CN103074882A - Construction method for reinforcing island-type perennial frozen-soil foundation by adopting gravel piles - Google Patents

Construction method for reinforcing island-type perennial frozen-soil foundation by adopting gravel piles Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103074882A
CN103074882A CN2013100294180A CN201310029418A CN103074882A CN 103074882 A CN103074882 A CN 103074882A CN 2013100294180 A CN2013100294180 A CN 2013100294180A CN 201310029418 A CN201310029418 A CN 201310029418A CN 103074882 A CN103074882 A CN 103074882A
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pile
soil
hole
forming
filler
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Inventor
谢时雳
韩健
赵振国
辛德仁
徐泉涌
才洪滨
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HEILONGJIANG HIGHWAY PROSPECTING DESIGN INSTITUTE
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HEILONGJIANG HIGHWAY PROSPECTING DESIGN INSTITUTE
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Priority to CN2013100294180A priority Critical patent/CN103074882A/en
Publication of CN103074882A publication Critical patent/CN103074882A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a construction method for reinforcing an island-type perennial frozen-soil foundation by adopting gravel piles. The island-type perennial frozen soil below a road foundation is difficult to protect, and disease or potential instable factors can be produced in the operation process of the road. The method comprises the following steps of preparing: wire distribution, fixing of pile locations, test run, grading of gravels and replacement filling of gravels; installing a pile machine: utilizing a heavy hammer to tamp, impact or rotate to drill holes, placing fillers into the hole (pipe), wherein the filler quantity for each time is 0.06 to 0.10 m<3>, and the filler height is 50cm to 80cm; lifting the heavy hammer after the placement of the filler, tamping with large energy primarily, compacting or vibrating compacting, and then placing fillers into the holes; lifting the heavy hammer to a certain height secondarily, measuring the injection deformation of the heavy hammer, and controlling the injection deformation within 15cm; and repeating the pile forming in the previous step to the ground surface, and adopting low-falling-distance compacting way to compact the pile to the ground surface, so that the ground projection is not more than 15cm. The method is used for adopting the gravel piles to reinforce the island-type perennial frozen-soil foundation.

Description

Be used for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground
Technical field:
The present invention relates to a kind of for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the roadbed construction method of island-shaped permafrost soil ground.
Background technology:
For a long time, research stable about subgrade in permafrost soil zone and disease management is both at home and abroad continuing always, effort by numerous experts, scholar has obtained great successes, and the theory and technology level has had large increase, is also accumulating rich experience aspect practice and the production application.By the experimental study to the prospecting of the ever-frozen ground of our province and some relevant problems; recognize that the island-shaped permafrost soil under the protection roadbed is very difficult; and the thaw collapse of ever-frozen ground ground and the stable long time that needs; if ever-frozen ground is not processed; in the operation process of highway, will certainly produce disease or potential certain destabilizing factor; therefore, the ever-frozen ground Ground Treatment Schemes of seeking effective control frozen soil disease and economical rationality is very necessary.
Summary of the invention:
The present invention seeks in conjunction with Permafrost of Heilongjiang Privince feature and distress mechanism thereof, reinforcement mechanism and the scope of application with reference to the treatment of soft foundation scheme, reference broken stone pile, Dense Broken Stone Peg, rammed concrete pile, post hammer develop the soft foundation processing schemes commonly used such as stake, carry out consolidation process for different ever-frozen ground highway section ground.The present invention adopts impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, tamps the broken stone pile of pile, and the island-shaped permafrost soil ground of degenerating serious is urged to melt consolidation process.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
One Kind be used for to adopt gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, its composition comprises: preparation: the construction line-putting, fixed pile, test-run a machine, graded broken stone, change back-up sand gravel 0.5m; Pile-forming machine perching; The heavy tamping pore-forming impacts or the rotary drilling pore-forming, (pipe) interior filler to the hole, and each amount of filler is 0.06m3~0.10m 3 , 50cm~80cm is high; Promote weight behind the filler, for the first time macro-energy is rammed, tamp or shake close, filler in the hole again; For the second time weight is promoted certain altitude, measure weight injection distortion, the injection Deformation control is in 15cm; Compacting or shake closely repeats the back pile to the earth's surface, should take when ramming to ground lowly to ram apart from hammer, is no more than 15cm with earth heaving.
Described for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described preparation of construction comprises:
A) graded broken stone: rubble, the general 5-20mm of particle diameter, grating is good, mud content is not more than 5%, prepare construction machinery, described construction machinery comprises: diesel hammer or electronic drop hammer or vibro driver or auger rig for reaching the higher pore-forming machinery of design hole depth and hole quality and efficient;
B) carry out levelling of the land compacting work by designing requirement, cleaning is obstruction on the ground, during rainy season construction, drainage measure should be arranged;
C) repetition measurement roadbed center line is made the central point in control stake and each hole;
D) try the pore-forming test, to determine the construction final argument.
