CN102745855B - Method and device for treating domestic sewage from villages and towns - Google Patents

Method and device for treating domestic sewage from villages and towns Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102745855B
CN102745855B CN201110097991.6A CN201110097991A CN102745855B CN 102745855 B CN102745855 B CN 102745855B CN 201110097991 A CN201110097991 A CN 201110097991A CN 102745855 B CN102745855 B CN 102745855B
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China
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sewage
anaerobic
treatment
particle diameter
water
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CN201110097991.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102745855A (en
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王毅力
冯晶
梁文艳
豆小敏
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北京林业大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention discloses a method and a device for treating domestic sewage from villages and towns. The method for treating domestic sewage from villages and towns comprises the following steps of feeding domestic sewage from villages and towns orderly through a grading multiphase anaerobic unit for enhanced biological granulation, so that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the domestic sewage is eliminated, and binding a subsurface flow wetland unit for enhanced phosphorous removal with a plant by a filling material so that phosphorous sorption and adsorption, ammonia nitrogen nitration and particle filtration interception are finished. A porous filling material in the grading multiphase anaerobic unit can cooperate with an enhanced biological granulation process so that granule sludge formation is accelerated and load treatment and impact resistance capacities of the grading multiphase anaerobic unit are improved. Through tap water sludge and reasonable plant configuration in the subsurface flow wetland unit, effects of removing nitrogen, phosphor and particles are improved. The device suitable for the method comprises a water pump, a blending tank, a flowmeter, the grading multiphase anaerobic unit and the subsurface flow wetland unit. The method for treating domestic sewage from villages and towns has good effects of removing organic matters in domestic sewage, a relatively small floor space, a low operation cost and simple processes.

Description

A kind for the treatment of process of domestic sewage of villages and small towns and equipment thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of multistage treatment method and equipment thereof of water, particularly a kind of water treatment method for domestic sewage of villages and small towns and equipment thereof.
Background technology
" Peasants Joy " is a kind of mode of tourism being risen in the mid-90 in 20th century, and it meets city resident's tourism consumption demand, has accelerated urban-rural integration process." Peasants Joy " one by local farmers autonomous investment, one is less for scale.And determined by Tourism Nature, one concentrates on Holidays and 3-4 month its traveller, and be the off-season winter.Flourish along with " Peasants Joy " this forms of tourism, problem that its water bringing for area, villages and small towns pollutes is also day by day serious.And because " Peasants Joy " one scale is less, therefore lack sewage treatment facility effectively, water pollution problems can not get solving always.Even, in many places, Peasants Joy water pollution problems has had a strong impact on its ecotope around, and then causes the minimizing of Tourist, has formed a vicious cycle.The singularity of the water pollution problems of bringing due to " Peasants Joy ", seek to adopt that reduced investment, processing costs are low, operational management easily sewage water treatment method become the only way of solution " Peasants Joy " problem.
Current, one still follows metropolitan large-scale treatment process the treatment process of domestic sewage of villages and small towns, such as A 2o, CASS etc.But this type of technique, because complexity villages and small towns relative to maintenance cost area peopleware and the economic level of technique are all higher, causes existing domestic sewage of villages and small towns treatment facility operational efficiency low.And the domestic sewage of villages and small towns water yield and water quality all have the rule significantly fluctuating with season in time, all relatively stable unlike the water yield and the water quality of sewage in city.Therefore, current most treatment process be not suitable for the sewage disposal in area, villages and small towns.Also find all the processing and stop transport or half state of stopping transport for processing the treatment facility that builds of domestic sewage of villages and small towns of most by investigation.
Publication number is that the Chinese patent application of CN201390685 discloses a kind of unit type membrane and biolytic rural sewage treatment station technique.This technique is in the biological treatment tank of embedded set settlement of sewage chamber, ground and regeneration hydroecium, the embedding melt pit that packs filtered water tank in concordant with biological treatment tank top into outside biological treatment tank, and case inner bottom part fills membrane bioreactor; There is lamina tecti at biological treatment tank and melt pit top, the electric control operation chamber of stacked in-built blower fan, electric control box and lift pump on lamina tecti, lift pump outlet is connected with water-supply pipe, its import is connected with membrane bioreactor outlet pipe, the lift pump for subsequent use that dress is connected with membrane bioreactor top exit pipe in filtered water tank upper inside wall, lift pump for subsequent use is equipped with water-supply pipe for subsequent use.The complex operation of this technique, is unfavorable for safeguarding.And this technique is used motor in a large number, increase the cost of processing water, do not meet the requirement of current " low-carbon (LC) ".
Publication number is that the Chinese patent application of CN101164924 discloses a kind of countryside sewage treatment equipment and application thereof, and this device is made up of hold concurrently oxygen catalytic oxidation system, device for separating mud and water and capillary infiltration trench combined system; The Ball-type packing that the built-in polypropylene material of oxygen catalytic oxidation system of holding concurrently is made, divides into aeration tube; The composition of capillary infiltration system comprises water distributor, upper strata filter layer and lower floor's sandy gravel stratum.Filter layer is formulated with local soil and lime-ash 2: 1 by volume, and thickness is 0.4~0.6m; The coarse sand that sandy gravel stratum is 0.5~2mm by particle diameter forms, and thickness is 0.3~0.4m; On filter layer, lay water distributor, the non-woven fabrics of porous is set between filter layer and sandy gravel stratum.Sewage pumps into the mud-water separation after the pre-treatment of oxygen contact-oxidation pool of holding concurrently, then through the water distribution of capillary infiltration trench combined system, absorption, diafiltration, again distribute and adsorb after, leach the water that reaches discharge index.This treatment process complex process, safeguards inconvenience, adopts capillary infiltration system easily to stop up, and has increased maintenance cost, and then has improved cost of water treatment.
