CN102684313A - Coordination control method of large-scale energy storage device - Google Patents

Coordination control method of large-scale energy storage device Download PDF

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CN102684313A
CN102684313A CN 201210166570 CN201210166570A CN102684313A CN 102684313 A CN102684313 A CN 102684313A CN 201210166570 CN201210166570 CN 201210166570 CN 201210166570 A CN201210166570 A CN 201210166570A CN 102684313 A CN102684313 A CN 102684313A
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power
control
energy storage
coordination
storage device
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CN102684313B (en )
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张冲
张建兴
曹智慧
陈世锋
韩健
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许继电源有限公司
许继集团有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a coordination control method of a large-scale energy storage device. A coordination controller is used for controlling the startup and the shutdown of bottom layer control units; the bottom layer control units are used for feeding back the fault and a running state to the coordination controller; the coordination controller is used for monitoring the state of a bottom layer module and the allowable maximum charging/discharging power of a storage battery; a power control unit is used for distributing the power rating to each bottom layer control unit according to the proportional distribution; in the off-grid operation, a power balance control manner capable of avoiding the circulation of an inverter is adopted; and the balance of the storage battery is performed in an automatic balancing manner in a system shutdown or standby state. The coordination control method has the benefits that the difficult problem of multi-objective coordination control of the large-scale energy storage device is solved, a basis is laid for the research and development, and the popularization of the large-scale energy storage device, and the theoretical significance and the engineering practical significance are very important.

Description

一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法 Coordination control method for a large scale energy storage device

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及大規模储能装置协调控制方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a method for coordinated control of a large scale energy storage device.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 大規模储能装置目前在国内外处于示范运行阶段,尚未大規模推广,已投运示范工程大多数为小容量的示范性储能装置,而且大多采用ー级变换,在离网运行应用环境中,大部分都是单机运行。 [0002] large-scale energy storage device is currently running at home and abroad in the demonstration stage, yet large-scale promotion, demonstration projects have been put into operation for the majority of small capacity of exemplary energy storage device, and they use ー stage transformation, in off-grid operation application environment, mostly stand-alone operation. [0003]目前方法存在的问题及缺点:由于储能装置的研制在国内外上处于起步阶段。 [0003] existing methodological problems and disadvantages: Due to the development of energy storage devices at home and abroad in its infancy. 目前国内尚无适用于储能装置的大規模储能装置协调控制策略。 There are still no large-scale energy storage device suitable for energy storage devices coordinated control strategy.

[0004] 申请号为201110231953. 5的中国专利申请《一种大规模储能装置及其主电路》提供了一种大规模储能装置的主电路拓扑和控制平台方案。 [0004] Application No. of China Patent Application No. 201110231953.5 "on a large scale energy storage device and a main circuit," provides the main circuit topology and control scheme for large-scale internet energy storage device. 本发明在该方案的基础上对其协调控制策略的进ー步完善。 The present invention coordination of their control strategies on the basis of the program on the feed ー further improve.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的目的是提供一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法,用以解决现有控制策略不适合大規模储能装置的问题。 [0005] The object of the present invention is to provide a method for coordinated control of a large scale energy storage device, the control strategy to solve the existing problems are not suitable for large scale energy storage device.

[0006] 为实现上述目的,本发明的方案是:一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法,协调控制器控制底层控制単元的启动与停机,底层控制単元向协调控制器反馈故障与运行状态;协调控制器监测底层模块状态及蓄电池允许最大可充/放功率,功率控制单元以按比例分配向各底层控制単元下发功率定值;离网运行中,采用避免逆变器环流的功率均衡控制方式;采用在系统停机或待机状态下自动均衡的方式进行蓄电池的均衡。 [0006] To achieve the above object, the present invention is: A method for coordinated control of a large scale energy storage device, the controller controls the coordinated element radiolabeling floor control is started and stopped, the bottom control element radiolabeling feedback fault and the coordinated control of the operating state; coordinating controller monitors the state of the bottom module and the battery may be the maximum allowable charge / discharge power, the power control unit to control the underlying apportioned to each power radiolabeling membered issued setting; off-grid operation, the power balance control using the inverter to avoid circulation mode; automatic equalizing balanced manner in the battery system shutdown or standby state.