Described job practices for adopting gravel pile reinforcing processing island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, the technique of (pipe) interior filler comprises to the hole:
A) drilling and forming hole should carry out in the middle of peripheral or two side direction; Should carry out to sloping top direction in the horizontal wall inscription location;
B) impact "forming column: utilize electronic drop hammer or diesel hammer to impact and employing sleeve pipe follow-up pore-forming, in pile pipe, pour into graded broken stone, packed height is not more than 1m for the first time, then extract the pile pipe of certain-length, should guarantee during tube drawing that pack length is 30~50cm in the pile pipe, fully tamp or shake close, rammer degree of filling out must not be greater than 0.9, general ramming times 3~4 times, filler, tube drawing, compacting are until the earth's surface forms broken stone pile one by one.
Described for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described compacting or shake close, filling tamped or shake the ram-compaction gravel piles constructure scheme close in the hole again: adopt the weight homenergic, etc. the construction of distortion ram-compaction gravel piles, make inter-pile soil effectively be reinforced compacted and reach even, pile body itself laterally and vertically all obtains compacted, Bearing Capacity of Composite Foundation obtains larger raising, satisfies the uniform requirement of sedimentation small deformation; Described employing weight homenergic, etc. distortion to ram expanding method be at first to utilize the tension weight churning pore-forming, it is for the first time compacted that the pile body surrounding soil is obtained; Secondly rubble is inserted in layering in the hole, inserts 0.06~0.1m at every turn 3 , behind the lifting weight, make its freely falling body, ram rubble in loose foundation soil, make the stake soil body on every side obtain compacted; Insert successively rubble, ram rubble, be filled to design elevation until ram; Utilize the kinetic energy of weight, use the identical energy of ramming by contour pile body; Pile penetration is hit in control second, thereby obtains identical distortion, makes the inter-pile soil body obtain effectively maximum compacted effect, and the change nonhomogeneous soil is the even soil body; Pile body itself is vertically got back effectively compacted, greatly improves the bearing capacity of stake, by the higher composite foundation of acting in conjunction formation bearing capacity of broken stone pile and inter-pile soil.
Described for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described compacting or shake close, filling tamped or shake the ram-compaction gravel piles constructure scheme close in the hole again: after weight was sink to design elevation, filler was rammed, each filler 0.1m 3 , determine material amount and the car number of go-cart, fill out a defective material and ram 2 times, fall apart from 5m, survey second and hit pile penetration, require to be not more than 15cm, in the 2m scope of top layer, because the constraint of the lateral confinement of soil is less, adopt the low distance of 2m repeatedly to ram, repeat filler, ram until design elevation.
Described for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, the technique of (pipe) interior filler comprises to the hole: adopt the rotary drilling "forming column: utilize auger rotary drilling pore-forming, adopt sleeve pipe or mud off pore-forming, residue and thickened drilling fluid in the cleaning hole, in hole (pipe), pour into graded broken stone, each packed height is not more than 1m, the compacting or shake close, sleeve portion is arranged, should extract first and tamp behind the sleeve pipe of certain-length again or shake closely, should guarantee during tube drawing that pack length is 30~50cm in the pile pipe, ramming degree of filling out must not be greater than 0.9.Filler, tube drawing, compacting are until the earth's surface forms broken stone pile one by one; Described rotary drilling "forming column adopts the mud off pore-forming, feeds intake at the bottom of adopting the catheter tube endoporus, and anti-plug or shake closely piecemeal, the limit is hit (shaking) limit and is pulled out, and filler shakes close pile to the earth's surface.
Beneficial effect:
What material of body of a pile of the present invention adopted is graded broken stone, makes it have larger compactness and bearing capacity.Broken stone pile belongs to discrete material pile, and pile body has and the characteristic of all native compatible deformations of stake and certain space.Broken stone pile is to utilize hammer ram to impact (the post hammer develops method) or vibration sinking tube and mechanical drilling and forming hole, in the impact holing process ground local products is given birth to larger horizontal compacted effect; Ram the rubble of inserting in the hole by hammer ram, form closely knit pile body, ram energy and transmit all around to the stake hole by material of body of a pile, to the living certain compacted effect of stake week local products; After pile body formed, the space in the pile body made all local products lifes of stake must discharging consolidation and can promote the thawing of ever-frozen ground.Therefore, adopt broken stone pile can increase substantially ground total bearing capacity and minimizing settling amount.