Summary of the invention
The problem that the object of the invention is to exist for prior art provides a kind of domestic sewage of villages and small towns treatment process and equipment thereof, and this sewage water treatment method adopts anaerobic reactor to remove the pollutent in sewage with the processing method that artificial current wetland combines.That this sewage water treatment method has is good to organic removal effect in sanitary sewage, floor space is little, running cost is low, the advantage such as easy and simple to handle.
For realizing object of the present invention, the invention provides a kind of domestic sewage of villages and small towns treatment process, comprise following step in sequence:
1) domestic sewage of villages and small towns is mixed with flocculation agent;
2) sewage that contains flocs unit is carried out to anaerobic degradation reaction, remove the biodegradable organism in sewage;
3) make the effluent stream of anaerobic treatment through artificial current wetland.
Wherein, step 1) in control flocculation agent and sewage mixing time be 0.5-1min.
Particularly, described flocculation agent is Ferric Salt Flocculants or aluminum salt flocculant.
Especially, the consumption of described Ferric Salt Flocculants is to add 3.92-39.2mg (with Fe in every liter of former water 3+meter) Ferric Salt Flocculants, be preferably 24.64-34.72mg (with Fe 3+meter); The consumption of described aluminum salt flocculant is to add 2.7-32.4mg (with Al in every liter of former water of sewage 3+meter) aluminum salt flocculant, be preferably 6.75-21.6mg (with Al 3+meter).
Particularly, described Ferric Salt Flocculants is selected from one or more in poly-ferric chloride, iron(ic) chloride, ferric sulfate, is preferably poly-ferric chloride; One or more in described aluminum salt flocculant selective polymerization aluminum chloride, Tai-Ace S 150, are preferably polymerize aluminum chloride.
Especially, Fe in described poly ferric chloride flocculant agent 3+(with Fe 2o 3meter) content is 10-15%; Al in described flocculant of polymeric aluminium chloride 3+(with Al 2o 3meter) content is 5-20%.
Wherein, step 2) described in carry out anaerobic degradation reaction containing the sewage of flocs unit time be 5-15 hour.
Particularly, the described sewage containing flocs unit mixes with anaerobic grain sludge, carries out described anaerobic degradation reaction in anaerobic reactor.
Wherein, the total amount (MLSS) of the sewage sludge solid material of described anaerobic grain sludge is 10-30g/L, and granularity is 0.5-8mm, and settling velocity is 30-200m/h.
Wherein, step 3) in the residence time of sewage in artificial current wetland be 1.5-3.5 days.
Particularly, in artificial current wetland, plantation emergent is reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami.
Particularly, the planting density of described emergent is 3-15 strain/m 2.
Especially, the planting proportion of described emergent reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami is 3-5: 2-2.5: 1.5-2: 1.5-2: 1-2.
Particularly, filler in artificial current wetland is made up of cobble, large particle diameter volcanics, small particle size volcanics, haydite and alum sludge, and its ordering is followed successively by cobble, large particle diameter volcanics, small particle size volcanics, haydite, alum sludge from down to up.
Wherein, the particle diameter of described cobble is 30-150mm; The particle diameter of described large particle diameter volcanics is 30-50mm; The particle diameter of described small particle size volcanics is 10-300mm; The particle diameter of described haydite is 10-15mm.
Particularly, the height of described cobble is 150-250mm; The height of described large particle diameter volcanics is 150-250mm; The height of described small particle size volcanics is 250-500mm; The height of described haydite is 150-250mm; The height of described alum sludge is 200-300mm.
Especially, the total amount (MLSS) of the sewage sludge solid material of described alum sludge is that 10000-15000mg/L, sludge settling ratio (SV) > 95%, Fe content are that 30-65g/kg, Al content are that 50-100g/kg, P content are 0.1-0.18g/kg.
Wherein, step 3) described in denitrogenate to process and comprise nitrification and denitrification denitrogenation processing, the absorption processing of plant to nitrogen of ammonia nitrogen.
The present invention provides a kind of domestic sewage of villages and small towns treatment facility on the other hand, comprises the device that sewage is carried out to pre-treatment, anaerobic treatment and artificial swamp processing being successively linked in sequence by pipeline:
Pretreatment unit, comprises mixing tank, for the former water of sanitary sewage and mixing of flocculation agent, forms micro-flocs unit;
Anaerobic processing device, has by dividing plate anaerobic reactor is divided into at least 2 anaerobic reaction locellus, and wherein, sewage carries out anaerobic biodegradation processing under the effect of anaerobically digested sludge;
Artificial swamp treatment unit, is made up of filler and the emergent that is planted in filler, and sewage is carried out to holding back processing, dephosphorization, denitrogenating processing of suspended particle.
Wherein, before described mixing tank, also comprise the former water tank, the raw water pump that are linked in sequence by pipeline, and by pipeline, flocculation agent is added to the flocculation agent tank of the storage flocculation agent in former water.
Particularly, described former water tank is used for depositing domestic sewage of villages and small towns; Described raw water pump is for being pumped into anaerobic reactor by sanitary sewage, for sewage disposal provides power.
Wherein, described anaerobic reaction device is selected the one in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), internal-circulation anaerobic reactor (IC) or expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB), is preferably anaerobic baffled reactor.
