CN102918655A - Solar cell and method for manufacturing the same - Google Patents

Solar cell and method for manufacturing the same Download PDF

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CN102918655A
CN102918655A CN 201180026017 CN201180026017A CN102918655A CN 102918655 A CN102918655 A CN 102918655A CN 201180026017 CN201180026017 CN 201180026017 CN 201180026017 A CN201180026017 A CN 201180026017A CN 102918655 A CN102918655 A CN 102918655A
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electrode layer
layer
back electrode
substrate
solar cell
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CN 201180026017
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Chinese (zh)
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裵道园
刘永三
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Lg伊诺特有限公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/06Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices characterised by at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L31/072Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices characterised by at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the potential barriers being only of the PN heterojunction type
    • H01L31/0749Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices characterised by at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the potential barriers being only of the PN heterojunction type including a AIBIIICVI compound, e.g. CdS/CulnSe2 [CIS] heterojunction solar cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0224Electrodes
    • H01L31/022408Electrodes for devices characterised by at least one potential jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L31/022425Electrodes for devices characterised by at least one potential jump barrier or surface barrier for solar cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0236Special surface textures
    • H01L31/02366Special surface textures of the substrate or of a layer on the substrate, e.g. textured ITO/glass substrate or superstrate, textured polymer layer on glass substrate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/042PV modules or arrays of single PV cells
    • H01L31/0445PV modules or arrays of single PV cells including thin film solar cells, e.g. single thin film a-Si, CIS or CdTe solar cells
    • H01L31/046PV modules composed of a plurality of thin film solar cells deposited on the same substrate
    • H01L31/0463PV modules composed of a plurality of thin film solar cells deposited on the same substrate characterised by special patterning methods to connect the PV cells in a module, e.g. laser cutting of the conductive or active layers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/54Material technologies
    • Y02E10/541CuInSe2 material PV cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/52Manufacturing of products or systems for producing renewable energy
    • Y02P70/521Photovoltaic generators

Abstract

Disclosed are a solar cell and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell includes a substrate, a back electrode layer on the substrate, a light absorbing layer on the back electrode layer, a buffer layer on the light absorbing layer, and a window layer on the buffer layer. The lateral surfaces of the first through holes are inclined with respect to the top surface of the substrate.

Description

太阳能电池及其制造方法 Solar cell and a method for producing

技术领域 FIELD

[0001 ] 本发明涉及一种太阳能电池及其制造方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a solar cell and a manufacturing method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 近来,随着能耗的增加,一种把太阳能转换成电能的太阳能电池的开发已经被实行。 [0002] Recently, with the increase in power consumption, the development of a converting solar energy into electrical energy is a solar cell has been implemented.

[0003] 尤其是,基于CIGS的太阳能电池被广泛应用,其中,基于CIGS的太阳能电池是一个PN异质结装置,该装置具有一个包含玻璃支撑基板的支撑基板结构、金属背电极层、P型基于CIGS的光吸收层、缓冲层、N型透明电极层。 [0003] In particular, the CIGS-based solar cells are widely used, wherein the CIGS-based solar cells is a PN heterojunction means a structure having a supporting substrate comprising a glass support substrate, a metal back electrode layer, P-type CIGS-based light absorbing layer, a buffer layer, N-type transparent electrode layer. [0004] 另外,为了增加太阳能电池的效率,进行了各种研究。 [0004] In order to increase the efficiency of solar cells, various studies.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本方发明提供了一种具有提高的可靠性的太阳能电池及其制造方法。 [0005] The present Fang Faming provides a method of manufacturing a solar cell having improved reliability.

[0006] 根据实施例,太阳能电池包含基板,基板上的背电极层,背电极层上的光吸收层,光吸收层上的缓冲层,以及缓冲层上的窗口层。 [0006] According to an embodiment, the solar cell includes a substrate, a back electrode layer on the substrate, a back electrode layer on the light absorbing layer, a buffer layer on a layer, and a window layer on the buffer layer of the optical absorption. 第一通孔的侧表面相对于基板的顶部表面倾斜。 Side surfaces of the first through hole is inclined relative to the top surface of the substrate.

[0007] 根据实施例,制造太阳能电池的方法包括:在基板上形成背电极层,刻蚀背电极层的一部分露出基板的顶部表面;并在背电极层上形成光吸收层、缓冲层和窗口层。 [0007] The method of embodiment, manufacturing a solar cell comprising: forming a back electrode layer on a substrate, etching the top surface of the substrate to expose a portion of the back electrode layer; and forming a light absorbing layer on the back electrode layer, the buffer layer and the window Floor. 当刻蚀背电极层的该部分时,激光束相对于基板的顶部表面倾斜地照射到基板上。 When the portion of the back electrode layer is etched, the laser beam relative to the top surface of the substrate is irradiated obliquely onto the substrate.

[0008] 如上所述,根据实施例,被第一通孔分隔成多个背电极层的背电极层的侧表面相对于基板倾斜。 [0008] As described above, according to embodiments of the inclination, a first through hole is divided into a plurality of back electrode layer-side surface of the back electrode layer to the substrate. 因此,当第一通孔形成时,由于激光束的热冲击使得毛刺不可避免的产生。 Thus, when the first through-hole is formed, due to thermal shock of the laser beam such that the burr is generated inevitably.

