electromagnetic exciter is equipped with corresponding power amplifier and signal source simultaneously;
Described sample is to adopt symmetric design, and is middle with square mass boss, and two is square and with the bars of through hole;
Described anchor clamps comprise clamping plate (3), connector (2), middle fixture block 1(10) and middle fixture block 2(11); The former two is bolted; The latter two clamp the square mass boss at sample (7) middle part by bolt; These clamping plate (3) are to adopt minute half design, and profile is the L-type structural member, and its facade and plane all are provided with connecting hole; Plane contact between clamping plate (3) and the sample produces predetermined pressure under the coupling bolt effect, Effective Raise contact rigidity; Adopt transition fit between pin-and-hole on clamping plate (3) and the sample and the pin (6), not only be convenient to load and unload but also be unlikely to produce excessive gap affects loading accuracy, transition fit has effectively avoided bolt owing to being subjected to shearing to produce destruction so that pin (6) becomes the load parts simultaneously; This connector (2) profile is T-shaped structural member, and its surface level is provided with connecting hole; It is vertically held and places the upper and lower chuck groove of hydraulic fatigue machine to contact with hydraulic fatigue machine; The bolt position design that disperses improves rigidity effectively, makes sample centering by the fine setting that connects relative position simultaneously; This centre fixture block 1(10) be that the middle part has the rectangular-shaped piece that groove, two ends are provided with connecting hole; This centre fixture block 2(11) profile is T-shaped structural member, the profile of its surface level and size and middle fixture block 1(10) corresponding, it is vertically held and is provided with connecting hole, is connected with U-shaped connector (14) by little pin (13);
Described locating connector comprises U-shaped connector (14), connecting link (15) and cylindricality connector (16), screw thread on the thread end of connecting link (15) and the U-shaped connector (14) is spirally connected, and the spheric end of connecting link (15) is connected 16 with the cylindricality connector) the ball pivot connection; This U-shaped connector (14) is to have rectangular-shaped of U-lag, and U-lag is provided with connecting hole, and the U-lag lower end is provided with threaded connection hole; This connecting rod (15) is round bar spare, and an end of round bar is screw thread, and the other end is set to ball pivot shape; The profile of this cylindricality connector (16) is the sleeve-like part, excircle is provided with three uniform screw thread fixed orifices, it is hinged that endoporus one end is processed into the ball pivot end of ball pivot shape and connecting link (15), the endoporus other end links to each other with the excitation head of electromagnetic exciter (18), adopts three uniform screws of circumferencial direction to clamp.
CN201310003921.9A 2013-01-06 2013-01-06 Double-shaft high-low cycle complex fatigue tester CN103076246B (en)

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CN103344514A (en) * 2013-07-05 2013-10-09 北京航空航天大学 High-cycle fatigue and low-intensity impact coupled damage calculation method based on nominal stress method
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