Particularly, be filled with porous suspended filler and anaerobic grain sludge in anaerobic reactor, wherein, porous suspended filler accounts for the 5-40% of anaerobic reactor volume; Anaerobic grain sludge accounts for the 30-50% of anaerobic reactor volume.
Wherein, the porosity of described porous suspended filler is 95-98%, and specific surface area is 50~800m 2/ m 3, size is 3-15cm; The total amount (MLSS) of the sewage sludge solid material of described anaerobic grain sludge is 10-30g/L, and granularity is 0.5-8mm, and settling velocity is 30-200m/h.
Wherein, filler described in artificial current wetland is made up of cobble, large particle diameter volcanics, small particle size volcanics, haydite and alum sludge, and its ordering is followed successively by cobble, large particle diameter volcanics, small particle size volcanics, haydite, alum sludge from down to up.
Particularly, the particle diameter of described cobble is 30-150mm; The particle diameter of described large particle diameter volcanics is 30-50mm; The particle diameter of described small particle size volcanics is 10-300mm; The particle diameter of described haydite is 10-15mm.
Particularly, the height of described cobble is 150-250mm; The height of described large particle diameter volcanics is 150-250mm; The height of described small particle size volcanics is 250-500mm; The height of described haydite is 150-250mm; The height of described alum sludge is 200-300mm.
Wherein, the total amount (MLSS) of the sewage sludge solid material of described alum sludge is that 10000-15000mg/L, sludge settling ratio (SV) > 95%, Fe content are that 30-65g/kg, Al content are that 50-100g/kg, P content are 0.1-0.18g/kg.
Wherein, in described artificial current wetland, planting emergent is reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami.
Particularly, the planting density of described emergent is 3-15 strain/m 2.
Wherein, the planting proportion of described emergent reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami is 3-5: 2-2.5: 1.5-2: 1-2: 1-2, the quantity ratio that is the plantation plant of reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami is 3-5: 2-2.5: 1.5-2: 1-2: 1-2, is preferably 5: 2: 1.5: 2: 2.
Particularly, described emergent is planted as reed, wilson iris, Rhizoma Acori Calami, Scirpus tabernaemontani and cattail successively according to the direction of current.
Sewage water treatment method of the present invention and treatment facility tool have the following advantages:
1, sewage water treatment method of the present invention adopts the anaerobic baffled reactor and the artificial current wetland process integration that are added with floating stuffing to process domestic sewage of villages and small towns, treatment facility simple in structure, stable, produce and process that the efficiency of sanitary sewage is high, treatment effect good, suspended particulate in sewage, organic removal effect are significantly improved, organic removal efficiency reaches 80-95%, and need not construct in addition settling tank, save cost.
2, the porous suspended filler adding in the anaerobic reactor of sewage disposal device of the present invention is suspended in each middle and upper part, lattice chamber of anaerobic reactor, can provide carrier for the growth of the anaerobion in anaerobically digested sludge in the reactor start-up stage, reduce significantly the formation time (45-60d) of anaerobic grain sludge, increase the particle diameter (3-6mm) of anaerobic grain sludge, shorten the start time (53-70d) of anaerobic reactor, and one anaerobic reactor Granular sludge formation needs 80-130d, reactor start-up needs 100-170d, can also stop the loss of cotton-shaped anaerobic sludge simultaneously, improve the processing efficiency of reactor.
3, the porous suspended filler that is suspended in each middle and upper part, lattice chamber of anaerobic reactor of the present invention, can hold back the suspended substance in sewage effectively, can process the sewage of high concentration suspended matter, effectively reduces delivery turbidity.
4, sewage of the present invention, entering before anaerobic baffled reactor, adds containing Fe in sewage 3+or Al 3+inorganic polymer flocculant, there is flocculation and form micro-floccule in the organism in flocculation agent and sewage and particle, micro-floccule can be used as the microbial immobilized carrier in anaerobically digested sludge in anaerobic baffled reactor, carry out enhanced biological granulation, except having improved the formation speed of anaerobic sludge particle, shorten outside the formation time of anaerobic grain sludge in anaerobic reactor, also there is the effect of the particle diameter that increases anaerobic grain sludge, make anaerobic grain sludge particle diameter reach 3-6mm, increase content of microorganisms in mud granule, accelerate organic degraded, improve sewage treating efficiency, promote the settling property of mud, and the anaerobic grain sludge character forming is more stable, fluctuation and the impact that can bear organic loading, the impact of toxic substance in opposing sewage, improve the ability that anaerobic reactor bears hydraulic load and pollutant load, enhancing reactor operation stability.
5, the biological activity of anaerobic grain sludge of the present invention is can the hold-time long, reaches more than 2 years, and anaerobic reactor reruns after shelving for some time, fast Recovery processing effect.
6, the Planting pattern uniqueness of emergent in artificial current wetland of the present invention, planting proportion, rationally distributed, the sewage treating efficiency of planting emergent than the principle that adopts random plantation on current wetland is high, has improved the operation stability of equipment; Current wetland is short start time, shortens 10%-30% compared with other subsurface flow wetland system, and equipment can be put into operation rapidly, has improved the processing efficiency of sewage disposal device.
7, the method for sanitary sewage disposal of the present invention, technological operation is simple, and effluent characteristics after treatment is stable, obvious processing effect, sewage treating efficiency is high, and water outlet after treatment can reach urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard GB 18918-2002; Municipal effluent recycling water for scenic environment use water quality standard GB/T 18921-2002.
8, water treating equipment compact construction of the present invention, floor space is little, running cost is low, easy and simple to handle, shortened the sewage disposal time, improved sewage treating efficiency.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is water treatment technological process of the present invention and equipment connection schematic diagram.