[0009] 另外,第一通孔相对于支撑基板的倾斜表面可以避免覆盖失败,从而能够提高太阳能电池的可靠性。 [0009] Further, the first through-hole with respect to the inclined surface of the supporting substrate to cover the failure can be avoided, thereby improving the reliability of the solar cell.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0010] 图I是示出根据实施例的太阳能发电机的平面图; [0010] Figure I is a plan view of the solar power generator of the embodiment;

[0011] 图2是示出图I沿A-A'处截取的剖视图; [0011] FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a cross-sectional view of A-A 'taken at the I direction;

[0012] 图3是示出图2中B处的放大剖视图;以及 [0012] FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional view is shown at B in FIG. 2; and

[0013] 图4到7是示出根据实施例的太阳能电池的制造方法的剖视图。 [0013] FIGS. 4-7 are cross-sectional views illustrating a method of manufacturing a solar cell of the embodiment shown.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0014] 本实施例的描述中,可以理解,当一个层(或薄膜)、区域、图案、或结构被指出是在另一个基板、层(或薄膜)、区域、衬底或图案的“上”或者“下”时,它可以是直接或间接在其他的基板,层(或薄膜),区域,衬底或图案上,或是一个或是多个中间层也可能存在。 [0014] The embodiment described in the present embodiment, can be appreciated, a layer (or film), a region, a pattern, or a structure is indicated when it is on the other substrate, layer (or film), region, pattern, or substrate " when "or" lower ", it can be directly or indirectly on the other substrate, layer (or film), region, substrate or pattern, or one or more intervening layers may also be present. 参照图形描述了这所述层的这种位置。 This is described with reference to the graphic layers such position.

[0015] 为了方便或明确,附图中每一层的厚度和尺寸的显示可能是夸大的、省略的或示意性的显示。 [0015] For convenience or clear, the accompanying drawings and thickness of each layer in the display size may be exaggerated, omitted or schematically shown in. 另外,元素的尺寸并没有完全地反映实际尺寸。 In addition, the size of the element does not fully reflect the actual size.

[0016] 图I是示出了根据实施例的太阳能发电机的平面图,以及图2所示是图I沿A-A'处截取的剖视图。 [0016] Figure I is a plan view illustrating an embodiment of a solar power generator, and FIG. I is a sectional view taken along A-A 'shown in FIG 2, taken at.

[0017] 参见图2,根据实施例的太阳能电池包括支撑基板100、支撑基板100上的背电极层200、背电极层200上的光吸收层300、光吸收层300上的缓冲层400和高电阻缓冲层500、以及高电阻缓冲层500上的窗口层600。 [0017] Referring to Figure 2, the solar cell embodiment includes 100, back electrode layer 100, the support substrate support substrate 200, a back electrode layer of the light 200. absorbing layer 300, a light absorbing layer on the buffer layer 300, 400 and the high resistance buffer layer 500, and a window layer 600 on the high-resistance buffer layer 500.

[0018] 支撑基板100是一个平板形状并支撑背电极层200、光吸收层300、缓冲层400、高电阻缓冲层500、以及窗口层600。 [0018] The support substrate 100 is a plate shape and supports the back electrode layer 200, the light absorbing layer 300, buffer layer 400, the high-resistance buffer layer 500, and a window layer 600. 支撑基板100可以包括绝缘体。 The support substrate 100 may include an insulator. 支撑基板100可以包括玻璃基板、塑料基板或金属基板。 The support substrate 100 may include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate or a metal substrate. 更详细地,支撑基板100可以包括钠钙玻璃基板。 In more detail, the support substrate 100 may include a soda lime glass substrate.

[0019] 如果支撑基板100包含钠钙玻璃,当制造太阳能电池时钠钙玻璃中的Na会扩散到包含CIGS的光吸收层300中。 [0019] If the supporting substrate 100 comprising soda lime glass, when soda lime glass manufacturing the solar cell of Na diffuses into the light absorbing layer 300 containing CIGS in. 因此,光吸收层300的电荷浓度会增加。 Thus, the light absorbing layer 300 may increase charge concentration. 从而可以增加光电转换效率。 Thereby increasing the photoelectric conversion efficiency.

[0020] 另外,支撑基板100可以包括陶瓷基板,该陶瓷基板包含氧化铝、不锈钢、或者具有挠性的聚合物。 [0020] Further, supporting substrate 100 may comprise a ceramic substrate, a ceramic substrate comprising aluminum, stainless steel, or a flexible polymer. 因此,支撑基板100可以是透明的,刚硬的或是挠性的。 Thus, the support substrate 100 may be transparent, rigid or flexible.

[0021] 背电极层200设置在支撑基板100上。 [0021] The back electrode layer 200 is disposed on the support substrate 100. 背电极层200是导电层。 The back electrode layer 200 is a conductive layer. 背电极层200移动太阳能电池的光吸收层300产生的电荷,使得电流能够流到太阳能电池的外面。 Charge light absorbing layer 200 is moved back electrode of the solar cell layer 300 is produced, so that current can flow outside of the solar cell.