[0007] 协调控制器控制底层控制単元通过光纤通讯。 [0007] The coordinated controller controls radiolabeling bottom via a fiber optic communication.

[0008] 所述各逆变器的功率均衡控制中,加入一个用于检测系统输出有功功率和无功功率的延时。 [0008] The power balance control in each of the inverters, an output, a delay detection system active power and reactive power for.

[0009] 所述延时为20ms。 [0009] The delay is 20ms.

[0010] 本发明解决了大规模储能装置的多目标协调控制难题,为大规模储能装置的研制及推广奠定基础,具有极其重要的理论意义和工程现实意义。 [0010] The invention solves the problem of multi-objective coordinated control of large-scale energy storage devices, to lay the foundation for the development and promotion of large-scale energy storage devices, has important theoretical significance and practical significance.

[0011] 本发明的优点: [0011] The advantages of the present invention:

[0012] 协调控制器利用光接ロ电平变化来控制模块单元的启动、停机、复位及故障保护逻辑,保证了装置的稳定可靠运行; [0012] ro coordinated controller using light-level changes to the control unit of the startup module, stop, and reset the fault protection logic to ensure a stable and reliable operation of the apparatus;

[0013] 本策略中通过协调控制器监测底层模块状态及蓄电池允许最大可充/放功率,通过功率控制单元完成对各模块定值的下发。 [0013] This strategy is coordinated by the controller and the battery module status monitoring underlying allowed maximum charge / discharge power, issued to complete each module by setting the power control unit. 解决了功率分配不均导致系统功率利用率低的问题; Solve the problem of uneven distribution of power resulting in low power utilization system;

[0014] 解决了离网运行多机并联的环流问题。 [0014] solved the problem of circulation off-grid running multiple machines in parallel.

[0015] 本控制策略在蓄电池标定及均衡时,只需对单组电池进行操作,不影响装置的正 N [0015] The present control strategy when the battery calibration and equalization, only a single set of batteries for operation, the device does not affect

常工作。 Often it works. [0016] 本发明与目前方法的主要不同:1)大规程储能装置需要对多个底层模块的协调控制,复杂程度更高,协调控制难度较大,且运行环境下的电磁干扰更加剧烈。 [0016] The present invention relates to a method of the current main differences: 1) Large energy storage device need to coordinate the control procedure of the plurality of lower-level blocks higher complexity of the coordinated control difficult, and electromagnetic interference is more severe operating environment. 2)解决了离网运行储能装置并联的环流问题,为大规模储能装置的研制及推广奠定了基础。 2) to solve the problem of circulation from the parallel operation of energy storage network, it laid the foundation for the development and promotion of large-scale energy storage devices.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0017] 图I是大规模储能装置的启动控制保护逻辑示意图; [0017] FIG. I is a schematic view of the protective logic control start large-scale energy storage device;

[0018] 图2是通讯网络示意图; [0018] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a communication network;

[0019] 图3是按比例分配功率流程图; [0019] FIG. 3 is a flowchart illustrating a power proportional distribution;

[0020] 图4是储能装置并联控制框图; [0020] FIG. 4 is a control block diagram of an energy storage means in parallel;

[0021 ] 图5是均衡控制流程图。 [0021] FIG. 5 is a flowchart of the equalization control.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0022] 下面结合附图对本发明做进ー步详细的说明。 [0022] DRAWINGS The present invention will be described in further detail in the intake ー.

[0023] 本控制策略即为实现不同エ况下对储能装置的实现启动、停机、复位逻辑操作、故障保护逻辑操作、功率分配、对储能蓄电池标定及均衡控制、离网运行储能装置并联控制。 [0023] The present control strategy that is implemented under different conditions for achieving Ester energy storage device to start, stop, reset logic operation, the logic operation fault protection, power distribution, the energy storage battery calibration and equalization control, from network operation of the energy storage device parallel control.