Description of reference numerals:
1. raw water box; 2. raw water pump; 3. flocculation agent tank; 4. mixing tank; 5. under meter; 6. anaerobic baffled reactor; 7. floating stuffing; 8. vapor pipe; 9. current wetland; 10. emergent; 11. fillers; 12. dividing plates; 13. traverse baffles; 14. baffle plates.
Embodiment
1 describe water treating equipment of the present invention in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in Figure 1, water treating equipment of the present invention comprise the raw water box 1, mixing tank 4, anaerobic baffled reactor 6, the current wetland 9 that are linked in sequence by pipeline.
Between raw water box 1 and mixing tank 4 also by the pipeline intake pump 2 that has been linked in sequence; And the flocculation agent tank 3 connecting by pipeline.Wherein, raw water box 1 stores pending sanitary sewage; Flocculation agent tank 3 is for adding flocculation agent to sanitary sewage.
Flocculation agent in flocculation tank 3 is inorganic polymer flocculant, one or more in inorganic polymer flocculant selective polymerization aluminum chloride (PAC), polyaluminium sulfate (PAS), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), bodied ferric sulfate (PFS).
Sanitary sewage in raw water box is pumped in mixing tank 4 by raw water pump 2, be added in sewage through piping from the flocculation agent in flocculation agent tank 3, sanitary sewage and flocculation agent mix in mixing tank 4, form the sewage that contains small flocs unit, and mixing time is 0.5-1min.The mixed sewage that contains flocs unit flows in anaerobic baffled reactor 6 by pipeline, as the carrier of microorganism growth in anaerobic treatment process, generate the anaerobic grain sludge of large particle diameter with anaerobically digested sludge effect, carry out anaerobic biodegradation processing, remove the biodegradable organic in sewage.
In the present invention, adopt anaerobic baffled reactor to carry out anaerobic reaction, except anaerobic baffled reactor, also have the anaerobic treatment unit such as UASB, IC, EGSB to be also applicable to the present invention.
Between mixing tank 4 and anaerobic baffled reactor 6 by the pipeline under meter 5 that has been linked in sequence, the flow of control and measurement sewage.
As shown in Figure 1, polylith dividing plate 12 is set in anaerobic baffled reactor 6, anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is separated into multiple anaerobic reaction locellus, dividing plate 12 is all fixed on the bottom of anaerobic baffled reactor 6, and there is a determining deviation with the top of anaerobic baffled reactor 6, each reaction chamber is connected, and the waste water that makes to enter in anaerobic baffled reactor 6 flow into each anaerobic reaction locellus successively.
Anaerobic reaction divides and indoorly by traverse baffle 13, reaction locellus is divided into two subregions, i.e. lower current area and ascending zone.The top of traverse baffle 13 is fixedly connected with the top of anaerobic baffled reactor 6, and the bottom of traverse baffle 13 is 300-500mm apart from the height of anaerobic baffled reactor 6, to make sewage flow into ascending zone from the bottom of the lower current area of each anaerobic reaction locellus; The lower current area of anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is 1 with the ratio of the volume of ascending zone: 2-5; The bottom of each traverse baffle arranges a corner along water (flow) direction, prevents from producing shock action when current from entering ascending zone, plays the effect of buffering current and water distribution uniformity.One is 30 °-60 ° for its angle range, and the corner of traverse baffle 13 of the present invention is 45 °.
Traverse baffle 13 also can select end there is no the straight plate of corner.
5 dividing plates 12 are set in the anaerobic baffled reactor 6 in the present invention, anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is separated into 6 anaerobic reaction locellus, i.e. anaerobic reaction one Room 61, anaerobic reaction two Room 62, anaerobic reaction three Room 63, anaerobic reaction four Room 64, anaerobic reaction five Room 65 and anaerobic reaction six Room 66.
In anaerobic reaction two Room 62, anaerobic reaction three Room 63, anaerobic reaction four Room 64, anaerobic reaction five Room 65 are interior that 1 traverse baffle 13 is set respectively, respectively anaerobic reaction two Room 62, anaerobic reaction three Room 63, anaerobic reaction four Room 64, anaerobic reaction five Room 65 are divided into respectively to lower current area 62a, 63a, 64a, 65a and ascending zone 62b, 63b, 64b, 65b, each traverse baffle all extends to apart from anaerobic baffled reactor 6 bottom 300-500mm vertically downward from the top of anaerobic baffled reactor 6.
At the interior baffle plate 14 that arranges in anaerobic reaction six Room 66, anaerobic reaction six Room 66 are divided into lower current area 66c and buffer zone 66d, baffle plate 14 extends vertically downward from the top of anaerobic baffled reactor 6, be highly 300-500mm, the reactor wall of water outlet one side of anaerobic reaction six Room 66 tilts horizontal by certain angle, mud in water outlet can be settled down, reduce delivery turbidity.
In anaerobic reaction two Room 62, interior porous suspended filler 7 and the anaerobically digested sludge of adding respectively in ascending zone 62b, 63b, 64b, 65b and anaerobic reaction one Room 61 of anaerobic reaction three Room 63, anaerobic reaction four Room 64, anaerobic reaction five Room 65, each reaction divides the volume of the floating stuffing 7 of indoor interpolation to account for the 5%-40% of each locellus volume, and anaerobically digested sludge accounts for the 30-50% of anaerobic reactor volume.
Anaerobic reaction one Room is identical to the height of anaerobic reaction five indoor floating stuffings, and floating stuffing is 5-40 with the ratio of the height of anaerobic reactor: 100; The porosity of porous suspended filler is 95-98%, and specific surface area is 50~800m 2/ m 3, size is 3-15cm.
