CN102720486B - Device for testing shale gas fracture network diversion capacity and working method of device - Google Patents

Device for testing shale gas fracture network diversion capacity and working method of device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102720486B
CN102720486B CN201210218234.4A CN201210218234A CN102720486B CN 102720486 B CN102720486 B CN 102720486B CN 201210218234 A CN201210218234 A CN 201210218234A CN 102720486 B CN102720486 B CN 102720486B
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gas
diversion chamber
diversion
piston
shale
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CN201210218234.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102720486A (en
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温庆志
胡蓝霄
罗明良
黄越
翟学宁
徐希
李海鹏
李杨
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中国石油大学(华东)
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Abstract

The invention relates to a device for testing shale gas fracture network diversion capacity. The device comprises a rectangular diversion chamber, a gas flowmeter, a differential pressure gauge and a displacement meter, wherein the diversion chamber comprises a side wall and is internally provided with an upper piston and a lower piston; a diversion cavity is closed and surrounded by the side wall, the upper piston and the lower piston; an upper cover plate is arranged on the upper piston, and a lower cover plate is arranged on the lower piston; and marble for simulating shale fractures is arranged in the diversion cavity and between the upper piston and the lower piston. The device fills the blank that the shale gas fracture network diversion capacity cannot be measured by using an experimental means, and can be used for measuring the diversion capacity of different fracture network models. The diversion chamber of the device is different from the conventional API standard diversion chamber, wherein the end part of the conventional API standard diversion chamber is arc-shaped, while the end part of the diversion chamber of the device is square; and the volume of the diversion chamber of the device is 6 times that of the conventional API standard diversion chamber. The device can be used for studying the complicated fracture network diversion capacity.

Description

A kind of device and method of work thereof of testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of device and method of work thereof of testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, belong to the technical field of oil-gas field development.

Background technology

China's traditional oils gas field enters tail period, and productivity decline is obvious, therefore finds that new to take over the energy imperative.Shale gas is one of important making & breaking of conventional gas and oil resource.Shale gas is as emerging unconventional energy resource, and its reserves are huge, in alleviation energy resource supply pressure, development low-carbon economy and adjusting and optimizing energy resource structure etc., have very important effect.Compared with conventional gas, shale gas exploitation has the advantages such as production life of well is long, the production cycle is long, production capacity is stable, and country particularly payes attention to the exploitation of shale gas in recent years, gives important support in policy, in fund.Therefore, strengthen the research to shale gas production technique, maintenance is developed the economy, alleviated Pressure on Energy and have great importance.

Shale reservoir natural pressure is low, permeability is low (is less than 0.001 × 10 -3μm 2), usually without natural production capacity, often need to take fracturing methods effectively to exploit.Shale gas pressure break adopts slippery water or clear water usually, uses high discharge capacity, proppant carries into stratum by low viscous mode, to reach communication intrinsic fracture, form the effect of complex fracture network (seam net) in stratum.The fundamental starting point of shale gas FRACTURING DESIGN is how to form effective network fracture.Can shale gas throughput, and depend on that inducing natural crack in fracturing fracture and fracturing process is opened and the interlaced network fracture size that formed to a great extent, the flow conductivity of fracture network directly affects shale gas well flow index.Therefore, shale gas Reservoir Fracture network flow conductivity is studied significant for raising fracturing yield increasing effect.

Traditional fracturing mode adopts high viscosity fracturing fluid to carry into stratum by proppant, the sand packed fracture that one has high flow conductivity is formed in stratum, flow conductivity for the crack of a filling proppant can adopt fracture guide instrument to evaluate flow conductivity, and this technology is comparatively ripe; Research method for the flow conductivity of the acid-etched fracture adopting acidifying measure to be formed is also comparatively ripe, and defines systematized theory and rating system.A crack in the evaluation method formation of above-mentioned two kinds of traditional fracture condudtiviies is evaluated, and fracture network be formed in the earth formation communicate with each other, complex shape, width differ, crisscross Fracture Systems, therefore traditional evaluation method can not be directly applied to the fracture network that shale gas pressure break formed.