[0024] 大規模储能装置的协调控制策略详细说明如下: [0024] Coordinated Control mass storage device are described below:

[0025] 1,各模块启动控制、保护逻辑 [0025] 1, each of the start control module, the protection logic

[0026] 如图I所示的大規模储能装置的启动控制保护逻辑示意图,底层控制単元等同于背景技术中所述专利文件201110231953. 5的附图中各变流器的控制器。 [0026] The mass storage device I shown in FIG schematic protective logic start control, floor control radiolabeling element equivalent to the background art of Patent Document accompanying drawings 201110231953.5 each converter controller. 协调控制器与下层控制分别通过两根光纤连接,一根为启动控制信号、另ー根为故障反馈信号。 Coordination controller and the lower level control is connected via two optical fibers, one for the enable control signal, the feedback signal fault ー another root.

[0027]启动控制信号分为三种情况:A,lMhz方波信号:协调控制器下发底层的复位信号,完成对底层模块故障复位;B,有光信号:高电平信号,协调控制器下发的启动命令。 [0027] enable control signal is divided into three cases: A, lMhz square wave signal: the bottom under the coordination of a controller sent a reset signal, the reset to complete failure of the underlying module; B, optical signals: a high level signal, the coordination controller issued a start command. 完成对底层模块的启动控制;C,无光信号:低电平信号,协调控制器下发的停机命令,完成对底层模块的停机操作。 Complete control of the promoter of the underlying module; C, no light signal: a low level signal, delivered by the coordination control stop command, to complete the shutdown operation on the underlying module. 故障及运行状态反馈信号分为两种情况:A,有光信号:底层模块处于冷备状态;B,无光信号:底层模块处于故障状态;C, IMhz方波信号:底层模块处于运行状态。 Fault operating state and the feedback signal is divided into two cases: A, optical signal: the bottom module in a cold standby state; B, no light signal: the bottom module in a fault state; C, IMhz square wave signal: the bottom of the module is operational.

[0028] 底层控制通过启动控制光纤电平变化来进行各模块相应的操作,同时协调控制单元通过故障及运行状态反馈信号变化对相应的底层单元进行控制。 [0028] The level control is performed by the corresponding start control operation of each optical module level changes, and coordinate the control unit controls the corresponding feedback signal varied by the underlay unit and the fault operation. 由于是光纤连接可以避免由于电磁干扰弓I起的装置误操作,保证装置可靠稳定运行。 Since the optical fiber connection is avoided due to malfunction of the electromagnetic interference bow I, means to ensure reliable and stable operation.

[0029] 2,功率分配 [0029] 2, power distribution

[0030] 如图2所示,底层控制单元与协调控制单元组成CAN总线模式。 [0030] As shown in FIG 2, the bottom of the control unit and coordinated control units CAN bus mode. 由协调控制单元接收上级监控下发的功率指令,通过功率分配単元得到每个模块的定值,然后经过CAN下发至底层控制単元,控制相应模块运行。 Receiving issued by a higher level control unit controls coordinated power instruction value obtained by each module radiolabeling power distribution element, and then sent to the bottom through the CAN radiolabeling control element, the control operation of the respective module.

[0031] 功率分配一般分为平均分配、按比例分配和按优先级分配。 [0031] The power distribution generally divided evenly distributed proportionally and the assigned priorities. 平均分配将功率给定除以电池组个数(不考虑电池组的差异性),得到每组电池应输出的功率值;按比例分配考虑了电池组的差异性,可用功率大的多发,可用功率小的少发;按优先级分配就是给各电池组确定优先级,当功率给定小于优先级最高的电池组时,只启动第一组电池,若大于优先级最高的模块则优先级最高的模块满功率运行,以此类推。 The average power allocated to a given cell groups divided by the number (without considering the differences of the battery pack), to obtain a power value to be output by each cell; prorated consideration the differences of the battery pack, a large multiple available power, available small power less fat; priority is assigned to determine the priority to each battery, when the power value is less than the highest priority of the battery pack, only a first cell starts, when the module is greater than the highest priority with the highest priority the module is running at full power, and so on. 按比例分配可以提高系统的利用率,重载时可以提闻电池的使用寿命。 Prorated can improve the utilization of the system, the battery life can be improved smell heavy load. [0032] 实际应用中响应时间和电池的使用寿命是衡量储能系统好坏的最重要的两个指标,因此综合考虑采用第二种功率分配方案(按比例分配)。 [0032] practical application response time and battery life are the two most important measure of the energy storage system is good or bad, so consider using the second power allocation scheme (prorated). 按比例分配的流程如图3。 Prorating process shown in Figure 3. 按比例分配所需物理量如下表。 Prorated quantities required in the following table.