The anaerobically digested sludge of anaerobic baffled reactor 6 interior interpolations of the present invention is taken from urban wastewater treatment firm, the total amount (MLSS) of the sewage sludge solid material of described anaerobically digested sludge is 18-25g/Kg, mud volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) is 10-18g/Kg, SV (sludge settling ratio) > 95%, anaerobically digested sludge forms stable anaerobic grain sludge through after reinforce the pelletizing domestication anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is interior, the total amount (MLSS) of the sewage sludge solid material of anaerobic grain sludge is 10-30g/L, granularity is 0.5-8mm, settling velocity is 30-200m/h.
The porous suspended filler using in the present invention is purchased from Beijing Chunqiu Dingsheng Environmental Science and Technology Co., Ltd., spherical in shape, by polypropylene material injection molded, specific surface area 380-800m 2/ m 3, porosity is greater than 97%, proportion 0.92, specification: Φ 150mm, Φ 100mm, Φ 80mm.
The top of anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is connected with vapor pipe 8, discharges the gas producing in anaerobic treatment process.
Anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is connected with under meter 5 by water inlet pipe, and water inlet pipe is arranged on the lower end of anaerobic baffled reactor 6; Anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is connected with current wetland 9 by rising pipe, and rising pipe is arranged on the upper end of anaerobic baffled reactor 6.
The sewage containing flocs unit flowing out from mixing tank 4, through under meter 5, flow into anaerobic reaction one Room 61 from the bottom of anaerobic baffled reactor 6, then flow into successively anaerobic reaction two Room 62, anaerobic reaction three Room 63, anaerobic reaction four Room 64, anaerobic reaction five Room 65 and anaerobic reaction six Room 66, owing to containing the flocs unit with active surface in waste water, flco promotes the biological granulating process in anaerobic baffled reactor 6, it is the flocs unit interaction in anaerobically digested sludge and the sewage in anaerobic baffled reactor 6, the anaerobic grain sludge that formation median size is 3-6mm, remove most organism.
As shown in Figure 1: current wetland 9 is made up of filler 11 and emergent 10, and emergent 10 is planted on filler 11, thereby sets up Wetlands ecosystems.The filler 11 of current wetland 9 comprises the cobble of loading successively from top to bottom, large particle diameter volcanics, small particle size volcanics, haydite, alum sludge, and wherein, the particle diameter of cobble is 30-150mm, and loading is highly 150-250mm; The particle diameter of large particle diameter volcanics is 30-50mm, and loading is highly 150-250mm; The particle diameter of small particle size volcanics is 10-300mm, and loading is highly 250-500mm; The particle diameter of haydite is 10-15mm, and loading is highly 150-250mm; The filling of alum sludge is highly 200-300mm, and the MLSS of mud is that 10000-20000mg/L, SV > 95%, Fe content are that 30g/kg-65g/kg, Al content are that 50g/kg-100g/kg, P content are 0.1g/kg-0.18g/kg; Anaerobic treatment water outlet flows into current wetland 9, and in the process of filler 11 of flowing through, the suspended particle in water is trapped, and the phosphorus in water is absorbed by filler 11 and emergent, and pollutent and nutritive substance are absorbed by the mud in filler 11 or decompose.
On filler 11, plant emergent 10, the planting density of emergent 10 is 3-15 strain/m 2wherein, emergent 10 is reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani and Rhizoma Acori Calami, and its corresponding planting proportion is 3-5: 2-2.5: 1.5-2: 1-2: 1-2, total nitrogen in anaerobic treatment water outlet is digested by emergent 10, completes the digestive process of total nitrogen in sewage.
Embodiment 1
Sanitary sewage is selected the sanitary sewage of rural area, Beijing centralized collection, and wherein the COD of sewage (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) is 400-500mgL -1, turbidity is 90-120NTU, total nitrogen (TN) concentration is 100-130mgL -1, total phosphorus (TP) concentration is 5-10mgL -1, ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 +-N) concentration is 65-78mgL -1, the water yield is 3.0-4.5m 3/ d, the operating temperature in sewage treatment process is 25-35 ℃; Flocculation agent is polyacrylamide, contains 5% Al in flocculation agent 3+(with Al 2o 3meter).The mean value of the COD of sanitary sewage is 450mgL -1, turbidity mean value be that the mean value of 105 NTU, total nitrogen concentration is 115mgL -1, total phosphorus concentration mean value be 7.5mgL -1, ammonia nitrogen concentration mean value be 71.5mgL -1.
1) mixing of former water and flocculation agent
Be stored in sanitary sewage in raw water box 1 under the effect of intake pump 2, in pipeline flows into mixing tank 4, the flocculant poly aluminum chloride being stored in flocculation agent tank 3 is added in inlet channel by pipeline stream, and in pipeline flows into mixing tank 4, sanitary sewage mixes with flocculation agent, carry out flocculation treatment, mixing time is 0.5-1min, and granule foreign, larger molecular organics and flocculation agent in former water carry out flocculation reaction, forms flocs unit, wherein, the dosage of flocculation agent is that 0.52mmol/L is (with Al 3+meter), in every liter of former water, adding the aluminum ion weight in flocculation agent is 14.04mg.
Flocculation agent in the present invention is except using polymerize aluminum chloride, and other flocculation agents are all applicable to the present invention, as poly-ferric chloride, poly-ferric chloride, bodied ferric sulfate, polyaluminium sulfate etc.
