CN102901676B - A kind of vertical direct shear test device - Google Patents

A kind of vertical direct shear test device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102901676B
CN102901676B CN201210431374.XA CN201210431374A CN102901676B CN 102901676 B CN102901676 B CN 102901676B CN 201210431374 A CN201210431374 A CN 201210431374A CN 102901676 B CN102901676 B CN 102901676B
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China
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shear
box
rubber membrane
membrane cover
chamber
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CN201210431374.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102901676A (en
Inventor
石崇
徐卫亚
王盛年
王海礼
张玉龙
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河海大学
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Abstract

A kind of vertical direct shear test device, comprise base, water injection pipe and drainpipe, base establishes pressure chamber, pressure chamber establishes fluid shear chamber upper cover, rubber Membrane cover is established in pressure chamber, rubber Membrane cover lower end is located on base and the lower end of rubber Membrane cover and is connected with base seal, be provided with in rubber Membrane cover, down cut box, on cut, down cut box lays respectively at the upper of rubber Membrane cover, lower end, and by rubber Membrane cover, on, down cut box surrounds sample chamber, on cut, down cut box adopts shearing component, shearing component comprises substrate, cutout and deformation block is respectively equipped with in substrate, the plane relative with deformation block of cutout and the shear surface of sample coplanar, the plane relative with deformation block of cutout is provided with tank, the basad extension of tank through substrate, form limbers, water injection pipe is connected with the limbers in upper shear box, drainpipe is connected with the limbers in down cut box, upper shear box establishes crown cap, be provided with at top cap and vertically load axle.

Description

A kind of vertical direct shear test device

Technical field

The present invention relates to rock-soil mechanics, the test in Geotechnical Engineering field and part of detecting, be specifically related to a kind of vertical direct shear test device, be applicable to have the test of the rock & soil mechanical parameter under the homogeneous soil sample of consolidation strength, the test of the ground basic mechanical parameter of soil-rock mixture sample and sliding surface infiltration effect, especially can realize the test of sample shear tangent plane intensity index under infiltration condition; In addition, also can be used for rock, the test of concrete fissure-plane seepage flow.

Background technology

In Geotechnical Engineering field, the shear failure of Rock And Soil is a kind of common failure mode, and after shear surface is formed, the intensity index of shear surface and mechanical characteristic are then the important indicators of computational stability.Direct shear test is the technical way and the method that obtain ground basic mechanical parameter.In practice, when rock soil medium has certain consolidation strength, the perviousness of rock mass own is less, when there being shear surface to be formed in Rock And Soil, the existence of water is then fairly obvious to the effect of shear surface weakening strength, therefore, on shear surface water permeation effects under Rock And Soil shearing strength most important to stability of rock-soil body.

But common ground direct shear test is level to applying shearing force, and Vertical dimension applies normal stress, and be difficult to consider shear surface infiltration effect due to Gravitative Loads.

If adopt immersion saturated test specimen to shear, then the mechanical property of rock mass all changes again, only can not reflect the impact of sliding surface infiltration effect.

Especially, the earth and stone mixed media cementing by granule medium, the complicacy of particle otherness, shear surface is larger to shear surface influence of shear strength, in existing testing regulations, regulation be there is no to such medium shear strength test, therefore, development considers that sliding surface infiltrative direct shear test method has good engineering practice to be worth.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of vertical direct shear test device, the present invention can realize the test considering sample shear tangent plane to exist the shearing strength of infiltration water.

The present invention adopts following technical scheme:

A kind of vertical direct shear test device, comprise: base, water injection pipe and drainpipe, base is provided with pressure chamber, pressure chamber is provided with fluid shear chamber upper cover, rubber Membrane cover is provided with in pressure chamber, the lower end of rubber Membrane cover is located on base and the lower end of rubber Membrane cover and is connected with base seal, shear box and down cut box is provided with in rubber Membrane cover, upper shear box and down cut box lay respectively at the upper of rubber Membrane cover, lower end, and by rubber Membrane cover, upper shear box and down cut box surround sample chamber, upper shear box and down cut box adopt shearing component, described shearing component comprises substrate, cutout and deformation block is respectively equipped with in substrate, and, the plane relative with deformation block of cutout and the shear surface of sample coplanar, the plane relative with deformation block of cutout is provided with tank, the basad extension of described tank through substrate, form limbers, described water injection pipe is connected with the limbers in upper shear box, described drainpipe is connected with the limbers in down cut box, upper shear box establishes crown cap, be provided with vertical loading axle at top cap and vertically load axle and extend through upper cover, pressure oil is filled with between pressure chamber and rubber Membrane cover.