[0033] 表I按比例分配所需物理量 [0033] Table I prorated desired physical

[0034] [0034]

变量名称 数据名称PowerGiven 功率给定 Data variable name names given power PowerGiven

ChPowerSum 可用充电功率之和 ChPowerSum available charge power and the sum

DisChPowerSum 可用放电功率之和 The sum of the available discharge power DisChPowerSum

ChPowerEn [k] 第k组电池可用充电功率 ChPowerEn [k] k-th power of the charging battery can be set

DisChPowerEn[k] 第k组电池可用放电功率 DisChPowerEn [k] k-th cell available discharge power

ChPower [k] 第k组电池充电功率 CHPower [k] k-th group battery charging power

DisChPower [k] 第k组电池放电功率 DisChPower [k] k-th cell discharge power

[0035] 3,离网运行储能装置并联的均流控制 [0035] 3, energy storage devices operating in parallel from the network sharing control

[0036] 在离网运行中,由于各台储能装置在输出电压幅值和相位存在偏差,同时线路阻抗也有差异。 [0036] In the off-grid operation, since each station there is a deviation in the storage means and the output phase voltage amplitude, but also differences in line impedance. 因此各台逆变器并联时必然会有环流,从而使各台逆变模块不能均分负载,部分模块可能工作于过载状态,进而导致并联系统的崩溃。 Thus there must be in each loop when inverters in parallel, so that each of the inverters can not load sharing modules, some modules may operate in an overload state, leading to the collapse of the parallel system. 所以在逆变器并联时需加入并联控制来抑制逆变器环流,保证各台逆变器均分负载正常工作。 Therefore, the inverter must be added in parallel to control the parallel inverter to inhibit circulation to ensure that all inverters work load sharing. 其控制策略如图4所示,图中变量定义如下: Its control strategy shown in Figure 4, FIG variables are defined as follows:

[0037] Vcd为系统电压有功分量,Vcq为系统电压无功分量,id为系统电流有功分量,iq为系统电流无功分量,Pi为系统有功功率,Qi为系统无功功率,Pave为计算系统有功功率给定值,Qave为计算系统无功给定值,AVd储能装置的有功偏差,AVq为储能装置的无功偏差,V*d为装置有功电压给定值,V*q为装置无功电压给定值,idref为装置有功电流给定值,iqref为装置无功电流给定值。 [0037] Vcd active component of the system voltage, Vcq system voltage and reactive power component, id is the current active component system, iq is a reactive component of the current system, Pi is the active system, Qi system reactive power, Pave computing system active power setpoint, the computing system Qave reactive given value, the deviation AVd active energy storage device, AVQ deviation of reactive energy storage device, V * d value of a given active device voltage, V * q for the device reactive voltage setpoint, idref means of active current setpoint, iqref means of reactive current setpoint.

[0038] 为了保证各台逆变器输出电压幅值和相角相同,需在各台逆变器之间加入功率均衡控制,保证各台逆变器之间的功率均分,抑制系统环流。 [0038] In order to ensure that each inverter output voltage amplitude and the same phase angle, must be added to control the power balance between the inverters, to ensure that the power sharing between the respective inverters, suppression system circulation. 功率均分控制,由于需检测系统输出有功和无功功率,因此加入了ー个20ms的延时,均流效果较好,稳定性高,具有较强的抗扰动性。 Power sharing control, since the output of the detection system for an active and reactive power, thus adding a delay of 20ms ー, good equalizing effect, high stability, with a strong anti-disturbance.