[0022] 背电极层200必须呈现高电导率或者是低电阻率才能发挥作用。 [0022] The back electrode layer 200 must exhibit high conductivity or low resistivity can play a role.

[0023] 另外,由于背电极层200接触由CIGS化合物构成的光吸收层300,使得背电极层200必须欧姆接触光吸收层300,这样可以得到一个低接触电阻值。 [0023] Further, since the light-absorbing layer in contact with the back electrode 200 made of CIGS compound layer 300, back electrode layer 200 such that the ohmic contact must be light absorbing layer 300, which can obtain a low contact resistance.

[0024] 当在硫(S)或硒(Se)氛围中进行热处理形成CIGS化合物时,背电极层200必须在高温状态保持稳定。 [0024] When the heat treatment is formed in the CIGS compound sulfur (S) or selenium (Se) atmosphere, the back electrode layer 200 must remain stable at high temperature. 另外,背电极层200必须表现出与支撑基板100有良好的粘结性,使得背电极层200与支撑基板100不会由于背电极层200和支撑基板100之间的热膨胀系数的差异而剥离。 Further, the back electrode layer 200 and the support substrate must exhibit good adhesion 100, back electrode layer 200 such that the support substrate 100 and the back electrode layer is not due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate 100 and the support 200 is peeled off.

[0025] 背电极层200可以包含钥(Mo)、金(Au)、铝(Al)、铬(Cr)、钨(W)和铜(Cu)中的一种。 [0025] The back electrode layer 200 may comprise a key (Mo), one kind of gold (Au), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), tungsten (W), and copper (Cu) in. 其中,与其他元素相比,Mo表现出与支撑基板I 00有低的热膨胀系数差异。 Wherein, as compared with other elements, Mo exhibits I 00 and the support substrate has a low thermal expansion coefficient difference. 因此,Mo与支撑基板100之间表现为很好的粘结性,使得能够阻止与支撑基板100之间的剥离。 Thus, the performance of Mo and between the support substrate 100 is a very good adhesion, making it possible to prevent the peeling between the support substrate 100. 另外,Mo满足背电极层200所需要的特征。 Further, Mo meet the characteristics required back electrode layer 200.

[0026] 背电极层200可以包含至少两层。 [0026] The back electrode layer 200 may comprise at least two layers. 这种情况下,这些层包含相同的金属或是不同的金属。 In this case, these layers comprise the same metal or different metals.

[0027] 第一通孔THl在背电极层200形成。 [0027] The first through-hole formed in the back electrode layer THl 200. 第一通孔THl作为一个开口区域露出支撑基板100顶部表面部分。 THl as a first through hole 100 to expose a top surface of the opening portion area of ​​the support substrate. 当在俯视图中观看时第一通孔THl在一个方向延伸。 THl through hole extending in a first direction when viewed in a plan view.

[0028] 通过第一通孔THl露出的支撑基板100的宽度范围大约是20 μ m到150 μ m。 [0028] The width of the support substrate exposed through the first through-hole 100 of THl is approximately 20 μ m to 150 μ m.

[0029] 背电极层200被第一通孔THl分成多个背电极。 [0029] The back electrode layer 200 is divided into a plurality of first through holes THl back electrode. 换言之,这些背电极被第一通孔THl限定。 In other words, the back electrode is a first through hole defined THl.

[0030] 这些背电极被设置成条纹形状。 [0030] The back electrode is disposed in a stripe shape. 另外,这些背电极可以被设置成矩阵的形式。 Further, the back electrode may be provided in the form of a matrix. 这样,当在俯视图中观看时第一通孔THl形成格子形状。 Thus, when viewed in plan view THl a first through hole formed in a lattice shape.

[0031] 使用激光使第一通孔THl被图案化。 [0031] The first through hole using a laser THl patterned. 当将激光束垂直照射到支撑基板100上这一传统的基于激光的图案化工艺被执行从而形成第一通孔THl时,由于激光束照射区域的热膨胀和热冲击,在背电极层200上产生毛刺。 When a laser beam is irradiated vertically to the traditional laser-based patterning process is performed on the support substrate 100 so as to form a first through hole THl, due to thermal expansion of the irradiation area of ​​the laser beam and thermal shock generated on the back electrode layer 200 glitch. [0032] 毛刺是指发生在第一通孔THl边缘的加工痕迹,因为在背电极层200图案化的时候所述边缘的尖端薄薄地卷起。 [0032] burr refers machining marks occur in the first through hole THl edge, since the edge tip of the thinly rolled back electrode layer 200, when patterned.

[0033] 就大面积太阳能电池而言,支撑基板100上生长的背电极层200可以包含多个密度不同的层。 [0033] For large-area solar cell, the back electrode layer 200 may comprise a plurality of different density layers 100 grown on the support substrate. 这种情况下,与支撑基板100相接触的下背电极层200可能有低密度,以提高与支撑基板100的粘结性。 In this case, the lower support 100 of the substrate contacting the back electrode layer 200 may have a low density, to improve the adhesion to the support substrate 100. 与光吸收层300相接触的上背电极层可以有基于电导率的高密度。 On the back electrode layer in contact with the light absorbing layer 300 can have a high density based on conductivity.