The present invention can adopt following technical measures further:

Deformation block described in vertical direct shear test device is by foam block and stop the firm liner that test sample embeds in foam block in sample chamber to combine, and what described firm liner was located at deformation block faces side, face, chamber.

Vertical direct shear test device is connected with for providing the waterflood system of wandering water with the unwatering system of measurement seepage flow and for keeping the servo-drive system of pressure chamber's pressure in pressure chamber.

Compared with existing direct shear test, this device has the following advantages:

Core of the present invention increases a set of special device on conventional triaxial compression test equipment, and make former triaxial test axial force be converted into shearing force, confined pressure is converted into shear test normal pressure, thus achieve the vertical direct shear test function of sample; Meanwhile, achieving the applying of wandering water on shear surface by arranging limbers in the apparatus, the impact of wandering water on medium shearing strength can be tested, also can be used for rock, the test of concrete fissure-plane seepage flow.

(1) in this shear, the otherness of cutout and deformation block rigidity makes former triaxial test axial force be converted into shearing force, servo confined pressure is converted into shear test normal pressure, achieve the vertical direct shear test function of sample, and shear loading, normal pressure, wandering water applying conveniently;

(2) preset the limbers that is in shear surface in this device and tank achieves the test considering sample shear tangent plane to exist the shearing strength of infiltration water, the level that overcomes is to the moisture defect because of Gravitative Loads poor water retention property of sample in shear test;

(3) this device can be used for measuring there is consolidation strength homogeneous soil, soil-rock mixture ground basic mechanical parameter, also can be used for rock, concrete fissure-plane seepage flow test;

(4) this apparatus structure is compact, easy to make.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is vertical shearing apparatus structure schematic diagram;

Fig. 2 is upper shear box composition schematic diagram;

Fig. 3 is down cut box composition schematic diagram;

Fig. 4 is upper shear box front view;

Fig. 5 is upper shear box left view;

Fig. 6 is upper shear box right view;

Fig. 7 is shear box vertical view on false three axles;

Shear box vertical view on Fig. 8 true triaxial;

Fig. 9 is down cut box front view;

Figure 10 is down cut box left view;

Figure 11 is down cut box right view;

Figure 12 is false three axle down cut box vertical views;

Figure 13 is true triaxial down cut box vertical view.

In figure:

10-triaxial test pressure chamber,

11-vertically load axle, 12-upper cover, 13-top cap, 14-rigidity snap ring, 15-rubber membrane, 16-sample chamber, 17-water injection pipe, 18-drainpipe, 19-base, 20A-upper shear box and 20B-down cut box;

20-cutting system,

20A-upper shear box,

20I-substrate, 20II-shearing is fast, 20III-deformation block, 201-limbers, 202-tank, 203-foam block, 204-just liner,

20B-down cut box, the same shear box;

30-waterflood system;

40-unwatering system;

50-servo-drive system.

Embodiment

A kind of vertical direct shear test device, comprise: base 19, water injection pipe 17 and drainpipe 18, base 19 is provided with pressure chamber 10, pressure chamber 10 is provided with fluid shear chamber upper cover 12, rubber Membrane cover 15 is provided with in pressure chamber 10, the lower end of rubber Membrane cover 15 is located on the base 19 and lower end of rubber Membrane cover 15 and base 19 is tightly connected, shear box 20A and down cut box 20B is provided with in rubber Membrane cover 15, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B lays respectively at the upper of rubber Membrane cover 15, lower end, and by rubber Membrane cover 15, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B surrounds sample chamber 16, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B adopts shearing component, described shearing component comprises substrate 20I, cutout 20II and deformation block 20III is respectively equipped with at substrate 20I, and, the plane relative with deformation block 20III of cutout 20II and the shear surface of sample coplanar, the plane relative with deformation block 20III of cutout 20II is provided with tank 202, the basad 20I of described tank 202 extends and through substrate 20I, form limbers 201, described water injection pipe 17 is connected with the limbers 201 in upper shear box 20A, described drainpipe 18 is connected with the limbers 201 in down cut box 20B, upper shear box 20A establishes crown cap 13, be provided with vertical loading axle 11 at top cap 13 and vertically load axle 11 and extend through upper cover 12, pressure oil is filled with between pressure chamber 10 and rubber Membrane cover 15.In the present embodiment,

Described deformation block 20III is by foam block 203 and stop the firm liner 204 that in sample chamber 16, test sample embeds in foam block 203 to combine, and what described firm liner 204 was located at deformation block 20III faces side, face, chamber; Pressure chamber 10 is connected with for provide the waterflood system 30 of wandering water, measure seepage flow unwatering system 40 and for keeping the servo-drive system 50 of pressure chamber 10 pressure.