Reinforcement effect main manifestations of the present invention is in the following areas:
1, compacted effect
The ever-frozen ground temperature of our province is all not bery low, most of frozen soils temperature is more than-3 ℃, especially island-shaped permafrost soil, temperature generally is not less than-1.0 ℃, frozen soil mostly is the larger soft clay of void ratio and freezes to form, and its water content is higher, and wherein has a certain amount of water that do not freeze, make it have certain plasticity, mostly be hard plastic-semi-stiff state.Therefore, adopt greater impact can impact device can be in the ever-frozen ground stratum impact holing, and hole quality is good in the frozen soil, and the impact of underground water is seldom arranged.Therefore, can develop the method pore-forming with reference to the post hammer for ever-frozen ground.Adopt impact holing, need not outer haul volume, thereby saved the workload of the earthwork, the duration, fugitive rate was high.But for the sand that freezes, gravel, rubble and harder cohesive soil, impact holing is unaccommodated, should adopt the machinery rotation drilling and forming hole.
Compacted effect of the present invention is mainly three parts.At first, for melt layer and soft clay frozen crust, during impact holing soil layer around the stake hole is produced very large horizontal extruding force, stake soil squeezes peripherad soil layer, makes that soil layer hole around the pile body reduces, compactness increases; Secondly, when hammer ram is rammed the material of body of a pile of inserting in the hole, ram energy and at the bottom of the hole, reach transmission all around by rubble, with at the bottom of the hole and the stake around native compacted, and there are some rubbles to clamp-on in the frozen soil all around, when forming stake, also form in stake week one with the cementing compacted band of rubble, increased to a certain extent stake directly.Because the little general 0.8 ~ 1.5m of pilespacing, pile body laterally compacted is equivalent to the soil layer of thickness 0.5 ~ 1.2m is carried out the draining densification, therefore accelerated the discharging consolidation of weak soil, shortened the compression stabilization time of ground, made the foundation soil after the processing reach in a short time uniform and stable.
, the short consolidation of melting
The present invention is that to the reinforcement effect key of ever-frozen ground ground the permeable and conductive force of broken stone pile can promote the thawing of ever-frozen ground, in the ever-frozen ground stratum, because drilling construction disturbance and material of body of a pile have certain initial temperature (warm season construction), make the frozen soil of a hole perisporium produce slight the thawing, and frozen soil could be finished consolidation and settlement after only having thawing under the effect of selfweight stress and subsidiary stress, consider to adopt broken stone pile that ever-frozen ground is urged to melt reinforcing, thereby make ground satisfy the requirement of bearing capacity.
, reinforced action
When the ever-frozen ground stratum is processed, General Requirements of the present invention runs through whole ever-frozen ground layer or stake end and enters not in thaw collapse or the weak thaw collapse stratum, pile body is as vertical reinforcing body, under load action, mainly play stress and concentrate effect, thereby the pressure of inter-pile soil burden is reduced relatively, compare with former natural ground, the bearing capacity of composite foundation improves, settling amount reduces.Owing to reinforced action of the present invention and part metathesis, increased the shear strength of foundation soil, improved the Against Sliding Stability ability of ground.In addition, pile body is pressed in (squeezing) close process in the frozen soil thawing and has been played certain drainage, not only shortened the horizontal permeation path of weak soil pore water, the moisture of material of body of a pile adsorbing residual in the soft foundation can also be discharged downward or upward, accelerate the discharging consolidation of weak soil, thereby increase the intensity of foundation soil, improve the bearing capacity of soft base.
Description of drawings:
Accompanying drawing 1 is process chart of the present invention.
The specific embodiment:
Embodiment 1:
One Kind be used for to adopt gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, its composition comprises: preparation: the construction line-putting, fixed pile, test-run a machine, graded broken stone, change back-up sand gravel 0.5m; Pile-forming machine perching; Heavy tamping pore-forming, impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, (pipe) interior filler to the hole, each amount of filler is 0.06m 3 ~0.10m 3 , 50cm~80cm is high; Promote weight behind the filler, for the first time macro-energy is rammed, tamp or shake close, filler in the hole again; For the second time weight is promoted certain altitude, measure weight injection distortion, the injection Deformation control is in 15cm; Compacting or shake closely repeats the back pile to the earth's surface, should take when ramming to ground lowly to ram apart from hammer, is no more than 15cm with earth heaving.