[0034] 当产生多个不同密度的层时,具有低密度的下背电极层的热膨胀系数可能有较高的值,这是由于在进行图案化工艺形成第一通孔THl时激光束产生的热冲击造成的。 [0034] When generating a plurality of layers of different density, low density having thermal expansion coefficient at the back electrode layer may have a higher value, which is due to performing the patterning process of forming a first through-hole of the laser beam generated THl thermal shocks.

[0035] 因此,由于下背电极层比上背电极层更加膨胀,使得形成第一通孔THl的背电极层的边缘向上卷起。 [0035] Accordingly, since the lower back electrode layer on the back electrode layer more than the expansion, the edges of the back electrode layer is formed such that a first through hole of THl turned up. · ·

[0036] 另外,当通过垂直照射激光束在背电极层200上形成第一通孔THl时,光吸收层300可能没有均匀地产生,而是产生了多个颗粒互相结合的形状。 [0036] Further, when a laser beam is irradiated through the vertical through hole formed in a first THl on the back electrode layer 200, the light absorbing layer 300 may not be uniformly generated, but generates a plurality of particles are bonded to each shape. 因此,覆盖失败可能产生。 Thus, the cover may have failed.

[0037] 因此,在颗粒的交界面会发生电流损失。 [0037] Thus, the particles at the interface current loss occurs. 另外,由于颗粒与基板100相隔离预定距离,使得装置的可靠性提高。 Further, since the particles are isolated from the substrate 100 by a predetermined distance, so that the reliability of the device is improved.

[0038] 图3所示是图2中B处的放大图。 [0038] FIG. 3 is an enlarged view at B 2. 根据实施例,第一通孔THl的侧表面210和220与支撑基板的法线倾斜一个预定的角度Θ。 According to an embodiment, a side surface normal to the first through hole 210 and THl support substrate 220 is inclined by a predetermined angle Θ.

[0039] 如果预定角度Θ超过约80°,相邻背电极之间的距离增加。 [0039] If a predetermined angle Θ greater than about 80 °, the distance between adjacent electrodes increases back. 因此,太阳能发电区域增加。 Thus, increasing the solar power generation region. 如果预定角度Θ小于30°,相邻背电极之间的距离变窄,使得相邻的太阳能电池之间可能发生短路。 If the predetermined angle Θ of less than 30 °, the distance between adjacent back electrode is narrowed, so that a short circuit may occur between the adjacent solar cell. 因此,该角度Θ形成范围可以是10° < Θ <80°,优选地,范围在30。 Thus, the angle [Theta] may be formed in the range 10 ° <Θ <80 °, preferably in the range of 30. 彡Θ 彡60°。 San San Θ 60 °.

[0040] 第一通孔THl的侧表面210和220可以形成相同的角度,或可以形成在所述角度范围内的不同角度。 [0040] The side surfaces of the first through hole THl 210 and 220 may be formed of the same angle, or may be formed at different angles within the angular range.

[0041] 背电极层200可以形成梯形形状,这样,由于Θ角,背电极层200在较高和较低的位置有彼此不同的刻蚀面积。 [0041] The back electrode layer 200 may be formed in a trapezoidal shape, so that, due to the angle Θ, the back electrode layer 200 have different etching each other in the area of ​​the upper and lower positions. 换言之,激光束从多个方向入射,从而在相对于支撑基板100的法面倾斜的同时形成第一通孔TH1,这样第一通孔THl的刻蚀面积向上扩大。 In other words, the laser beam is incident from multiple directions, thereby forming the first through holes TH1, while the support surface relative to the normal of the substrate 100 is inclined such that the first through-hole etching THl area expanded upward.

[0042] 由于多个激光束彼此倾斜入射形成如上所述的第一通孔TH1,背电极层200的侧表面相对于支撑基板100倾斜。 [0042] Since a plurality of laser beams obliquely incident on each other first through hole TH1 formed as described above, the back electrode layer-side surface 200 of the substrate 100 is inclined with respect to the support.

[0043] 换言之,由于刻蚀面积从支撑基板100向上增加,第一通孔THl的宽度向上逐渐增力口。 [0043] In other words, since the etching area increasing upwardly from the support substrate 100, a first width direction gradually through hole THl booster port. 因此,由于背电极层200的较高和较低区域之间热膨胀系数的差异而产生毛刺的几率减小,从而装置的可靠性提高。 Thus, the higher the probability of the back since the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the region of the lower electrode layer 200 and the generation of burrs is reduced, thereby improving the reliability of the device.

[0044] 光吸收层300可以形成在背电极层200上。 [0044] The light absorbing layer 300 may be formed on the back electrode layer 200. 光吸收层300包含P型半导体化合物。 Light absorbing layer 300 includes a P-type semiconductor compound. 更详细地,光吸收层300包含I-III-V族化合物。 In more detail, the light absorbing layer 300 includes a Group I-III-V compound. 例如,光吸收层300可以具有基于Cu-In-Ga-Se 的晶体结构(Cu (In, Ga) Se2; CIGS)、基于Cu-In-Se 的晶体结构、基于Cu-Ga-Se的晶体结构、或基于Cu-Zn-Sn-Se的晶体结构。 For example, the light absorbing layer 300 may have a Cu-In-Ga-Se crystal structure (Cu (In, Ga) Se2; CIGS) based on the crystal structure of Cu-In-Se, and based on the crystal structure of Cu-Ga-Se of , or based on the crystal structure of Cu-Zn-Sn-Se is.