2) anaerobic degradation processing
First: from the sewage of mixing tank 4 interior outflows, bottom from anaerobic baffled reactor 6 after under meter 5 flows into, enter anaerobic reaction one Room 61, sewage flows into successively anaerobic reaction two Room 62 under the effect of dividing plate 12, anaerobic reaction three Room 63, anaerobic reaction four Room 64, anaerobic reaction five Room 65, under the effect of traverse baffle 13, divide indoor vertical folding stream to advance at each anaerobic reaction, process the effect of increasing of the gas producing by drainage flow and anaerobic biodegradation, the indoor anaerobically digested sludge of anaerobic reaction is moved up and down, completing anaerobe fully mixes with Pollutants in Wastewater, removal makes the biodegradable organic in sewage, reduce the COD value of sewage.
Then, cross the dividing plate 12 of anaerobic reaction five Room 65 through the sewage overflow of anaerobic degradation processing, enter in anaerobic reaction six Room 66 and carry out anaerobism sedimentation processing, sewage flows in the lower current area 66c and buffer zone 66d of anaerobic reaction six Room 66 under the effect of baffle plate 14, after the full anaerobic reaction of waste water storage six Room 66 are interior, enters current wetland 9 from top.
Be stored in sanitary sewage in raw water box 1 under the effect of raw water pump 2, guarantee that through by-pass valve control the hydraulic detention time (HRT) of sewage in anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is 8h, wherein the hydraulic detention time in anaerobic baffled reactor refers to the mean residence time for the treatment of sewage in reactor, namely the average reaction time of microbial process in sewage and bio-reactor.
Anaerobic biodegradation detects the mean value of COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and the ammonia nitrogen concentration of sewage after processing, detected result is in table 1.
Adopt CCD camera to take mud photo to anaerobic sludge particle in anaerobic reactor, by ImagePro Plus5.0 image processing software, obtain mud particle diameter by statistical computation, test result is as shown in table 2.
The start time of anaerobic reactor is as shown in table 2.
Start to detect the value of COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and the ammonia nitrogen concentration of anaerobic reactor water outlet from water filling to reactor, until every detection index of reactor water outlet is substantially constant, starts every detection index to reactor water outlet time till substantially constant from water filling to reactor and be called anaerobic reactor start time;
Start to adopt the form of anaerobic sludge in CCD camera O&E reactor from water filling to reactor, there is particulate state mud to form until observe in reactor, be called the formation time of anaerobic grain sludge from be filled to the time of Granular sludge formation to reactor.
3) current wetland processing
Flow into artificial current wetland through anaerobic biodegradation sewage after treatment by pipeline, filter, dephosphorization, Ammonia Nitrification processing, wherein, the filler 11 of current wetland 9 comprises the cobble of loading successively from top to bottom, large particle diameter volcanics, small particle size volcanics, haydite, alum sludge, wherein, the particle diameter of cobble is 30-150mm, and loading is highly 150mm; The particle diameter of large particle diameter volcanics is 30-50mm, and loading is highly 250mm; The particle diameter of small particle size volcanics is 10-300mm, and loading is highly 500mm; The particle diameter of haydite is 10-15mm, and loading is highly 150mm; The filling of alum sludge is highly 300mm, and the MLSS of mud is 10000mg/L, and SV > 95%, Fe content are that 65g/kg, Al content are that 50g/kg, P content are 0.18g/kg; Anaerobic treatment water outlet flows into current wetland 9, in the process of filler 11 of flowing through, the suspended particle in water is trapped, and the phosphorus in water is absorbed by filler 11 and emergent, pollutent and nutritive substance are absorbed by the mud in filler 11 or decompose, and sewage hydraulic detention time in current wetland is 2d.
Mixed planting emergent 10 on filler 11, the planting density of emergent 10 is 15 strains/m 2, wherein, emergent 10 is reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani and Rhizoma Acori Calami, its corresponding planting number ratio is 5: 2: 2: 2: 1.5, emergent was planted reed, wilson iris, Rhizoma Acori Calami, Scirpus tabernaemontani, cattail successively according to water (flow) direction.The sewage reed of first flowing through, under the effect of reed, reduce water in particle concentration, can absorbed nitrogen phosphorus, the wilson iris of then flowing through successively, Rhizoma Acori Calami, Scirpus tabernaemontani is removed most nitrogen and part phosphorus in water; Due to the not resistance to nitrogen of cattail, in water, contain and under the condition of high concentration N, grow badly, in the present invention, the sewage cattail of finally flowing through, absorbs phosphorus in water.Scirpus tabernaemontani and cattail have restraining effect as far as possible away from reed to the growth of reed.
Current wetland detects the mean value of COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and the ammonia nitrogen concentration of current after processing, detected result is in table 1.
Detect the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (COD) in water according to HJ/T 399-2007 " the mensuration rapid-digestion spectrophotometry of water chemical oxygen demand ";
Detect the turbidity of water according to GB 13200-1991 " mensuration of water turbidity ";
Detect total nitrogen (TN) in water according to GB11894-89 " the mensuration alkalescence alkaline potassium per-sulfate digestion ultraviolet spectrophotometry of water quality total nitrogen ";
Detect total phosphorus (TP) in water according to GB 11893-89 " the mensuration ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry of water quality total phosphorus ";
Detect ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) in water according to HJ 535-2009 " the mensuration nessler reagent spectrophotometry of Water quality ammonia nitrogen ".
Current wetland start time is in table 2, wherein start to detect the value of COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and the ammonia nitrogen concentration of current wetland water outlet from water filling to artificial current wetland, until every detection index of current wetland water outlet is substantially constant, starts every detection index to wetland effluent time till substantially constant from water filling to current wetland and be called current wetland start time.