At present, to shale gas pressure break form fracture network flow conductivity be mostly to describe qualitatively, lack suitable experimental facilities and method carries out this determining quantitative analysis.The people such as Lu Zhanguo have carried out the seepage flow characteristics experimental study in orthogonal fracture network, in research orthogonal fracture network model, seepage flow characteristics and model structure are on the impact of permeability, utilize marble and stainless steel gasket to set up the orthogonal fracture network model of different structure, and pass through the PHYSICAL MODELING OF IN seepage flow characteristics of aqueous phase and water-oil phase.But its research to as if Fractured Reservoir, and it is considered that fracture network is on the impact of the seepage velocity of liquid phase.The theoretical method that more existing fracture network flow conductivity is evaluated, its result can not get the checking of testing, and its accuracy can not be guaranteed.Become in network fracture to be usually filled with proppant in shale gas pressure break, for the network sand packed fracture of this complexity, there is no experimental facilities and method at present to determine quantifier elimination.The backwardness of evaluation method have impact on the progress of shale gas fracturing technique and the Efficient Development of shale oil gas reservoir.

Summary of the invention

For above technical deficiency, the invention provides a kind of device testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, to simulate and to measure the flow conductivity of the fracture network that shale reservoir is produced by pressure break.

The present invention also provides a kind of method of work of said apparatus.

Technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:

Test a device for shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, it comprises rectangular guiding room, gas flowmeter, differential manometer and displacement meter; Described diversion chamber comprises sidewall, in diversion chamber, is provided with upper piston and lower piston, described sidewall, upper piston and lower piston close surround diversion cavity, upper cover plate is installed on upper piston, under lower piston, lower cover is installed, in diversion cavity and between described upper piston and lower piston, be provided with the marble in simulation shale crack, be respectively arranged with cushion rubber at the top edge of described sidewall and lower limb; The object of described cushion rubber is used to seal diversion chamber;

The sidewall at the two ends, left and right of diversion chamber is respectively arranged with air inlet port and gas outlet, and described air inlet port is connected with source of the gas by pipeline, and described pipeline is provided with gas flowmeter;

Described diversion chamber is arranged on press, is provided with displacement meter a and displacement meter b at the two ends, left and right of diversion chamber between described upper cover plate and lower cover; Described press carrys out the clossing pressure in crack in simulated formation for pressure that diversion chamber provides; When described press is exerted pressure to described diversion chamber, described displacement meter shows diversion chamber's internal fissure network in real time and effectively stitches wide, and the effective seam recording the networking, crack under each clossing pressure is respectively wide.

Sidewall in the front end of diversion chamber is provided with admission pressure and detects mouth and outlet pressure detection mouth, admission pressure detects between mouth and outlet pressure detection mouth and is provided with differential manometer.

Preferred according to the present invention, cover in described marble outside and be provided with the anti-drift net of proppant.The anti-drift net of described proppant is used to prevent proppant from flowing out from simulation shale fracture network.

Preferred according to the present invention, described source of the gas is bottled nitrogen.

Preferred according to the present invention, described upper cover plate and lower cover are steel plate.

Preferred according to the present invention, the device of described test shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity also comprises acquisition and control system and computer, and described gas flowmeter, differential manometer, displacement meter a are connected with computer respectively by described acquisition and control system with displacement meter b.

Preferred according to the present invention, the marble in described simulation shale crack is prepared according to following processing method by monoblock marble:

(1) choose the monoblock marble that length is 178mm, width is 37mm, thickness range is 0.4mm ~ 1.5mm, described monoblock marble wetability is identical with the shale that will simulate;

(2) according to the shale fracture network size that will simulate, the monoblock marble described in step (1) is carried out transverse cuts and longitudinally cutting, then load in diversion chamber.