[0045] 缓冲层400和高电阻缓冲层500可以形成在光吸收层300上。 [0045] The buffer layer 400 and the high resistance buffer layer 500 may be formed on the light absorbing layer 300. 在包含构成光吸收层300的CIGS化合物的太阳能电池中,PN结形成在含P型半导体的CIGS化合物薄膜和含N型半导体的窗口层600之间。 In a solar cell comprising CIGS compound constituting the light-absorbing layer 300 of, PN junction is formed between the CIGS compound containing a P-type semiconductor film and the window layer 600 containing N-type semiconductor.

[0046] 然而,由于上述两种材料在点阵常数和能带隙表现出巨大的差异,需要具有在两种材料质能带隙之间的中间能带隙的缓冲层以形成良好的结。 [0046] However, since the lattice constant and the two materials exhibit a great energy bandgap difference, a buffer layer is required to have two kinds of materials intermediate between mass and energy band gap energy band gap to form an excellent junction. [0047] 缓冲层400包含II-VI族材料如CdS或ZnS,且CdS表现出更高的太阳能电池发电效率。 [0047] The buffer layer 400 comprises a group II-VI materials such as CdS or ZnS, and CdS solar cells exhibit higher power generation efficiency.

[0048] 高电阻缓冲层500包含不掺杂的i-ZnO。 [0048] high-resistance buffer layer 500 comprises undoped i-ZnO. 高电阻缓冲层500的能带隙的范围大约是3. IeV 到3. 3eV0 The high-resistance buffer layer 500 of the band gap to the range of about 3. IeV 3. 3eV0

[0049] 窗口层600形成在高电阻缓冲层500上。 [0049] The window layer 600 is formed on the high-resistance buffer layer 500. 窗口层600是一个透明导电层。 The window layer 600 is a transparent conductive layer. 另外,窗口层600的电阻比背电极层200的电阻高。 Further, the high-resistance than the resistance of the window layer 600 the back electrode layer 200.

[0050] 窗口层600包含氧化物。 [0050] The window layer 600 comprises an oxide. 例如,窗口层600可能包含氧化锌、氧化铟锡(ITO)、或氧化铟锌(IZO)。 For example, the window layer 600 may contain zinc oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), or indium zinc oxide (IZO).

[0051] 另外,所述氧化物可以包含导电杂质如铝(Al)、氧化铝(Al2O3)、镁(Mg)、或镓(Ga)。 [0051] Further, the conductive oxide may contain an impurity such as aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), magnesium (Mg), or gallium (Ga). 更详细地,窗口层600可以包含掺杂铝的氧化锌(AZO)或是掺杂镓的氧化锌(GZO)。 In more detail, the window layer 600 may comprise aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) or gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO).

[0052] 如上所述,由于第一通孔THl具有相对于支撑基板100的法线倾斜的表面,当第一通孔THl形成时由激光束的热冲击产生的毛刺可以被阻止。 [0052] As described above, since the first through-hole with respect to the normal THl support substrate 100 inclined surfaces, burrs thermal shock when the first through hole is formed THl generated by the laser beam can be prevented.

[0053] 另外,由于第一通孔THl具有相对于支撑基板100的法线倾斜的表面,使得覆盖失败被阻止,从而太阳能电池的可靠性提高。 [0053] Further, since the first through-hole THl with respect to the normal to the support surface of the substrate 100 is inclined so as to cover the failure is prevented, thereby improving the reliability of the solar cell.

[0054] 图4到7是示出根据实施例的太阳能发电机的制造方法的剖视图。 [0054] FIG. 4-7 is a sectional view of the method of manufacturing the solar generator embodiment shown. 太阳能电池装置的制造方法的详细描述基于已经描述的太阳能装置的描述给出。 Detailed description of the method for manufacturing a solar cell device based on the description given solar device has been described.

[0055] 参见图4,在支撑基板100上形成背电极层200后,背电极层200被图案化,从而形成第一通孔TH1。 [0055] Referring to Figure 4, after forming the back electrode layer 200, back electrode layer 200 is patterned on the support substrate 100, thereby forming a first through hole TH1. 因此,在支撑基板100上形成多个背电极。 Thus, a plurality of back electrodes 100 on the support substrate. 背电极层200用激光被图案化。 The back electrode layer 200 is patterned with a laser.

[0056] 第一通孔THl露出支撑基板100的顶部表面,并且可以具有的宽度范围在大约80μ m到大约200 μ m。 [0056] The first through hole THl expose the top surface of the supporting substrate 100, and may have a width in the range of about 80μ m to about 200 μ m.