With reference to the accompanying drawings, explanation is specifically made to the present invention:

1. overall

As shown in Figure 1, this vertical direct shear test device, comprise: base 19, water injection pipe 17 and drainpipe 18, base 19 is provided with pressure chamber 10, pressure chamber 10 is provided with fluid shear chamber upper cover 12, it is characterized in that, rubber Membrane cover 15 is provided with in pressure chamber 10, the lower end of rubber Membrane cover 15 is located on the base 19 and lower end of rubber Membrane cover 15 and base 19 is tightly connected, shear box 20A and down cut box 20B is provided with in rubber Membrane cover 15, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B lays respectively at the upper of rubber Membrane cover 15, lower end, and by rubber Membrane cover 15, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B surrounds sample chamber 16, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B adopts shearing component, described shearing component comprises substrate 20I, cutout 20II and deformation block 20III is respectively equipped with at substrate 20I, and, the plane relative with deformation block 20III of cutout 20II and the shear surface of sample coplanar, the plane relative with deformation block 20III of cutout 20II is provided with tank 202, the basad 20I of described tank 202 extends and through substrate 20I, form limbers 201, described water injection pipe 17 is connected with the limbers 201 in upper shear box 20A, described drainpipe 18 is connected with the limbers 201 in down cut box 20B, upper shear box 20A establishes crown cap 13, be provided with vertical loading axle 11 at top cap 13 and vertically load axle 11 and extend through upper cover 12, pressure oil is filled with between pressure chamber 10 and rubber Membrane cover 15.

Deformation block 20III described in this vertical direct shear test device is by foam block 203 and stop the firm liner 204 that in sample chamber 16, test sample embeds in foam block 203 to combine, and what described firm liner 204 was located at deformation block 20III faces side, face, chamber.

This vertical direct shear test device be connected with in pressure chamber 10 for provide the waterflood system 30 of wandering water, measure seepage flow unwatering system 40 and for keeping the servo-drive system 50 of pressure chamber 10 pressure.

2, functional block

1) triaxial test pressure chamber 10

As shown in Figure 1, triaxial test pressure chamber 10 is conventional triaxial compression test equipment, comprises vertical loading axle 11, upper cover 12, top cap 13, rigidity snap ring 14, rubber Membrane cover 15, sample chamber 16, water injection pipe 17, drainpipe 18, base 19, upper shear box 20A and down cut box 20B;

Its annexation is:

Fluid shear chamber upper cover 12 and base 19 are secured by bolts in the upper and lower two ends of fluid shear chamber, vertical loading axle 11 is connected with top cap 13 by fluid shear chamber upper cover 12, upper shear box 20A, sample chamber 16 and down cut box 20B are connected together successively, high thermoplasticity rubber Membrane cover 15 is wrapped in shear box 20A, outside sample chamber 16 and down cut box 20B, and with rigidity snap ring 14, rubber Membrane cover 15 and top cap 13, base 17 are tightly connected;

2) cutting system 20

As shown in Figure 2, cutting system 20 is a kind of package assemblies, is to realize, vertically to the core of direct shear, comprising shear box 20A and down cut box 20B two parts;

Its annexation is:

As shown in Figure 3, upper shear box 20A is arranged at sample chamber 16 top, comprise substrate 20I, cutout 20II and deformation block 20III, the greatest differences of cutout 20II and deformation block 20III rigidity is the root that former triaxial test axial force is converted into shearing force, deformation block 20III is made up of foam block 203 and firm liner 204, and firm liner 204 can stop test sample in test cavity 16 to embed foam block 203;

As shown in Figure 4, down cut box 20B is arranged at sample 16 bottom, comprises substrate 20I, cutout 20II and deformation block 20III equally, and deformation block 20III is made up of foam block 203 and firm liner 204;

Fig. 5 is foam spacer 203 three-view diagram;

Fig. 6 is rigid liner 204 three-view diagram;

3) osmotic system 30, unwatering system 40 and servo-drive system 50

Osmotic system 30, unwatering system 40 and servo-drive system 50 all adopt ordinary triaxial test equipment.

Its annexation is:

Osmotic system 30, unwatering system 40 is connected with triaxial test pressure chamber 10 respectively by base 19 reserving hole channel with servo-drive system 50.