Embodiment 2:
Embodiment 1 is described for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, and described preparation of construction comprises:
A. graded broken stone: rubble, the general 5-20mm of particle diameter, grating is good, mud content is not more than 5%, prepare the described construction machinery of construction machinery for reaching the higher pore-forming machinery of design hole depth and hole quality and efficient, comprising: diesel hammer or electronic drop hammer or vibro driver or auger rig;
B. carry out levelling of the land compacting work by designing requirement, cleaning is obstruction on the ground, during rainy season construction, drainage measure should be arranged;
C. repetition measurement roadbed center line is made the central point in control stake and each hole;
D. try the pore-forming test, to determine the construction final argument.
Embodiment 3:
Embodiment 1 or 2 described job practicess for adopting gravel pile reinforcing processing island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, the technique of (pipe) interior filler comprises to the hole:
A) drilling and forming hole should carry out in the middle of peripheral or two side direction; Should carry out to sloping top direction in the horizontal wall inscription location;
B) impact "forming column: utilize electronic drop hammer or diesel hammer to impact and employing sleeve pipe follow-up pore-forming, in pile pipe, pour into graded broken stone, packed height is not more than 1m for the first time, then extract the pile pipe of certain-length, should guarantee during tube drawing that pack length is 30~50cm in the pile pipe, fully tamp or shake close, rammer degree of filling out must not be greater than 0.9, general ramming times 3~4 times, filler, tube drawing, compacting are until the earth's surface forms broken stone pile one by one.
Embodiment 4:
Embodiment 1 or 2 or 3 described job practicess for adopting gravel pile reinforcing processing island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described compacting or shake close, filling tamped or shake the ram-compaction gravel piles constructure scheme close in the hole again: adopt the weight homenergic, etc. distortion ram and carry out ram-compaction gravel piles and construct, make inter-pile soil effectively be reinforced compacted and reach even, pile body itself laterally and vertically all obtains compacted, Bearing Capacity of Composite Foundation obtains larger raising, satisfies the uniform requirement of sedimentation small deformation; Described employing weight homenergic, etc. the distortion tamping method be at first to utilize the tension weight churning pore-forming, it is for the first time compacted that the pile body surrounding soil is obtained; Secondly rubble is inserted in layering in the hole, inserts 0.06~0.1m at every turn 3 , behind the lifting weight, make its freely falling body, ram rubble in soft foundation soil, it is for the second time compacted that the stake soil body is on every side obtained; Insert successively rubble, ram rubble, be filled to design elevation until ram; Utilize the kinetic energy of weight, use the identical energy of ramming by contour pile body; Pile penetration is hit in control second, thereby obtains identical distortion, makes the inter-pile soil body obtain effectively maximum compacted effect, and the change nonhomogeneous soil is the even soil body; Pile body itself is vertically got back effectively compacted, greatly improves the bearing capacity of stake, by the higher composite foundation of acting in conjunction formation bearing capacity of broken stone pile and inter-pile soil.
Embodiment 5:
Embodiment 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 described job practicess for adopting gravel pile reinforcing processing island-shaped permafrost soil ground, described compacting or shake close, filling tamped or shake the ram-compaction gravel piles constructure scheme close in the hole again: after weight was sink to design elevation, filler was rammed, each filler 0.1m 3 , determine material amount and the car number of go-cart, fill out a defective material and ram 2 times, fall apart from 5m, survey second and hit pile penetration, require to be not more than 15cm, in the 2m scope of top layer, because the constraint of the lateral confinement of soil is less, adopt the low distance of 2m repeatedly to ram, repeat filler, ram until design elevation.
Embodiment 6:
Embodiment 1 or the 2 described described impact of job practices or rotary drilling pore-formings for adopting gravel pile reinforcing processing island-shaped permafrost soil ground, the technique of (pipe) interior filler comprises to the hole: adopt the rotary drilling "forming column: utilize auger rotary drilling pore-forming, adopt sleeve pipe or mud off pore-forming, residue and thickened drilling fluid in the cleaning hole, in hole (pipe), pour into graded broken stone, each packed height is not more than 1m, the compacting or shake close, sleeve portion is arranged, should extract first and tamp again behind the sleeve pipe of certain-length or shake close, should guarantee during tube drawing that pack length is 30~50cm in the pile pipe, ramming degree of filling out must not be greater than 0.9.Filler, tube drawing, compacting are until the earth's surface forms the sand broken stone pile one by one; Described rotary drilling "forming column adopts the mud off pore-forming, feeds intake at the bottom of adopting the catheter tube endoporus, and anti-plug or shake closely piecemeal, the limit is hit (shaking) limit and is pulled out, and filler shakes close pile to the earth's surface.