[0057] 另外,附加层如反扩散层可以被插入在支撑基板100和背电极层200之间。 [0057] Further, additional layers such as anti-diffusion layer may be interposed between the support substrate 100 and the back electrode layer 200. 这种情况下,第一通孔THl露出附加层的顶部表面。 In this case, the first through hole THl expose the top surface of the additional layer.

[0058] 第一通孔THl可以具有倾斜的侧表面。 [0058] THl first through-hole may have an inclined side surface. 为此,多个激光束以在相对于支撑基板100的法线倾斜Θ角的方向照射在支撑基板100上。 For this purpose, a plurality of laser beam irradiated in a direction with respect to the normal to the support substrate 100 is inclined at an angle Θ 100 is supported on a substrate.

[0059] 背电极层200可以形成梯形形状,这样背电极层200的较高和较低部分有彼此不同的刻蚀面积。 [0059] The back electrode layer 200 may be formed in a trapezoidal shape, the back electrode layer so that the upper and lower portion 200 are different from each other etching area. 换言之,激光束从多个方向入射,同时相对于支撑基板100的法向倾斜,从而形成第一通孔TH1。 In other words, the laser beam incident from a plurality of directions, simultaneously with respect to the normal to the support substrate 100 is inclined so as to form a first through hole TH1. 因此,第一通孔THl具有的刻蚀面积向上扩大。 Thus, the first through-hole having a THl etching area expanded upward.

[0060] 优选地,第一通孔THl是通过激光束彼此从大约5%到60%的叠加聚焦形成的。 [0060] Preferably, the first through-hole formed by the laser beam is THl each other from about 5% to 60% superimposed focusing.

[0061] 例如,第一通孔THl可以通过波长范围在大约500nm到大约1200nm的激光束形成。 [0061] For example, the first through hole THl may be from about 500nm to about 1200nm laser beam is formed within the wavelength range.

[0062] 参见图5,光吸收层300、缓冲层400、以及高电阻缓冲层500形成在背电极层200上。 [0062] Referring to Figure 5, the light absorbing layer 300, buffer layer 400, and a high-resistance buffer layer 500 is formed on the back electrode layer 200.

[0063] 光吸收层300可以通过溅射工艺或蒸镀方法形成。 [0063] The light absorbing layer 300 may be formed by a sputtering process or an evaporation method. 例如,光吸收层300可以通过多种方法形成,例如,通过同时或单独的蒸镀Cu、In、Ga、和Se形成基于Cu (In,Ga) Se2 (CIGS)的光吸收层300的方法,以及通过在金属前体薄膜形成后执行硒化工艺的方法。 For example, the light absorbing layer 300 can be formed by various methods, e.g., by simultaneous or separate deposition Cu, In, Ga, Se and Cu-based method 300 is formed (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) light absorbing layer, and a method performed by the selenization process after the metal thin film formed on the front.

[0064] 关于金属前体层形成后的硒化工艺的细节描述,金属前体层通过利用铜靶、铟靶或是镓靶进行溅射工艺在背电极层200上形成。 [0064] details regarding the selenization process after the metal layer is formed before described, the metal layer by using a copper target, an indium target or sputtering process for forming a gallium target on the back electrode layer 200.

[0065] 此后,金属前体层经过硒化工艺从而形成基于Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS)的光吸收层300。 [0065] Thereafter, the metal layer after the selenization process to form an (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) based light absorbing layer 300 Cu.

[0066] 与上述不同,利用铜靶、铟靶或镓靶进行的溅射工艺和硒化工艺可以同时进行。 [0066] Unlike the above, the use of a copper target, a sputtering process, and the selenization process indium or gallium target was a target may be performed simultaneously.

[0067] 另外,CIS或是CIG光吸收层300通过只利用铜和铟靶或者只利用铜和镓靶进行溅射工艺和硒化工艺形成。 [0067] In addition, CIS or CIG light absorbing layer 300 is formed by using only the target or only copper and indium and gallium with copper sputtering target process and the selenization process.

[0068] 此后,缓冲层400可以通过溅射工艺或CBD (化学浴沉积)方法沉积硫化镉后形成。 [0068] Thereafter, the buffer layer 400 may be formed by a sputtering method of depositing cadmium sulfide or the CBD (chemical bath deposition).

[0069] 下一步,光吸收层300、缓冲层400、以及高电阻缓冲层500的一部分被移除,从而形成第二通孔TH2。 [0069] Next, the light absorbing layer 300, buffer layer 400, is removed and a portion of the high-resistance buffer layer 500 so that the second through holes TH2 are formed.

[0070] 第二通孔TH2可以通过诸如刀具的机械设备或激光设备形成。 [0070] The second through hole TH2 may be formed by a machine or device, such as a laser cutter.

[0071] 例如,光吸收层300和缓冲层400可以采用宽度范围在大约40 μ m到大约180 μ m 的刀具被图案化。 [0071] For example, the light absorbing layer 300 and the buffer layer 400 may be employed in width in the range of about 40 μ m to 180 μ m around the cutter is patterned. 另外,第二通孔TH2可以通过采用波长范围在大约200nm到大约600nm的激光形成。 Further, second through holes TH2 by using a wavelength range of about 200nm to about 600nm laser forming.

