CN102956752A - Preparation method of flexible copper indium gallium selenium thin film solar battery - Google Patents

Preparation method of flexible copper indium gallium selenium thin film solar battery Download PDF

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CN102956752A
CN102956752A CN2012104956829A CN201210495682A CN102956752A CN 102956752 A CN102956752 A CN 102956752A CN 2012104956829 A CN2012104956829 A CN 2012104956829A CN 201210495682 A CN201210495682 A CN 201210495682A CN 102956752 A CN102956752 A CN 102956752A
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evaporation source
flexible substrate
naf
absorbed layer
evaporation
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CN102956752B (en
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杨亦桐
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CETC 18 Research Institute
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Abstract

The invention relates to a preparation method of a flexible copper indium gallium selenium thin film solar battery. The preparation method comprises the steps of: sequentially preparing a Mo back electrode, an absorbing layer, a CdS buffer layer, an i-ZnO/ZnO:Al transparent conductive layer/window layer and an Ni/Al electrode on a flexible substrate. The preparation method is characterized in that the absorbing layer is prepared by doping sodium later. According to the preparation method of the flexible copper indium gallium selenium thin film solar battery, Na is doped late by evaporating NaF after the absorbing layer preparation process is completed, so that not only is the carrier concentration of the absorbing layer increased and the resistivity reduced, but also the crystal quality of the absorbing layer is not affected, the grain size of the thin film of the absorbing layer is not changed, the electric properties of the absorbing layer is are improved, and the electric properties of the thin film solar battery can be effectively improved. Compared with similar batteries, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the battery prepared by the absorbing layer can be improved by 20-30%.

Description

The preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell
Technical field
The invention belongs to the flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell technical field, particularly relate to a kind of preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell.
Background technology
CIGS thin-film solar cell is a kind of novel solar cell that causes in recent years common concern, and its conversion efficiency is high, good stability, Radiation hardness are strong, is with a wide range of applications.The researcher found through experiments, in the process of soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate deposition copper indium gallium selenide film battery absorbed layer, the Na element that contains in the glass can diffuse in the absorbed layer by the Mo back electrode, Na has played passivation owner of lost property defective, has increased effective p-type doping in Copper Indium Gallium Selenide, increase the effect of carrier concentration, reduction resistivity, improved significantly the electric property of CIGS solar cell.The world record of copper indium gallium selenide cell conversion efficiency is to realize by the method for mixing Na at present.
Adopt the materials such as polyimide film, titanium foil, stainless steel paillon foil can overcome the deficiency that glass rigid substrate battery can not be layed in the out-of-flatness surface as the flexible copper indium gallium selenide thin-film battery of substrate, enlarged the range of application of copper indium gallium selenide cell.But, owing to not containing the Na element in these materials, can't realize that Na diffuses into absorbed layer from substrate in the preparation process, therefore needs adopt the method for artificial doping Na to improve the performance of solar cell.
At present, in the preparation CIGS thin-film solar cell process, the method for mixing Na has a variety of, comprising: the initialization layer that contained first Na before preparation Mo back electrode at substrate deposition one deck; Contain the Na initialization layer at Mo back electrode surface deposition; Codeposition Na element in preparation CuInGaSe absorbed layer process (prepare Copper Indium Gallium Selenide for the three-step approach that generally adopts at present, can be divided into again the first step mix, second one mix altogether, the 3rd step mixed altogether) etc. method.Although adopt these method doping Na element can improve the electric property of thin film solar cell, but find by observing its absorbed layer crystal structure, absorbed layer film crystallite dimension is compared the sample of not mixing Na and is all reduced to some extent, crystal boundary increases, and this can bring negative impact to the performance of CIGS thin-film solar cell again to a certain extent.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is for after solving the technical problem that exists in the known technology and providing a kind of absorbed layer to mix Na, crystalline quality is unaffected, the film crystallite dimension is constant, the preparation method of the flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell that CIGS thin-film solar cell open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, curve factor and the photoelectric conversion efficiency that is prepared into all increases.
The technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
The preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell, be included in and prepare successively Mo back electrode, absorbed layer, CdS resilient coating, i-ZnO/ZnO:Al transparency conducting layer/Window layer and Ni/Al electrode on the flexible substrate, be characterized in: the preparation method that described absorbed layer is mixed sodium after adopting.
The present invention can also adopt following technical scheme:
Preparation method's step of mixing sodium after described absorbed layer adopts comprises:
Step 1, on flexible substrate, face down with one of Mo back electrode and insert in the evaporation cavity of vacuum chamber, the top of flexible substrate is equipped with lining heat, be evenly distributed on the periphery of Mo back electrode below in the evaporation cavity as Cu, Ga, Se, the In of evaporation source, place the center below the absorbed layer in the evaporation cavity as the NaF9 of evaporation source; Cu, Ga, Se, In and NaF evaporation source place the controlled heater of temperature separately; All be equipped with the evaporation source baffle plate between flexible substrate and Cu, Ga, Se, In and the NaF evaporation source;
Step 2, will be evacuated to 10 in the evaporation cavity by vacuum pump -3Pa, substrate is heated to 450 ° of C ~ 500 ° C, the Cu evaporation source is heated to 1200-1300 ° of C, In evaporation source and is heated to that 800-1000 ° of C, Ga evaporation source are heated to 900-1100 ° of C, the Se evaporation source is heated to 200-300 ° of C, open the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga, Se, coevaporation Cu, In, Ga, Se element prepare the absorbed layer that thickness is 1-5 μ m on the Mo back electrode; Close the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga;
Step 3, keep flexible substrate temperature-resistant, the NaF evaporation source is heated to 550 ° of C ~ 600 ° C, opens the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF, and NaF continues to close behind evaporation 15 ~ 20min the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF, stops the NaF heating;
Step 4, the flexible substrate speed with 20-30 ° of C/min under Se atmosphere is lowered the temperature, until the flexible substrate temperature is lower than the evaporation source baffle plate of closing Se behind 250 ° of C, stop to pass into Se steam, take out after flexible substrate is cooled to room temperature, absorbed layer namely forms the absorbed layer of rear doping Na.
Flexible substrate is polyimide film, titanium foil or stainless steel paillon foil in the described step 1.
The controlled heater of temperature is the boron nitride crucible that interior coiling on every side has resistive heater in the described step 1, and the crucible outer wall is pasted with the thermocouple of measuring and controlling heating-up temperature.
Advantage and good effect that the present invention has are:
The present invention is owing to mixing Na after being undertaken by evaporation NaF after adopting absorbed layer preparation technology to finish again, not only increased absorbed layer carrier concentration, reduced resistivity, and the absorbed layer crystal mass is unaffected, absorbed layer film crystallite dimension is constant, improved the electric property of absorbed layer, electric property that can the Effective Raise thin film solar cell, with present similar battery ratio, the photoelectric conversion efficiency that adopts this absorbed layer to prepare battery can improve 20% ~ 30%.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the present invention's vacuum chamber side-looking schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the present invention's vacuum chamber schematic top plan view.
The 1-evaporation cavity; 2-substrate heating plate; The 3-flexible substrate; The 4-vacuum pump; The 5-Cu evaporation source; The 6-Ga evaporation source; The 7-Se evaporation source; The 8-In evaporation source; The 9-NaF evaporation source; 10-evaporation source baffle plate.
Embodiment
For further understanding summary of the invention of the present invention, Characteristic, hereby exemplify following examples, and cooperate accompanying drawing to be described in detail as follows:
The preparation process of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell of the present invention: on flexible substrate, prepare successively Mo back electrode, absorbed layer, CdS resilient coating, i-ZnO/ZnO:Al transparency conducting layer/Window layer and Ni/Al electrode.
Innovative point of the present invention is: the preparation method that described absorbed layer is mixed sodium after adopting.