3, implementation step

(1) require to make sample according to test specification;

(2) by upper and lower shear box device and sample upper and lower side, the higher rubber membrane of one deck thermoplasticity is wrapped up in outside, and is fixed together with rigidity snap ring and top cap, base;

(3) direct shear or seepage flow test is carried out by conventional triaxial compression test equipment loading system, servo-drive system, osmotic system and unwatering system;

(4) conventional magnetic shear test does not need the existence considering water, determining to shear normal pressure, shearing according to axial strain Loading Control by arranging confined pressure; To consider the impact of infiltration on shear surface intensity, can apply seepage flow hydraulic pressure after shear surface appears in shearing sample by osmotic system, record shear stress strain variation curve determines corresponding intensive parameter; To carry out the test of fissure-plane seepage flow, can stop axially loading after saturated sample shear failure, then by osmotic system and unwatering system test, record seepage flow and Seepage flow time.

Experimental design embodiment

Certain native stone mixing polybasic medium is made up of the soil of particle diameter relatively little (being less than 5mm) and the block stone granulate of particle diameter in 5mm-20mm, wherein 5mm-20mm endoparticle percentage composition about 30%; Crude media is in certain cementing status, and time moisture on slipping plane, Strength Changes is very large on dielectric stability impact; And due to sampling difficulty, be difficult in laboratory to obtain non-ly perturb sample.

Experiment purpose:

(1) research consolidation strength and particle form the sample direct shear intensity under controlling;

(2) divide bleed on the impact of shear strength of slide face.

Plan design:

The triaxial apparatus of diameter 16cm can be selected, after shear of the present invention is matched, design as follows:

(1) adopt the particle of natural extraction to form sample, respectively with natural soil sample (particle diameter is less than 5mm), clay, gypsum three kinds of stuff, analyze different cementing intensity to the impact of shear strength;

(2) fixing cementing matter and block stone content, apply the water ballast(ing) of different pressures to shear surface by osmotic system, analyzes the relation of shear strength and infiltration capacity.

(3) under same amount matrix cementing matter, the block stone of different content is added, the impact of research block stone content on shear shearing stress.

The calculating of shear stress:

To cylindrical sample:

τ = 2 P π R 2

To cuboid sample:

τ = 2 P L 2

In formula: P is axle pressure, R is the radius of cylindrical sample; H is specimen height; L is the length of side of square sample; τ is the shear stress of sample.

During the calculating of normal stress, cylindrical sample applies confined pressure or positive dirction sample and applies normal pressure and all adopt following formula to calculate

σ n=σ 3

In formula, σ 3for confined pressure (cylindrical sample) or normal stress (cuboid sample).

The process of trial curve:

(1) τ ~ s curve is drawn.

(2) according to the peak value of τ ~ s curve under different confined pressure, shear strength is calculated according to Mohr-Coulomb criteria.

Claims (3)

1. a vertical direct shear test device, comprise: base (19), water injection pipe (17) and drainpipe (18), base (19) is provided with pressure chamber (10), pressure chamber (10) are provided with fluid shear chamber upper cover (12), it is characterized in that, rubber Membrane cover (15) is provided with in pressure chamber (10), the lower end of rubber Membrane cover (15) is located at base (19) upper and the lower end of rubber Membrane cover (15) and base (19) and is tightly connected, upper shear box (20A) and down cut box (20B) is provided with in rubber Membrane cover (15), upper shear box (20A) and down cut box (20B) lay respectively at the upper of rubber Membrane cover (15), lower end, and by rubber Membrane cover (15), upper shear box (20A) and down cut box (20B) surround sample chamber (16), upper shear box (20A) and down cut box (20B) adopt shearing component, described shearing component comprises substrate (20I), cutout (20II) and deformation block (20III) is respectively equipped with in substrate (20I), and, the plane relative with deformation block (20III) of cutout (20II) and the shear surface of sample coplanar, the plane relative with deformation block (20III) of cutout (20II) is provided with tank (202), described tank (202) basad (20I) extends and through substrate (20I), form limbers (201), described water injection pipe (17) is connected with the limbers (201) in upper shear box (20A), described drainpipe (18) is connected with the limbers (201) in down cut box (20B), upper shear box (20A) is established crown cap (13), be provided with vertically to load axle (11) and vertically load axle (11) on top cap (13) and extend through upper cover (12), pressure oil is filled with between pressure chamber (10) and rubber Membrane cover (15).
2. vertical direct shear test device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described deformation block (20III) is by foam block (203) and stop the firm liner (204) in sample chamber (16) interior test sample embedding foam block (203) to combine, and what described firm liner (204) was located at deformation block (20III) faces side, face, chamber.
3. vertical direct shear test device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, pressure chamber (10) are connected with for provide the waterflood system of wandering water (30), measure seepage flow unwatering system (40) and for keeping the servo-drive system (50) of pressure chamber (10) pressure.
CN201210431374.XA 2012-10-31 2012-10-31 A kind of vertical direct shear test device CN102901676B (en)

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