[0072] 第二通孔TH2的宽度范围在大约30 μ m到大约100 μ m。 [0072] The second through hole TH2 width in the range from about 30 μ m to about 100 μ m.

[0073] 另外,第二通孔TH2的形成为露出了背电极层200顶端表面的一部分。 [0073] Further, the second through holes TH2 are formed to expose a portion of the back surface electrode layer 200 to the top.

[0074] 参照图6,窗口层600形成在光吸收层300的上方以及第二通孔TH2的内部。 [0074] Referring to Figure 6, the window layer 600 is formed over the interior of the light absorbing layer 300 and the second through hole TH2. 换言之,通过在缓冲层400上方和第二通孔TH2内部沉积透明导电材料形成窗口层600。 In other words, the window layer 600 is formed over the buffer layer within the via 400 and the second through holes TH2 depositing a transparent conductive material.

[0075] 这样,透明导电材料填充进第二通孔TH2,并且窗口层600直接与背电极层200接触。 [0075] Thus, a transparent conductive material is filled into the second through hole TH2, the contact window layer 600 and back electrode layer 200 directly.

[0076] 这样,窗口层600通过在无氧氛围下沉积透明导电材料形成。 [0076] Thus, the window layer 600 is formed by depositing a transparent conductive material in an oxygen atmosphere. 更详细地,窗口层600通过在无氧的惰性气体氛围下沉积AZO形成。 In more detail, the window layer 600 is formed by depositing AZO under oxygen-free inert gas atmosphere.

[0077] 下一步,缓冲层400、高电阻缓冲层500、和窗口层600的一部分被移除以形成第三通孔TH3。 [0077] Next, the buffer layer 400, the high-resistance buffer layer 500, and a portion of the window layer 600 is removed to form the third through holes TH3. 因此,窗口层600被图案化,从而限定多个窗口以及多个电池C1、C2、……、以及CN。 Thus, the window layer 600 is patterned to define a plurality of windows and a plurality of cells C1, C2, ......, and CN. 每个第三通孔TH3的宽度范围是大约30 μ m到大约200 μ m。 Width of each of the third through holes TH3 is about 30 μ m to about 200 μ m.

[0078] 连接部分700被设置在第二通孔TH2中。 [0078] The connecting portion 700 is disposed in the second through holes TH2. 连接部分700从窗口层600向下延伸到与背电极层200相接触。 A connecting portion 700 extending downwardly from the window layer 600 into contact with the back electrode layer 200. 例如,连接部分700从第一电池的窗口延伸到与第二电池的背电极相接触。 For example, a connecting portion 700 extending from a first cell window into contact with the back electrode of the second battery.

[0079] 因此,连接部分700使相邻的电池彼此相连。 [0079] Thus, the connecting portion 700 of the adjacent cells are connected to each other. 更详细地,连接部分700将窗口和背电极连接,这些窗口和背电极包括在电池Cl、C2、……、以及CN中彼此相邻。 In more detail, the connecting portion 700 and the back electrode is connected to the window, these windows and a back electrode in a battery comprising Cl, adjacent C2, ......, and the CN from each other.

[0080] 连接部分700与窗口层600 —体化。 [0080] The connecting portion 700 and the window layer 600 - Incorporating. 换言之,连接部分700包含与构成窗口层600的材料相同的材料。 In other words, the connecting portion 700 comprises the same material constituting the window layer 600 material.

[0081] 参见图7,缓冲层400、高电阻缓冲层500、窗口层600的一部分被移除以形成第三通孔TH3。 [0081] Referring to FIG 7, a buffer layer 400, the high-resistance buffer layer 500, a portion of the window layer 600 is removed to form the third through holes TH3. 因此,窗口层600被图案化,从而限定多个窗口和多个电池Cl、C2、……、以及 Thus, the window layer 600 is patterned to define a plurality of windows and a plurality of cells Cl, C2, ......, and

CN0 CN0

[0082] 如上所述,根据实施例,当第一通孔THl形成时激光束热冲击产生的毛刺能被阻止。 [0082] As described above, according to the embodiment, when the first laser beam through hole formed THl thermal shock burrs can be prevented. 因此,太阳能电池的可靠性提高。 Thus, reliability of the solar cell can be improved.

[0083] 说明书中诸如“一个实施例”、“实施例”、“示例性实施例”等,意思是结合实施例描述一个特定的特点、结构或特征包含在本发明的至少一个实施例中。 [0083] specification such as "one embodiment", "an embodiment", "example embodiment," etc., means that a described embodiments a particular feature, structure, or characteristic included in at least one embodiment of the present invention embodiment. 说明书中在不同地方出现的这些短语不一定是指相同的实施例。 The appearances of such phrases in various places are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. 进一步,当结合任何实施例描述了一个特定的特点、结构或特征,这被认为是本领域技术人员在其知识范围内能够结合其他实施例来实现这样的特点、结构或特征。 Further, when any of the embodiments described in conjunction with a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, which are believed to be skilled in the art is within the knowledge of other embodiments can be combined to effect such feature, structure, or characteristic.