Embodiment 2
Sanitary sewage is selected the sanitary sewage of rural area, Beijing centralized collection, and wherein the COD of sewage (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) is 900-1200mgL -1, turbidity is 90-120NTU, total nitrogen concentration is 100-130mgL -1, total phosphorus concentration is 5-10mgL -1, ammonia nitrogen concentration is 65-78mgL -1sanitary sewage, the water yield is 3.0-4.5m 3/ d.
Except flocculation agent is polymerize aluminum chloride, in flocculation agent, contain 5% Al 3+(with Al 2o 3meter), the dosage of flocculation agent is that 0.80mmol/L is (with Al 3+meter), in every liter of water inlet, adding the aluminum ion weight in flocculation agent is 21.6mg; The hydraulic detention time (HRT) of sewage in anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is 12h; In artificial current wetland treating processes, in filler 11, the loading height of cobble is 250mm; The loading height of large particle diameter volcanics is 150mm; The loading height of small particle size volcanics is 250mm; The loading height of haydite is 250mm; The loading height of alum sludge is 200mm; The MLSS of mud is that 20000mg/L, Fe content are that 30g/kg, Al content are that 100g/kg, P content are 0.1g/kg; The planting density of emergent 10 is 3 strains/m 2; The planting proportion of emergent reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani and Rhizoma Acori Calami is 3: 2.5: 1.5: 1.5: 1; The hydraulic detention time of sewage in current wetland is outside 3.5d, and other are identical with embodiment 1.
COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen concentration average detection that former water, anaerobic treatment water outlet, current wetland are processed water outlet the results are shown in Table 1.
The start time of anaerobic reactor, anaerobic grain sludge particle diameter, current wetland are as shown in table 2 start time.
Embodiment 3
Except the operating temperature in sanitary sewage disposal process is 10-20 ℃; Flocculation agent is polymerize aluminum chloride, contains 15% Al in flocculation agent 3+(with Al 2o 3meter), the dosage of flocculation agent is that 0.25mmol/L is (with Al 3+meter), in every liter of water inlet, adding the aluminum ion weight in flocculation agent is 6.75mg; The hydraulic detention time (HRT) of sewage in anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is 5h; In artificial current wetland treating processes, in filler 11, the loading height of cobble is 200mm; The loading height of large particle diameter volcanics is 200mm; The loading height of small particle size volcanics is 375mm; The loading height of haydite is 200mm; The loading height of alum sludge is 250mm; The MLSS of mud is 15000mg/L; The planting density of emergent 10 is 9 strains/m 2; The planting proportion of emergent reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani and Rhizoma Acori Calami is 4: 2: 2: 1: 2; The hydraulic detention time of sewage in current wetland is outside 1.5d, and other are identical with embodiment 1.
COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen concentration average detection that former water, anaerobic treatment water outlet, current wetland are processed water outlet the results are shown in Table 1.
The start time of anaerobic reactor, anaerobic grain sludge particle diameter, current wetland are as shown in table 2 start time.
Embodiment 4
Sanitary sewage is selected the sanitary sewage of rural area, Beijing centralized collection, and wherein the COD concentration of sewage is 700-800mgL -1sanitary sewage, turbidity is 100-120NTU, total nitrogen concentration is 130-150mgL -1, total phosphorus concentration is 10-20mgL -1, ammonia nitrogen concentration is 72-90mgL -1, the water yield is 5.0-7.0m 3/ d.
Except flocculation agent is polyacrylamide, in flocculation agent, contain 20% Al 3+(with Al 2o 3meter), the dosage of flocculation agent is that 0.52mmol/L is (with Al 3+meter), in every liter of water inlet, adding the aluminum ion weight in flocculation agent is 14.04mg; The hydraulic detention time (HRT) of sewage in anaerobic baffled reactor 6 is 15h; Hydraulic detention time in current wetland is outside 3.5d, and other are identical with embodiment 1.
COD, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen concentration average detection that former water, anaerobic treatment water outlet, current wetland are processed water outlet the results are shown in Table 1.
The start time of anaerobic reactor, anaerobic grain sludge particle diameter, current wetland are as shown in table 2 start time.
Reference examples 1
Except do not add flocculation agent before carrying out anaerobic reaction processing, all the other are identical with embodiment 1.
Reference examples 2
Except do not add flocculation agent before carrying out anaerobic reaction processing, all the other are identical with embodiment 2.
Reference examples 3
Except do not add flocculation agent before carrying out anaerobic reaction processing, all the other are identical with embodiment 3.
Reference examples 4
Except do not add flocculation agent before carrying out anaerobic reaction processing, all the other are identical with embodiment 4.
The water quality detection result of table 1 water inlet of the present invention, water outlet
Detected result shows:
1, sanitary sewage is through the combined treatment of anaerobic baffled reactor and artificial current wetland, organic pollutant content significantly reduces, the removal effect of nutritive element is also fairly obvious, effluent quality after purification is good, COD value, turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia-nitrogen content significantly reduce, and total clearance of COD reaches more than 89%; The total clearance of turbidity reaches 85.23-89.52%; Total clearance of total nitrogen reaches 82.61-86.52%; Total clearance of total phosphorus reaches 76%-82%; Total clearance of ammonia nitrogen reaches 85.80%-94.83%, water outlet after treatment has reached the II grade standard of urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard (GB 18918-2002) completely, reaches municipal effluent recycling water for scenic environment use water quality standard GB/T18921-2002.