Utilize said apparatus to test a method for shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, comprise step as follows:

(1) add proppant by certain sanding concentration to water conservancy diversion indoor, the effective seam realizing different fracture network is wide, and the initial effectively seam that the proppant total amount added is fracture network divided by the cross-sectional area of diversion chamber is wide;

(2) acquisition and control system is opened;

(3) start press, set the pressure of described press, exert pressure to diversion chamber, the scope of exerting pressure is 0-100MPa;

(4) open source of the gas to the indoor ventilation of water conservancy diversion, after described differential manometer maintenance is stable, starts experiment;

(5) open computer, by acquisition and control system, the gas flow Q collected, pressure difference data Δ P and displacement data h are transferred in computer;

(6) computer according to Real-time Collection to gas flow Q, pressure difference data Δ P and displacement data h bring formula into and 1. calculate simulation shale gas fracture network flow conductivity k under the wide and fixation pressure of effectively seam fw f

k f w f = QμΔL AΔP

Formula 1. in w f-effectively seam is wide, and described effective seam is wide is the ratio of the cumulative volume in actual crack and the cross-sectional area of diversion chamber in simulation fracture network, k fthe permeability of-simulation shale fracture network; Q-gas flow, through the flow of diversion chamber, is read by gas flowmeter; N under μ-normal temperature 2viscosity; The length of Δ L-diversion chamber; The flow section area of A-marble blocks: be multiplied by simulation shale crack marble fracture network by the width of diversion chamber and effectively stitch wide trying to achieve; Δ P-gas flow, through the pressure reduction of diversion chamber, is read by described differential manometer;

(7) change the pressure of described press, repeat step (3) ~ (6); The object of this step is under identical initial effectively seam is wide, in formation testing crack different clossing pressures under simulation shale gas fracture network flow conductivity;

(8) change the amount or the sanding concentration that add proppant, repeat step (1) ~ (7); The object of this step is under different initial effectively seams is wide, the simulation shale gas fracture network flow conductivity under the clossing pressure that in formation testing, crack is different.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

1. the present invention has filled up and means cannot measure the blank of shale gas fracture network flow conductivity by experiment, can record the flow conductivity under different fracture network model of analogous outcrop; Diversion chamber of the present invention is different from traditional API standard diversion chamber: traditional API standard diversion chamber end is arc, and diversion chamber of the present invention end is square, its volume is 6 times of traditional API standard diversion chamber, can carry out the research of complex fracture network flow conductivity;

2. the present invention proposes and use marble slab to simulate shale, overcome on-the-spot shale and get the shortcoming that core is difficult and cost is high, greatly reduce experiment difficulty and cost;

3. the present invention is by freely cutting marmorean, can assemble the model that Dali block plate obtains multiple fracture network, increases the manual adjustment of experiment;

4, apparatus structure of the present invention easy, be easy to operation, the experimental technique provided is practical, has successfully measured the flow conductivity of shale gas reservoir fracture network.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the device of test shale air cleft net flow conductivity of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of diversion chamber of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the marmorean structural representation of simulation shale fracture network of the present invention;

In fig. 1-3,1, source of the gas; 2, gas flowmeter; 3, displacement meter a; 4, displacement meter b, 5, differential manometer; 6, acquisition and control system; 7, computer; 8, press; 9, diversion chamber; 10, the anti-drift net of proppant; 11, upper cover plate; 12, lower cover; 13, upper piston; 14, lower piston; 15, the marble in shale crack is simulated; 16, admission pressure detects mouth; 17, outlet pressure detects mouth; 18, air inlet port; 19, gas outlet; 20, cushion rubber; 21, proppant; 22, crack; 23, by the marble blocks after stripping and slicing.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with embodiment and Figure of description, the present invention is described in detail, but is not limited thereto.

Embodiment 1,

Test a device for shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, it comprises rectangular guiding room 9, gas flowmeter 2, differential manometer 5 displacement meter a and displacement meter b; Described diversion chamber 9 comprises sidewall, in diversion chamber, is provided with upper piston 13 and lower piston 14, described sidewall, upper piston 13 and lower piston 14 close surround diversion cavity, upper cover plate 11 is installed on upper piston 13,14 times lower cover 12 is installed at lower piston, in diversion cavity and between described upper piston 13 and lower piston 14, be provided with the marble 15 in simulation shale crack, be respectively arranged with cushion rubber 20 at the top edge of described sidewall and lower limb;