Preparation method's step of mixing sodium after described absorbed layer adopts comprises:
Step 1, on flexible substrate, face down with one of Mo back electrode and insert in the evaporation cavity of vacuum chamber, the top of flexible substrate is equipped with lining heat, be evenly distributed on the periphery of Mo back electrode below in the evaporation cavity as Cu, Ga, Se, the In of evaporation source, place the center below the absorbed layer in the evaporation cavity as the NaF9 of evaporation source; Cu, Ga, Se, In and NaF evaporation source place the controlled heater of temperature separately; All be equipped with the evaporation source baffle plate between flexible substrate and Cu, Ga, Se, In and the NaF evaporation source;
Step 2, will be evacuated to 10 in the evaporation cavity by vacuum pump -3Pa, substrate is heated to 450 ° of C ~ 500 ° C, the Cu evaporation source is heated to 1200-1300 ° of C, In evaporation source and is heated to that 800-1000 ° of C, Ga evaporation source are heated to 900-1100 ° of C, the Se evaporation source is heated to 200-300 ° of C, open the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga, Se, coevaporation Cu, In, Ga, Se element prepare the absorbed layer that thickness is 1-5 μ m on the Mo back electrode; Close the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga;
Step 3, keep flexible substrate temperature-resistant, the NaF evaporation source is heated to 550 ° of C ~ 600 ° C, opens the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF, and NaF continues to close behind evaporation 15 ~ 20min the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF, stops the NaF heating;
Step 4, the flexible substrate speed with 20-30 ° of C/min under Se atmosphere is lowered the temperature, until the flexible substrate temperature is lower than the evaporation source baffle plate of closing Se behind 250 ° of C, stop to pass into Se steam, take out after flexible substrate is cooled to room temperature, absorbed layer namely forms the absorbed layer of rear doping Na.
Embodiment 1, referring to accompanying drawing 1-2.
Adopt thickness be the polyimides of 50 μ m as flexible substrate 3, the method by magnetron sputtering is at the thick Mo back electrode of substrate deposition 0.8 μ m; The absorbed layer of doping Na after the preparation of Mo back electrode; The preparation process of the absorbed layer of described rear doping Na is: ⑴ faces down in the evaporation cavity 1 of inserting vacuum chamber with one of Mo back electrode on flexible substrate, the top of flexible substrate is equipped with substrate heating plate 2, the mode that heating plate is switched on built-in heater strip is heated to temperature required to substrate, measure in real time the temperature of heater plate surface by thermocouple; Cu evaporation source 5, Ga evaporation source 6, Se evaporation source 7, In evaporation source 8 are evenly distributed in the boron nitride crucible of the periphery of Mo back electrode below in the evaporation cavity, NaF evaporation source 9 as evaporation source places in the boron nitride crucible of the center below the absorbed layer in the evaporation cavity, resistive heater is coiled in the crucible inner periphery, can to crucible heating, measure and the control heating-up temperature by the thermocouple that is attached to the crucible outer wall after the energising; All be equipped with evaporation source baffle plate 10 between flexible substrate and Cu, Ga, Se, In and the NaF evaporation source; ⑵ will be evacuated to 10 by vacuum pump 4 in the evaporation cavity -3Pa, with the substrate heating plate flexible substrate is heated to 450 ° of C, start simultaneously hot water radiation wire around the crucible be equipped with Cu, In, Ga, Se evaporation source, the Cu evaporation source be heated to 1200 ° of C, In evaporation source be heated to 900 ° of C, Ga evaporation source be heated to 1000 ° of C, when the Se evaporation source is heated to 250 ° of C, open the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga, Se, coevaporation Cu, In, Ga, Se element prepare the absorbed layer that thickness is 1.5 μ m on the Mo back electrode; Close the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga, remain enough Se atmosphere in the evaporation cavity, unaffected to guarantee each elemental composition of absorbed layer; ⑶ it is constant that keep the flexible substrate temperature to be positioned at 450 ° of C, and the NaF evaporation source is heated to 600 ° of C, opens the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF behind temperature stabilization, and closing baffle plate behind the lasting evaporation of the NaF 15min stops the NaF heating; ⑷ flexible substrate speed with 20 ° of C/min under Se atmosphere is lowered the temperature, until the flexible substrate temperature is lower than the evaporation source baffle plate of closing Se behind 250 ° of C, stop to pass into Se steam, after being cooled to room temperature, flexible substrate takes out, the absorbed layer of doping Na after namely forming, the absorbed layer crystalline quality of the method doping Na is unaffected, and absorbed layer film crystallite dimension is constant; Then on the absorbed layer of doping Na, use successively known technology, deposit the CdS resilient coating, deposit i-ZnO/ZnO:Al transparency conducting layer/Window layer, evaporation Ni/Al electrode, preparation cost invention flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell with magnetron sputtering method such as the chemical bath method.
The flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell carrier concentration of the present invention's preparation reaches 3 * 10 17Cm -3, with the do not mix battery carrier concentration 5 * 10 of Na of same structure 16Cm -3Compare and improved 1 order of magnitude.Compare with the battery of mixing, mix altogether the Na preparation before adopting, open circuit voltage and short circuit current all can improve 3% ~ 5%, fill factor, curve factor then can increase about 10% ~ 20%.
Embodiment 2
Adopt thickness be the stainless steel foil of 40 μ m as flexible substrate, other condition is identical with embodiment 1, the flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell that is prepared into is ditto mixed, is mixed altogether the Na method and compares photoelectric conversion efficiency and can improve approximately 20% ~ 30%.
Operation principle of the present invention:
Mix, mix altogether the method such as Na before the present invention is directed to and cause the absorbed layer film crystal grain broken problem that attenuates, the technique that will mix Na changes into after the absorbed layer deposition is finished.Find through research, the Na element is distributed in the position of grain boundary in Copper Indium Gallium Selenide, and its diffusion process is also carried out along crystal boundary.For front mixing, mix altogether the Na method, film has had the Na element to exist in the process of deposition CuInGaSe absorbed layer, these Na can form diffusion barrier at grain boundaries, element is played inhibitory action in the diffusion of intergranule, thereby hindered the further fusion of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide intergranule in small, broken bits, reason that crystal grain diminishes that Here it is.Mix the method for Na after among the present invention, the Na element does not participate in the Copper Indium Gallium Selenide deposition process, has formed larger crystal grain before mixing, and the Na element can not destroy grainiess along crystal boundary to the absorbed layer diffusion inside.Compare with other method, after to mix Na method crystalline quality better, defective is less, can effectively suppress the interface compound, increases carrier concentration.Experiment showed, the open circuit voltage (V of the CIGS thin-film solar cell of mixing the Na preparation behind the present invention OC), short circuit current (J SC), fill factor, curve factor (FF) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) all increase than the battery of mixing, mix altogether the Na preparation before at present known.
Although the above is described the preferred embodiments of the present invention by reference to the accompanying drawings; but the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned embodiment; above-mentioned embodiment only is schematic; be not restrictive; those of ordinary skill in the art is under enlightenment of the present invention; not breaking away from the scope situation that aim of the present invention and claim protect, can also make a lot of forms, these all belong within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell, be included in and prepare successively Mo back electrode, absorbed layer, CdS resilient coating, i-ZnO/ZnO:Al transparency conducting layer/Window layer and Ni/Al electrode on the flexible substrate, it is characterized in that: the preparation method that described absorbed layer is mixed sodium after adopting.