[0039] 逆变器输出平均功率时其对应的输出电压为ひ,并且以并联电网电压为基准进行dq解耦,则有: [0039] When the average output power of the inverter output voltage corresponding to industrialization, and dq-reference decoupled parallel to the grid voltage, then:

[0040] [0040]

^P = Kve ~Ρί=^ (び置sin iPave — Ui sin Ψΐ) = ~(Uq(ave) — Uq(i)) ^ P = Kve ~ Ρί = ^ (び opposing sin iPave - Ui sin Ψΐ) = ~ (Uq (ave) - Uq (i))

[0041] [0041]

Figure CN102684313AD00061

[0042] 由上式可知,当线路阻抗为纯感性吋,逆变器输出电压d轴分量差异引起无功不均衡,q轴差异造成有功输出环流。 [0042] From the above equation, when the line impedance is purely inductive inches, the inverter output voltage due to the difference d-axis component reactive imbalance, q-axis difference output causes the active circulation. 为了实现逆变器输出功率的均衡,可在逆变器电压控制外加入功率均衡的PI控制,以抑制逆变器之间的环流。 In order to achieve a balanced output power of the inverter, may be added to control the external power balance for the PI control in the inverter voltage, to suppress circulating between the inverter.

[0043] 各底层模块由于硬件和软件的差异,导致各台逆变器输出电压幅值、相角有差异,因此采用功率外环在逆变器输出电压指令上叠加修正量,从而调节各台逆变器输出电压相 [0043] Each module due to differences in the underlying hardware and software, resulting in an inverter output voltage in each stage amplitude, phase angle difference, so a power outer loop is superimposed on the correction amount in the inverter output voltage command, which regulate the various stations inverter output voltage with

坐寸ο Sit inch ο

[0044] 4,对储能蓄电池的标定及均衡控制 [0044] 4, and calibration of storage batteries equalization control

[0045] 储能系统中所用的大容量电池组都是由小容量的单体进行串并联组成的,电池组的串并联虽然可以提高电池组的容量和耐压,但随着电池串并联个数的増加,各単体出现差异的可能性也随着増大,単体的差异会影响整组电池的容量和使用寿命。 [0045] The energy storage system used in the large-capacity battery pack are series and parallel a monomer composed of small capacity, although the series parallel battery capacity can be increased and the breakdown voltage of the battery pack, but with a parallel cell string to increase in number, the possibility of occurrence of each radiolabeling body along with large differences zo, radiolabeling differences affect the entire body of the assembled battery capacity and service life. 虽然电池出厂时的一致性可以做的很好,但随着电池的使用,単体出现差异是不可避免的,为了提高储能系统的使用寿命和系统的利用率,对整组电池进行均衡是必不可少的。 While the consistency of the battery factory can do well, but with the use of the battery, radiolabeling body variance is unavoidable, in order to improve the utilization of life and system of the energy storage system, the entire set of batteries must be balanced essential.

[0046] 电池的均衡所用的均衡単元基本原理大体相同:用小电流对电压低的単体进行充电,对电压高的单体进行放电,以提高单体电压的一致性。 The basic principle is substantially the same equilibrium radiolabeling Element [0046] The battery equalization used: performed with a small current of a low voltage charge radiolabeling body, a high voltage discharge monomers, in order to improve the consistency of the cell voltage. 对电池的均衡有手动和自动两种方式,手动均衡时电池组要退出运行状态,很明显会降低系统的利用率,对储能系统来说手动均衡也很不方便;自动均衡不需要人的參与,由系统自动完成,可以提高系统的利用率。 For a balanced battery has both manual and automatic mode, manual equalizer battery pack To quit running, will obviously reduce the utilization of the system, the manual is also very convenient for a balanced energy storage systems; automatic equalization without human participation, completed automatically by the system, can improve the utilization of the system. 手动均衡与自动均衡对比如表2。 Manual and automatic equalizer for equalizing such as Table 2. 自动均衡也分为多种方式:停机状态下均衡和无条件均衡。 An automatic equalizer is also divided into a number of ways: Equilibrium and unconditional equilibrium at a standstill. 停机状态下均衡是只在系统停机状态下才能进行均衡,若系统一直运行则无法进行均衡;无条件均衡是无论装置处于什么状态都可以进行均衡。 Stop state equilibrium is only to be equalized in the system shutdown state, if the system has been running can not be balanced; balancing is unconditionally no matter what state the device can be balanced. 停机状态下均衡和无条件均衡对比如表3。 Stop state equalization and equalization Table 3. It is unconditional.