Embodiment 7:
Be used for to adopt gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, its composition comprises: preparation: the construction line-putting, fixed pile, test-run a machine, graded broken stone, change back-up sand gravel 0.5m; Pile-forming machine perching; The heavy tamping pore-forming impacts or the rotary drilling pore-forming, (pipe) interior filler to the hole, and each amount of filler is 0.06m 3 ~0.10m 3 , 50cm~80cm is high; Promote weight behind the filler, for the first time macro-energy is rammed, tamp or shake close, filler in the hole again; For the second time weight is promoted certain altitude, measure weight injection distortion, the injection Deformation control is in 15cm; The weight hoisting depth is relevant with pile body; Compacting or shake closely repeats the back pile to the earth's surface, should take when ramming to ground lowly to ram apart from hammer, is no more than 15cm with earth heaving.
Specific embodiment:
1 layout
Pilespacing should according to the Bearing Capacity of Composite Foundation of designing requirement, the factors such as place ground soil nature, construction technology of processing determine, ever-frozen ground all melts as early as possible between stake in order to make, and thaw collapse is even, stake Kong Yi presses equilateral triangle and arranges, the centre distance between the stake hole should can be 3 ~ 5 times an of bore dia.The diameter of stake is preferably 300 ~ 600mm, can determine according to design and selected hole forming method.Stake footpath commonly used is 300 ~ 500mm.The hammer ram of selecting should directly adapt with stake.
The area of Ground Treatment of the present invention should be greater than the area of roadbed bottom surface.When adopting Local treatment, to weak thaw collapse and part thaw collapse frozen soil foundation, the every limit of width that exceeds foundation bed should be less than 0.50m; To strong thaw collapse and part thaw collapse frozen soil foundation, every limit should be less than 1.00m.When adopting full wafer to process, exceed the width of foundation bed outer rim, every limit should not be less than 2m.
Process the degree of depth
The degree of depth of Ground Treatment of the present invention, should determine according to thickness and soil property situation, engine request and the composite factors such as pore-forming and tamping apparatus of ever-frozen ground layer, when the buried depth of ever-frozen ground layer thickness and relative hard formation is little, should determine by relative hard formation buried depth and ever-frozen ground layer thickness, the stake end is penetrated in the hardpan that the ever-frozen ground layer enters thawing; When the ever-frozen ground layer thickness is larger, the stake end is entered not in thaw collapse or the weak thaw collapse stratum, and should estimate ever-frozen ground layer deflection, the distortion permissible value of press roadbed is definite.
Distortion
The distortion of composite foundation of the present invention is calculated, and should meet (GB50007) pertinent regulations of existing national standard " Code for design of building ", and wherein the modulus of compressibility of composite earth layer can adopt the modulus of deformation of load test to replace.The distortion of composite foundation comprises the distortion of stake and inter-pile soil and the lower sleeping soil layer that is untreated thereof.Because the distortion of ever-frozen ground ground mainly is the distortion of the weak soil of formation after inter-pile soil melts.For the how freezing soil of weak thaw collapse and the ice-rich permafrost of thaw collapse, by melt and compacted after, the physico-mechanical properties of inter-pile soil obviously improves, namely the dry density of soil increases, compressibilty reduces, bearing capacity improves, the thaw collapse of ever-frozen ground is eliminated by major part, so the distortion of inter-pile soil (composite earth layer) can not calculated; But to full freezing soil and contain native ice sheet and should calculate the distortion of processing soil layer and whether satisfy roadbed to the requirement of settling amount; If can not satisfy, can consider the frozen soil under the roadbed is melted the further consolidation process of weak soil that forms.
Other designing requirements
Filler in the stake hole should determine that according to the purpose of engine request or Ground Treatment the compacting quality of pile body should be used the control of mean pressure real coefficient.Material of body of a pile is answered back-filling in layers, compaction in layers, and the mean pressure real coefficient value of pile body all should be not little by 0.96.The particle diameter of rubble forms and should determine according to laboratory test.
Stake hole amount of filler
Amount of filler in the stake of the present invention hole should be determined by field trial, can multiply by fullness coefficient by design stake pore volume during estimation and determine desirable 1.2 ~ 1.4.As the middle-shallow layer seasonally thaw layer of constructing is when thicker, and the earth's surface may produce or the protuberance phenomenon, and then filler quantity should be increased and decreased according to site specific.
Material
Material of body of a pile adopts the hard materials such as graded broken stone, graded sand and a small amount of aggregate chips, can determine by laboratory test the optimum gradation of rubble.The water content of rubble, sand and aggregate chips should be too not large, and mud content must not be greater than 5%, and the maximum particle diameter of rubble should not be greater than 50mm.
Other construct design
The sand-gravel cushion that a layer thickness is 300 ~ 500mm should be laid in the top of stake of the present invention, and its coefficient of consolidation should be less than 0.96.Mattress layer by the discrete materials such as graded sand and stone, coarse sand, rubble form has following several effect in the ever-frozen ground composite foundation after urging to melt reinforcing:
1) guarantees stake, native shared load.