The sidewall at the two ends, left and right of diversion chamber 9 is respectively arranged with air inlet port 18 and gas outlet 19, and described air inlet port 18 is connected with source of the gas 1 by pipeline, and described pipeline is provided with gas flowmeter 2;

Described diversion chamber 9 is arranged on press 8, is provided with displacement meter a and displacement meter b at the two ends, left and right of diversion chamber 9 between described upper cover plate 11 and lower cover 12; Described press 8 carrys out the clossing pressure in crack in simulated formation for pressure that diversion chamber 9 provides; When described press 8 is exerted pressure to described diversion chamber 9, described displacement meter shows diversion chamber's internal fissure network in real time and effectively stitches wide, and the effective seam recording the networking, crack under each clossing pressure is respectively wide.

Sidewall in the front end of diversion chamber is provided with admission pressure and detects mouth 16 and outlet pressure detection mouth 17, admission pressure detects between mouth 16 and outlet pressure detection mouth 17 and is provided with differential manometer 5.

The marble 15 in described simulation shale crack is prepared according to following processing method by monoblock marble:

(1) choose the monoblock marble that length is 178mm, width is 37mm, thickness range is 0.4mm ~ 1.5mm, described monoblock marble wetability is identical with the shale that will simulate;

(2) according to the shale fracture network size that will simulate, the monoblock marble described in step (1) is carried out transverse cuts and longitudinally cutting, then load in diversion chamber 9.

Embodiment 2,

As Figure 1-3.

A kind of device testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity as described in Example 1, its difference is, the device of described test shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity also comprises acquisition and control system and computer, and described gas flowmeter, differential manometer, displacement meter a are connected with computer respectively by described acquisition and control system with displacement meter b.

Cover in described marble outside and be provided with the anti-drift net 10 of proppant.Described source of the gas 1 is bottled nitrogen.Described upper cover plate 11 and lower cover 12 are steel plate.

Embodiment 3,

Utilize a method for device to test shale gas fracture network flow conductivity as described in Example 2, comprise step as follows:

Utilize said apparatus to test a method for shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, comprise step as follows:

(1) add proppant by certain sanding concentration to water conservancy diversion indoor, the effective seam realizing different fracture network is wide, and the initial effectively seam that the proppant total amount added is fracture network divided by the cross-sectional area of diversion chamber is wide;

(2) acquisition and control system is opened;

(3) start press, set the pressure of described press, exert pressure to diversion chamber, the scope of exerting pressure is 0-100MPa;

(4) open source of the gas to the indoor ventilation of water conservancy diversion, after described differential manometer maintenance is stable, starts experiment;

(5) open computer, by acquisition and control system, the gas flow Q collected, pressure difference data Δ P and displacement data h are transferred in computer;

(6) computer according to Real-time Collection to gas flow Q, pressure difference data Δ P and displacement data h bring formula into and 1. calculate simulation shale gas fracture network flow conductivity k under the wide and fixation pressure of effectively seam fw f

k f w f = QμΔL AΔP

Formula 1. in w f-effectively seam is wide, and described effective seam is wide is the ratio of the cumulative volume in actual crack and the cross-sectional area of diversion chamber in simulation fracture network, k fthe permeability of-simulation shale fracture network; Q-gas flow, through the flow of diversion chamber, is read by gas flowmeter; N under μ-normal temperature 2viscosity; The length of Δ L-diversion chamber; The flow section area of A-marble blocks: be multiplied by simulation shale crack marble fracture network by the width of diversion chamber and effectively stitch wide trying to achieve; Δ P-gas flow, through the pressure reduction of diversion chamber, is read by described differential manometer;

(7) change the pressure of described press, repeat step (3) ~ (6);

(8) change the amount or the sanding concentration that add proppant, repeat step (1) ~ (7);

Carry out above step (1) ~ (8), the wide size of initial effectively seam of record simulation shale gas fracture network, press simulation are the clossing pressure numerical value in crack in layer respectively, 1. calculate corresponding simulation shale gas fracture network flow conductivity k according to measured data according to formula fw f, as shown in table 1:

Table 1:

Different initial effectively seam wide (1.2mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm), Dali, Different Strata pressure condition Imitating shale crack stony fracture

The flow conductivity of seam network

Claims (5)

1. test a device for shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity, it is characterized in that, it comprises rectangular guiding room, gas flowmeter, differential manometer and displacement meter; Described diversion chamber comprises sidewall, in diversion chamber, is provided with upper piston and lower piston, described sidewall, upper piston and lower piston close surround diversion cavity, upper cover plate is installed on upper piston, under lower piston, lower cover is installed, in diversion cavity and between described upper piston and lower piston, be provided with the marble in simulation shale crack, be respectively arranged with cushion rubber at the top edge of described sidewall and lower limb;
The sidewall at the two ends, left and right of diversion chamber is respectively arranged with air inlet port and gas outlet, and described air inlet port is connected with source of the gas by pipeline, and described pipeline is provided with gas flowmeter;
Described diversion chamber is arranged on press, is provided with displacement meter a and displacement meter b at the two ends, left and right of diversion chamber between described upper cover plate and lower cover;
The sidewall of the front end of diversion chamber is provided with admission pressure and detects mouth and outlet pressure detection mouth, admission pressure detects between mouth and outlet pressure detection mouth and is provided with differential manometer; Cover in described marble outside and be provided with the anti-drift net of proppant; The device of described test shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity also comprises acquisition and control system and computer, and described gas flowmeter, differential manometer, displacement meter a are connected with computer respectively by described acquisition and control system with displacement meter b.
2. a kind of device testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described source of the gas is bottled nitrogen.
3. a kind of device testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described upper cover plate and lower cover are steel plate.
4. a kind of device testing shale gas checking seam network flow conductivity according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the marble in described simulation shale crack is prepared according to following processing method by monoblock marble:
(1) choose the monoblock marble that length is 178mm, width is 37mm, thickness range is 0.4mm ~ 1.5mm, described monoblock marble wetability is identical with the shale that will simulate;
(2) according to the shale fracture network size that will simulate, the monoblock marble described in step (1) is carried out transverse cuts and longitudinally cutting, then load in diversion chamber.
5. utilize a method for device to test shale gas fracture network flow conductivity as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, it is as follows that it comprises step:
(1) add proppant by certain sanding concentration to water conservancy diversion indoor, the effective seam realizing different fracture network is wide, and the initial effectively seam that the proppant total amount added is fracture network divided by the cross-sectional area of diversion chamber is wide;
(2) acquisition and control system is opened;
(3) start press, set the pressure of described press, exert pressure to diversion chamber, the scope of exerting pressure is 0-100MPa;
(4) open source of the gas to the indoor ventilation of water conservancy diversion, after described differential manometer maintenance is stable, starts experiment;
(5) open computer, by acquisition and control system, the gas flow Q collected, pressure difference data Δ P and displacement data h are transferred in computer;
(6) computer according to Real-time Collection to gas flow Q, pressure difference data Δ P and displacement data h bring formula into and 1. calculate simulation shale gas fracture network flow conductivity k under the wide and fixation pressure of effectively seam fw f
k f w f = QμΔL AΔP
Formula 1. in w f-effectively seam is wide, and described effective seam is wide is the ratio of the cumulative volume in actual crack and the cross-sectional area of diversion chamber in simulation fracture network, k fthe permeability of-simulation shale fracture network; Q-gas flow, through the flow of diversion chamber, is read by gas flowmeter; N under μ-normal temperature 2viscosity; The length of Δ L-diversion chamber; The flow section area of A-marble blocks: be multiplied by simulation shale crack marble fracture network by the width of diversion chamber and effectively stitch wide trying to achieve; Δ P-gas flow, through the pressure reduction of diversion chamber, is read by described differential manometer;
(7) change the pressure of described press, repeat step (3) ~ (6);
(8) change the amount or the sanding concentration that add proppant, repeat step (1) ~ (7).
CN201210218234.4A 2012-06-28 2012-06-28 Device for testing shale gas fracture network diversion capacity and working method of device CN102720486B (en)

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