2, anaerobic treatment is remarkable to organic removal effect in sewage, significantly reduces COD and turbidity in water, and the suspension material in anaerobic baffled reactor can be held back a part of suspended particulate, reduces the content of suspended particulate in sewage.
3, the removal effect ideal of current wetland to the total nitrogen in sewage, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, significantly reduces content and the concentration of nitrogen in sewage, phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen, further clarification and effluent.
Table 2 anaerobic reactor and artificial current wetland characteristic
Detected result shows:
1, domestic sewage treatment device of the present invention can sustain the variation of amount of inlet water and water quality, is applicable to process by the sewage of various contaminants, obvious processing effect.Before sewage enters anaerobic degradation reaction, add flocculation agent, effectively shorten the start time of anaerobic reactor, increased mud granule particle diameter in anaerobic reactor.
2, the start time of anaerobic reactor of the present invention short, lower than 75 days, make the equipment operation of can putting into production rapidly, improved the processing efficiency of sewage disposal device, shortened the sewage disposal time.
3, the anaerobic sludge grain diameter in anaerobic reactor of the present invention is large, reach 3-6mm, increase 1.5-3mm than the mud granule particle diameter of the anaerobic reactor that does not add flocculation agent, increased content of microorganisms in granule sludge, accelerate organic degraded, improved sewage treating efficiency; Promoted the settling property of mud, the ability that makes anaerobic reactor bear hydraulic load and pollutant load rises, and operation stability of anaerobic reactor strengthens.
4, the anaerobic sludge particle that anaerobic reactor of the present invention forms has very high porosity, make the microorganism of mud granule inside also can fully touch sewage, and the inside and outside microbe species difference of each mud granule, form independently microflora's ecosystem, exchange of substance is rapid, organic matter degradation accelerates, and sewage treating efficiency improves.
5, the start time of artificial potentiality wetland of the present invention short, shorten 10%-30% compared with other subsurface flow wetland system, equipment can be put into operation rapidly, improved the processing efficiency of sewage disposal device.
6, in artificial current wetland of the present invention, emergent plantation is reasonable, and in removal sewage, nitrogen phosphorus efficiency is high, plants emergent remove the effective of nitrogen phosphorus than the principle that adopts random plantation on current wetland, and removal efficiency is high.

Claims (8)

1. a domestic sewage of villages and small towns treatment process, is characterized in that comprising as follows step in sequence:
1) domestic sewage of villages and small towns is mixed with flocculation agent, organism and particle in flocculation agent and sewage flocculate, and form micro-flocs unit, and wherein, described flocculation agent is Ferric Salt Flocculants or aluminum salt flocculant;
2) sewage that contains micro-flocs unit is carried out in anaerobic reactor to anaerobic degradation reaction, remove the biodegradable organism in sewage;
3) make the effluent stream of anaerobic treatment through artificial current wetland;
Described artificial current wetland, is made up of filler and the emergent that is planted in filler, and sewage is carried out to holding back processing, dephosphorization, denitrogenating processing of suspended particle;
Described filler, the large particle diameter volcanics that is 30-50mm that is followed successively by from down to up cobble, particle diameter that particle diameter is 30-150mm, the small particle size volcanics that particle diameter is 10-300mm, haydite, the waterworks sludge that particle diameter is 10-15mm.
2. treatment process as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that the consumption of described Ferric Salt Flocculants is the Ferric Salt Flocculants that adds 3.92-39.2mg in every liter of sanitary sewage; The consumption of described aluminum salt flocculant is the aluminum salt flocculant that adds 2.7-32.4mg in every liter of sanitary sewage.
3. treatment process as claimed in claim 1 or 2, is characterized in that Fe in described Ferric Salt Flocculants 3+content be 10-15%; Al in described aluminum salt flocculant 3+content be 5-20%.
4. treatment process as claimed in claim 1 or 2, is characterized in that step 2) in sewage time of carrying out anaerobic degradation reaction in described anaerobic reactor be 5-15 hour.
5. treatment process as claimed in claim 1 or 2, is characterized in that step 3) in the residence time of sewage in described artificial current wetland be 1.5-3.5 days.
6. a domestic sewage of villages and small towns treatment facility, comprises the device that sewage is carried out to pre-treatment, anaerobic treatment and artificial swamp processing being successively linked in sequence by pipeline:
Pretreatment unit, comprises mixing tank (4), for the former water of sanitary sewage and mixing of flocculation agent, forms micro-flocs unit, and wherein, described flocculation agent is Ferric Salt Flocculants or aluminum salt flocculant;
Anaerobic reactor (6), has by dividing plate (12) anaerobic reactor is divided into at least 2 anaerobic reaction locellus, and wherein sewage carries out anaerobic biodegradation processing under the effect of anaerobic grain sludge;
Artificial current wetland (9), is made up of filler (11) and the emergent (10) that is planted in filler, and sewage is carried out to holding back processing, dephosphorization, denitrogenating processing of suspended particle;
Filler (11), the large particle diameter volcanics that is 30-50mm that is followed successively by from down to up cobble, particle diameter that particle diameter is 30-150mm, the small particle size volcanics that particle diameter is 10-300mm, haydite, the waterworks sludge that particle diameter is 10-15mm.
7. sewage disposal device as claimed in claim 6, is characterized in that in described artificial current wetland (9), plantation emergent (10) is the combination of reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami.
8. sewage disposal device as claimed in claim 7, is characterized in that the planting proportion of described emergent reed, wilson iris, cattail, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Rhizoma Acori Calami is: 3-5:2-2.5:1.5-2:1-2:1-2.
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