Mattress layer be set to composite foundation provides stake behind load-bearing the condition of thrusting, to guarantee that inter-pile soil participates in work all the time.Make stake, the stressed normal value that is always of soil.When the thickness of mattress layer was 30cm, the loading sharing of stake soil was less, had given full play to the supporting capacity of inter-pile soil, had reduced the stress on stake top.
) adjust stake, native horizontal loading share ratio
When basic Under Lateral Loading, mattress thickness is larger, and Horizontal Displacement is less, i.e. it is less that the horizontal loading that is subjected to is pushed up in stake.Test shows, when mattress thickness is not less than 10cm, pile body can run-off the straight and level fracture, make the stake ability of in composite foundation, can not losing the job.
8 constructions
The broken stone pile in ever-frozen ground highway section is processed construction, should arrange according to the construction speed of the roadbed earthwork.Job practices of the present invention can adopt post hammer to develop method soil compaction pore-forming in the ever-frozen ground ground, then rams in the hole and fills out the rubble pile that stirs.Technique is comparatively simple, but determines construction technology, selects hole forming method, sequence of construction, should note following requirement when ramming filler in the hole.
) pile-forming equipment
The post hammer method of developing should use the column hammer (being the post hammer) of diameter 300 ~ 500 mm, length 2 ~ 6 m, quality 1 ~ 8 t to construct.The equipment of lifting column hammer can be selected 10 ~ 30 t voluntarily bar crane, walking Drop hammer pile driver or other special-purpose machines and tools equipment, adopts automatic decoupling device.Elevating capacity should be passed through calculative determination, the absorption affinity of soil layer coupled columns hammer when the quality of consideration hammer and pore-forming lifting column hammer; Or definite by field trial, but generally should be less than 3 ~ 5 times of hammer quality.
) pile-formation process
The post hammer develops the method construction and can follow these steps to carry out.
Clear up smooth construction plant, lay sand cushion and roll layout stake position; When surface water was arranged, sand cushion should be higher than the earth's surface water level.
Construction equipment is in place, makes post hammer align piles position.
The punching of post hammer, can adopt respectively following three kinds of pore-forming modes according to soil property and groundwater condition:
1. impact holing: the post hammer is promoted certain altitude, automatically-unhooked lower drop impact soil layer, so repeated stock can be filled out a small amount of coarse aggregate and continue to impact, until be rammed closely knit at the bottom of the hole when being designed to hole depth in the hole.
2. filler impact holing: when occurring necking down during pore-forming or collapsing the hole, graded is inserted brickbat and caustic lime block, while impacting filler is clamp-oned at the bottom of hole wall and the hole, when approaching at the bottom of the hole when being designed to hole depth, rams the part brickbat and forms bellend.
3. strike-on pore-forming: when the hole that collapses seriously is difficult to pore-forming, can propose the hammer repeated stock to designing hole depth, then filler is inserted in gradation, after quicklime imbibition in the hole, inter-pile soil character make moderate progress, carries out secondary pulse strike-on pore-forming again.When adopting said method still to be difficult to pore-forming, also can adopt casing pipe hole forming, namely with post hammer punching limit, limit sleeve pipe is pressed in the soil, until stake end design elevation.
Pile: answer cleaning hole internal water accumulation and residue and in time carry out filler before the filler of stake hole.Insert a hole compacting with the filler layering that standard hopper or dumper will mix and stir.When adopting casing pipe hole forming, limit layering filling tamped, sleeve pipe is extracted on the limit.The quality of hammer, hammer length, distance, layering amount of filler, compaction in layers thickness, ramming times, the total filler amount etc. of falling should be determined according to test or by local experience.Each hole should be rammed and be filled to underground 10 ~ 30cm, and its stake Kong Yiyong top, top course rams envelope.Should make a record in the construction, and the problem of finding is in time processed.
The construction equipment displacement repeats above-mentioned steps and carries out next pile construction.
Sand-gravel cushion and compacting should in time be laid in location behind the pile, and the highway section after the processing should be filling roadbed as early as possible.In time lay sand-gravel cushion and filling roadbed, can not only guarantee pile crown and pile strength, make also that the long period has a constant load on the ground of frozen soil highway section, be conducive to finishing as early as possible of foundation settlement distortion, and can prevent that the pile body expansion from causing upwards swollen pulling out, and avoids weakening the horizontal compacted effect of stake.The Macadam Pile Construction should be carried out in the middle of roadbed two side direction, frozen soil is melted in the middle of two side direction, water can be discharged to both sides after being conducive to the frozen soil thawing, and remedies to a certain extent owing to roadbed both sides base pressure is uneven less than the settling rate that causes in the road.