[0084] 虽然参考数个说明性实施例描述了各实施例,但是可以认识到,在本公开揭示原则的精神和范围内,许多其他改进和实施例可以被本领域的技术人员设计出来。 [0084] Although the embodiments described with reference to a few illustrative embodiments, it will be appreciated that, in the present disclosure within the spirit and scope of the principles disclosed, and many modifications and other embodiments may be devised skilled in the art. 特别地,在本公开、附图和附加权利的范围中,主体组合排列的构成和(或)设置可以有多个变化和改进。 In particular, in the scope of the present disclosure of the drawings and the appended claims, the subject combination arrangement configuration and (or) may be provided with a plurality of variations and modifications. 除了组成部分和(或)设置的变化和改进之外,另外的使用对本领域技术人员中也是显而易见的。 In addition to the component parts and (or) changes and modifications provided, further use of the skill of the art are also apparent.

Claims (11)

  1. 1. 一种太阳能电池,包括: 基板; 背电极层,在该基板上; 光吸收层,在该背电极层上; 缓冲层,在该光吸收层上;以及窗口层,在该缓冲层上, 其中,所述背电极层包含第一通孔,以及具有上部面积和下部面积不同的梯形形状。 A solar cell, comprising: a substrate; a back electrode layer on the substrate; a light absorbing layer on the back electrode layer; a buffer layer on the light absorption layer; and a window layer on the buffer layer wherein the back electrode layer comprises a first through hole, having an upper area and a lower trapezoidal shape different areas.
  2. 2.根据权利要求I所述太阳能电池,其中,形成有第一通孔的背电极层的侧表面相对于该基板法线倾斜大约30°到大约60°的角度。 2. The solar cell as claimed in claim I, wherein the side surface is formed with a back electrode layer of the first through-hole is inclined with respect to the substrate normal angle of about 30 ° to about 60 °.
  3. 3.根据权利要求I所述太阳能电池,其中,所述背电极层包含多个背电极层。 3. The solar cell as claimed in claim I, wherein the back electrode layer comprises a plurality of back electrode layer.
  4. 4.根据权利要求3所述太阳能电池,其中,所述背电极层中的上背电极层的颗粒密度比所述背电极层中的下背电极层的颗粒密度高。 High density particles according to the particle density of the solar cell of claim 3, wherein said upper electrode backing layer of the back electrode layer than the back electrode layer in the back electrode layer.
  5. 5.根据权利要求I所述太阳能电池,其中,每个第一通孔的宽度是大约20 μ m到大约150 μ rn。 5. The solar cell as claimed in claim I, wherein the width of each of the first through-hole is about 20 μ m to about 150 μ rn.
  6. 6.根据权利要求I所述太阳能电池,进一步包含一个掺杂钠(Na)的中间层,以及该中间层插入在所述基板和背电极层之间。 6. The solar cell as claimed in claim I, further comprising a doped sodium (Na) intermediate layer, and an intermediate layer interposed between the substrate and the back electrode layer.
  7. 7. 一种太阳能电池的制造方法,该方法包括: 在基板上形成背电极层; 刻蚀该背电极层的一部分以露出该基板的顶部表面;以及在该背电极层上形成光吸收层、缓冲层和窗口层, 其中,当刻蚀所述背电极层的部分时,激光束照射在该基板上并相对于基板的顶部表面倾斜。 A method of manufacturing a solar cell, the method comprising: a back electrode layer formed on the substrate; portion of the electrode layer is etched back to expose the top surface of the substrate; and forming a light absorbing layer on the back electrode layer, the buffer layer and the window layer, wherein, when etching the portion of the back electrode layer, a laser beam is irradiated on the substrate with respect to the top surface of the substrate is inclined.
  8. 8.根据权利要求7所述的方法,其中,激光束照射多次,使得各个激光束关于基板法线彼此对称地照射,以及每束激光束相对于基板法线倾斜的角度范围是大约30°到大约60。 8. The method according to claim 7, wherein the laser beam is irradiated a plurality of times, so that each laser beam is irradiated symmetrically with respect to the substrate normal to each other, and each of the laser beams relative to the substrate normal range of the angle of inclination is about 30 ° to about 60. .
  9. 9.根据权利要求7所述方法,其中,第一通孔通过采用波长范围在大约500nm到大约1200nm的激光束照射形成。 9. The method according to claim 7, wherein the first through hole by using a laser beam to a wavelength range of about 1200nm is formed at about 500nm.
  10. 10.根据权利要求7所述的方法,其中,所述背电极层的形成包括: 紧邻所述基板形成下背电极层;以及在下背电极层上形成上背电极层,该上电极层的颗粒粒浓度比下背电极层上的颗粒浓度高。 10. The method according to claim 7, wherein forming the back electrode layer comprises: forming a lower substrate adjacent to the back electrode layer; the lower back and the back electrode layer is formed on the electrode layer, the electrode layer on the particles the high concentration of particles on the particle concentration lower than the back electrode layer.
  11. 11.根据权利要求8所述方法,其中,第一通孔通过激光束彼此的大约5%到60%的叠加聚焦形成。 11. The method according to claim 8, wherein the first through hole by a laser beam to each other from about 5% to 60% is superimposed focus formation.
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