[0047] 表2手动均衡与自动对比 [0047] Table 2 Comparison manual and automatic equalization

Figure CN102684313AD00062

[0049] 表3停机状态下均衡和无条件均衡 [0049] Table 3 at standstill and balanced equilibrium unconditional

Figure CN102684313AD00063

[0051] 储能系统中的利用率是最重要的指标之一,因此采用自动均衡方式。 [0051] The energy storage system utilization is one of the most important indicators, so the use of automatic equalization mode. 而表3提到的自动均衡方式都存在一定的缺陷,采用折中方案:多组电池并联运行时,尽量选择在系统停机或待机状态下进行均衡;若充放电时需要均衡,则只对ー组电池进行均衡,将需要均衡的电池组停机运行,其他电池组正常工作,一组电池均衡完成后继续其他电池的均衡/这样做的好处是不影响均衡效果,又不会明显的降低系统的利用率(只降低一组电池的功率)。 Automatically balanced manner mentioned in Table 3, there are certain deficiencies compromise adopted: the plurality of battery operated in parallel as much as possible in the selected equalization system shutdown or standby state; if necessary to equalize charging and discharging of only ーbalanced set of batteries, the need for a balanced battery pack runs down, the other battery is working properly, after the completion of a balanced set of batteries continue balancing other battery / benefits of doing so does not affect the equilibrium effect, and would not significantly reduce system utilization (only reduce the power of a battery pack). 均衡流程如图5。 Equalization process 5 shown in FIG.

[0052] 以上实施例中所提到的蓄电池均衡方式、并联的均流控制、功率分配方式等都属于现有技术,所以不做过多介绍。 [0052] The battery equalization manner as in the above mentioned embodiment, both the parallel flow control, power distribution belong to the prior art, it is not too much introduction.

Claims (4)

1. 一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法,其特征在于,协调控制器控制底层控制单元的启动与停机,底层控制单元向协调控制器反馈故障与运行状态;协调控制器监测底层模块状态及蓄电池允许最大可充/放功率,功率控制单元以按比例分配向各底层控制单元下发功率定值;离网运行中,采用避免逆变器环流的功率均衡控制方式;采用在系统停机或待机状态下自动均衡的方式进行蓄电池的均衡。 CLAIMS 1. A method for coordinated control of mass storage device, wherein the controller controls the coordination of the bottom of the control unit is started and stopped, the bottom feedback fault and the control unit to the operating state of the controller coordination; coordination module controller monitors the status and underlying allowed maximum battery charge / discharge power, the power control unit is apportioned to each power set value delivered by the control unit bottom; off-grid operation, the power balance control using the inverter to avoid circulation; shutdown or standby system employed the state of the automatic equalizing balanced manner batteries.
2.根据权利要求I所述的一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法,其特征在于,协调控制器控制底层控制单元通过光纤通讯。 The coordinated control method for large scale energy storage device according to claim I, wherein the controller controls the coordination of the underlying optical fiber communication control unit.
3.根据权利要求I所述的一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法,其特征在于,所述各逆变器的功率均衡控制中,加入一个用于检测系统输出有功功率和无功功率的延时。 The coordinated control method for large scale energy storage device according to claim I, wherein each of the power balance control of the inverter, a system for detecting an added output active power and reactive power delay.
4.根据权利要求3所述的一种大规模储能装置协调控制方法,其特征在于,所述延时为20ms。 A large-scale storage control method of coordinating device according to claim 3, wherein said delay is 20ms.
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