) pore-forming technique
Hole forming method has the methods such as immersed tube (hammering, vibration), impact, rotary drilling pore-forming, but certain limitation is arranged, as impacting and the hammer hidden pipe pore-forming, in closely knit ever-frozen ground, creep into difficulty, rotary drilling efficient in freezing the cohesive soil stratum is not high, therefore, should consider designing requirement, pore-forming equipment or hole forming method, on-the-spot soil property and on the factors such as impact of surrounding environment, select immersed tube (vibration, hammering) or the method pore-formings such as impact, rotary drilling.
In construction pore-creating or the tube drawing process, stake hole (or stake top) upper soil horizon there is certain loosening effect, therefore, should be according to the pore-forming equipment of selecting and job practices before the construction, certain thickness loosening soil layer is reserved in consideration in the place, after pore-forming and a stake hole backfilling compaction finish it is excavated or process by design code.
) be reinforced the foundation soil water content
The water content of plan Ground Treatment soil is compacted most important to drilling construction and inter-pile soil, especially the seasonally thaw layer on frozen soil top.Engineering practice shows, when the water content of natural soil less than 12% the time, soil is hardened condition, compaction is very difficult, and equipment damages easily; When the water content of natural soil is equal to or greater than 24%, saturation ratio is greater than 65% the time, and the stake hole may necking down, and the soil around the stake hole is protuberance easily, compacted weak effect; When the water content of natural soil approached optimum (or plastic limit) water content, drilling construction speed was fast, inter-pile soil compacted effective.Therefore, in pore forming process, should consider to adopt sleeve pipe and other retaining wall schemes according to the water content of intending Ground Treatment soil and hole quality.
) pore-forming and backfilling compaction
Backfilling compaction in pore-forming and the hole should meet the following requirements.
The sequence of construction of the backfilling compaction in pore-forming and the hole is processed full wafer, should from outside (both sides) inwards (centre) carry out, to larger paragraph, can take the segmentation worker.
In the hole before the filler, answer sediment at the bottom of cleaning hole internal water accumulation and the hole, should tamp at the bottom of the hole in case of necessity, and should survey sample diameter, the degree of depth and the verticality in a hole.
The perpendicularity deviation in stake hole should be greater than 1.5%.
The deviation of stake central point of hole should not surpass 5% of pilespacing design load;
(5) through after the assay was approved, by designing requirement, people's filler is filled out in layering in the hole, and answers compaction in layers to design elevation or earth's surface.
Before laying sand-gravel cushion in addition, the loosening soil layer more than the stake top mark height should be excavated or rams (pressure) closely knit.

Claims (6)

1. job practices that be used for to adopt gravel pile reinforcing to process the island-shaped permafrost soil ground, its composition comprises: preparation: the construction line-putting, fixed pile, test-run a machine, graded broken stone, change back-up sand gravel 0.5m; Pile-forming machine perching; It is characterized in that: heavy tamping, impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, (pipe) interior filler to the hole, each amount of filler is 0.06m 3~0.10m 3, 50cm~80cm is high; Promote weight behind the filler, for the first time macro-energy is rammed, tamp or shake close, filler in the hole again; For the second time weight is promoted certain altitude, measure weight injection distortion, the injection Deformation control is in 15cm; Repeat the back pile to the earth's surface, should take low distance to ram when ramming to ground, so that earth heaving is no more than 15cm.
2. according to claim 1 for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, it is characterized in that: described preparation of construction comprises:
Graded broken stone: rubble, the general 5-20mm of particle diameter, grating is good, mud content is not more than 5%, prepare the described construction machinery of construction machinery for reaching the higher pore-forming machinery of design hole depth and hole quality and efficient, comprising: diesel hammer or electronic drop hammer or vibro driver or auger rig;
Carry out levelling of the land compacting work by designing requirement, cleaning is obstruction on the ground, during rainy season construction, drainage measure should be arranged;
Repetition measurement roadbed center line is made the central point in control stake and each hole;
Try the pore-forming test, to determine the construction final argument.
3. according to claim 1 and 2 for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, it is characterized in that: described impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, the technique of (pipe) interior filler comprises to the hole:
A) drilling and forming hole should carry out in the middle of peripheral or two side direction; Should carry out to sloping top direction in the horizontal wall inscription location;
B) impact "forming column: utilize electronic drop hammer or diesel hammer to impact and employing sleeve pipe follow-up pore-forming, in pile pipe, pour into graded broken stone, packed height is not more than 1m for the first time, then extract the pile pipe of certain-length, should guarantee during tube drawing that pack length is 30~50cm in the pile pipe, fully tamp or shake close, rammer degree of filling out must not be greater than 0.9, general ramming times 3~4 times, filler, tube drawing, compacting are until the earth's surface forms broken stone pile one by one.