2. the preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell according to claim 1 is characterized in that: preparation method's step of mixing sodium after described absorbed layer adopts comprises:
Step 1, on flexible substrate, face down with one of Mo back electrode and insert in the evaporation cavity of vacuum chamber, the top of flexible substrate is equipped with lining heat, be evenly distributed on the periphery of Mo back electrode below in the evaporation cavity as Cu, Ga, Se, the In of evaporation source, place the center below the absorbed layer in the evaporation cavity as the NaF9 of evaporation source; Cu, Ga, Se, In and NaF evaporation source place the controlled heater of temperature separately; All be equipped with the evaporation source baffle plate between flexible substrate and Cu, Ga, Se, In and the NaF evaporation source;
Step 2, will be evacuated to 10 in the evaporation cavity by vacuum pump -3Pa, substrate is heated to 450 ° of C ~ 500 ° C, the Cu evaporation source is heated to 1200-1300 ° of C, In evaporation source and is heated to that 800-1000 ° of C, Ga evaporation source are heated to 900-1100 ° of C, the Se evaporation source is heated to 200-300 ° of C, open the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga, Se, coevaporation Cu, In, Ga, Se element prepare the absorbed layer that thickness is 1-5 μ m on the Mo back electrode; Close the evaporation source baffle plate of Cu, In, Ga;
Step 3, keep flexible substrate temperature-resistant, the NaF evaporation source is heated to 550 ° of C ~ 600 ° C, opens the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF, and NaF continues to close behind evaporation 15 ~ 20min the evaporation source baffle plate above the NaF, stops the NaF heating;
Step 4, the flexible substrate speed with 20-30 ° of C/min under Se atmosphere is lowered the temperature, until the flexible substrate temperature is lower than the evaporation source baffle plate of closing Se behind 250 ° of C, stop to pass into Se steam, take out after flexible substrate is cooled to room temperature, absorbed layer namely forms the absorbed layer of rear doping Na.
3. the preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: described flexible substrate is polyimide film, titanium foil or stainless steel paillon foil.
4. the preparation method of flexible CIGS thin-film solar cell according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: the controlled heater of temperature is the boron nitride crucible that interior coiling on every side has resistive heater in the described step 1, and the crucible outer wall is pasted with the thermocouple of measuring and controlling heating-up temperature.
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Cited By (10)

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CN104425650A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium before formation of three-step-method absorption layer
CN104425648A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium before formation of one-step-method absorption layer
CN104425649A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium after formation of one-step-method absorption layer
CN104425655A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium after formation of three-step-method absorption layer
CN104425647A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Method for manufacturing flexible solar cell by rigid substrate
CN104716222A (en) * 2013-12-11 2015-06-17 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Method for manufacturing CIGS thin film by splitting selenium steam through radio frequency
CN105632903A (en) * 2016-01-12 2016-06-01 苏州瑞晟纳米科技有限公司 Sodium-potassium co-doping technology for preparing high-efficiency copper indium gallium selenide solar cell
CN105633212A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-06-01 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Method and device for preparing gradient band gap light absorption layer based on one-step co-evaporation technology
CN105762232A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-07-13 黄广明 Flexible CIGS thin film solar battery preparation method
CN109841702A (en) * 2017-11-27 2019-06-04 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 The preparation method of alkali-metal-doped copper and indium gallium selenium film solar battery absorbed layer

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CN101752454A (en) * 2008-12-04 2010-06-23 上海空间电源研究所 Preparation method of ultrathin Cu-In-Ga-Se thin film solar cell with light trap structure
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Cited By (11)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104425650A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium before formation of three-step-method absorption layer
CN104425648A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium before formation of one-step-method absorption layer
CN104425649A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium after formation of one-step-method absorption layer
CN104425655A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Preparation method of flexible solar battery doped with sodium after formation of three-step-method absorption layer
CN104425647A (en) * 2013-09-03 2015-03-18 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Method for manufacturing flexible solar cell by rigid substrate
CN104716222A (en) * 2013-12-11 2015-06-17 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Method for manufacturing CIGS thin film by splitting selenium steam through radio frequency
CN104716222B (en) * 2013-12-11 2019-01-01 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 The method that radio frequency cracks selenium steam production CIGS thin-film
CN105633212A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-06-01 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Method and device for preparing gradient band gap light absorption layer based on one-step co-evaporation technology
CN105632903A (en) * 2016-01-12 2016-06-01 苏州瑞晟纳米科技有限公司 Sodium-potassium co-doping technology for preparing high-efficiency copper indium gallium selenide solar cell
CN105762232A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-07-13 黄广明 Flexible CIGS thin film solar battery preparation method
CN109841702A (en) * 2017-11-27 2019-06-04 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 The preparation method of alkali-metal-doped copper and indium gallium selenium film solar battery absorbed layer

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