4. according to claim 1 and 2 for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, it is characterized in that: described compacting or shake close, filling tamped or shake the ram-compaction gravel piles constructure scheme close in the hole again: adopt weight to carry out the ram-compaction gravel piles construction, make inter-pile soil effectively be reinforced compacted and reach even, pile body itself laterally and vertically all obtains compacted, Bearing Capacity of Composite Foundation obtains larger raising, satisfies the uniform requirement of sedimentation small deformation; Described employing weight homenergic, etc. the distortion tamping method be at first to utilize the tension weight churning pore-forming, it is for the first time compacted that the pile body surrounding soil is obtained; Secondly rubble is inserted in layering in the hole, inserts 0.06~0.1m at every turn 3, behind the lifting weight, make its freely falling body, ram rubble to loose filled ground, it is for the second time compacted that the stake soil body is on every side obtained; Insert successively rubble, ram rubble, be filled to design elevation until ram; Utilize the kinetic energy of weight, use the identical energy of ramming by contour pile body; Pile penetration is hit in control second, thereby obtains identical distortion, makes the inter-pile soil body obtain effectively maximum compacted effect, and the change nonhomogeneous soil is the even soil body; Pile body itself is vertically got back effectively compacted, greatly improves the bearing capacity of stake, by the higher composite foundation of acting in conjunction formation bearing capacity of broken stone pile and inter-pile soil.
5. according to claim 4 for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practices of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, it is characterized in that: described compacting or shake close, filling tamped or shake the ram-compaction gravel piles constructure scheme close in the hole again: after weight is sink to design elevation, filler is rammed, each filler 0.1m 3, determine material amount and the car number of go-cart, fill out a defective material and ram 2 times, fall apart from 5m, survey second and hit pile penetration, require to be not more than 15cm, in the 2m scope of top layer, because the constraint of the lateral confinement of soil is less, adopt the low distance of 2m repeatedly to ram, repeat filler, ram until design elevation.
6. according to claim 1 and 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 described for adopting gravel pile reinforcing to process the job practicess of island-shaped permafrost soil ground, it is characterized in that: described impact or rotary drilling pore-forming, the technique of (pipe) interior filler comprises to the hole: adopt the rotary drilling "forming column: utilize auger rotary drilling pore-forming, adopt sleeve pipe or mud off pore-forming, residue and thickened drilling fluid in the cleaning hole, in hole (pipe), pour into graded broken stone, each packed height is not more than 1m, the compacting or shake close, sleeve portion is arranged, should extract first and tamp again behind the sleeve pipe of certain-length or shake close, should guarantee during tube drawing that pack length is 30~50cm in the pile pipe, rammer degree of filling out must not be greater than 0.9, one by one filler, tube drawing, compacting is until the earth's surface forms the sand broken stone pile; Described rotary drilling "forming column adopts the mud off pore-forming, feeds intake at the bottom of adopting the catheter tube endoporus, and anti-plug or shake closely piecemeal, the limit is hit (shaking) limit and is pulled out, and filler shakes close pile to the earth's surface.
CN2013100294180A 2013-01-25 2013-01-25 Construction method for reinforcing island-type perennial frozen-soil foundation by adopting gravel piles Pending CN103074882A (en)

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CN103806444A (en) * 2014-02-14 2014-05-21 浙江省建工集团有限责任公司 Soft soil layer rotary excavating pile construction method
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103321203A (en) * 2013-07-03 2013-09-25 李华伟 Method for strongly impacting and expanding piles by conical rammer
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CN103806444A (en) * 2014-02-14 2014-05-21 浙江省建工集团有限责任公司 Soft soil layer rotary excavating pile construction method
CN107012853A (en) * 2017-06-02 2017-08-04 孔淑娴 A kind of highway engineering soft-soil foundation treatment method
CN108708364A (en) * 2018-06-06 2018-10-26 中国电建集团山东电力建设有限公司 DDC pile foundation construction process
CN108867645A (en) * 2018-09-04 2018-11-23 江苏山水环境建设集团股份有限公司 Nearby Structure Larsen steel sheet pile pulls out construction method in pattern foundation pit supporting structure
CN109778831A (en) * 2018-11-28 2019-05-21 中交一公局桥隧工程有限公司 Ram-compaction gravel piles reinforce Artifical Fill Ground construction
WO2022077908A1 (en) * 2020-10-12 2022-04-21 海南大学 Isoenergetic deformation composite foundation utilizing microorganism to solidify aggregate, and construction method

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