CN102581208B - Method for precisely carrying out hot forging on driven spiral bevel gear of automobile rear axle - Google Patents

Method for precisely carrying out hot forging on driven spiral bevel gear of automobile rear axle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102581208B
CN102581208B CN201210041302.4A CN201210041302A CN102581208B CN 102581208 B CN102581208 B CN 102581208B CN 201210041302 A CN201210041302 A CN 201210041302A CN 102581208 B CN102581208 B CN 102581208B
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forging
die
finish
punching
blank
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CN201210041302.4A
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CN102581208A (en
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陈英
梁好
赵扬扬
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China Agricultural University
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China Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for precisely carrying out hot forging on a driven spiral bevel gear of an automobile rear axle, belonging to the technical field of plastic formation. The method comprises the operation steps of: firstly, heating a cylindrical blank with a pre-calculated size to a temperature of 1100-1200 DEG C; then, upsetting the blank to be cake-shaped; thirdly, placing an upset piece into a pre-forging die for pre-forging; then, placing a pre-forged piece into a punching die for punching a part of skin on an inner hole; and finally, placing a punched piece into a finishing die for finishing. With the adoption of the method disclosed by the invention, the driven spiral bevel gear is heated just for one time; the production efficiency is high; a great amount of materials are saved; and the service life of dies is long, so that the method is applicable to large-scale production. The precisely-forged spiral bevel gear only needs little follow-up cutting machining. The organization property and the mechanical property of the precisely-forged spiral bevel gear are greatly improved.

Description

The method of the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of a kind of automobile axle
Technical field
The invention belongs to plastic forming technology field, be specifically related to the method for the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of a kind of automobile axle.
Background technology
Spiral bevel gear is widely used mechanical transmission component, and being mainly used in transmission two and intersecting or motion between alternating axis, is use a kind of common part had a large capacity and a wide range in auto industry.Spiral bevel gear is generally used for the higher transmission of peripheral speed, compared with straight bevel gear, has gearratio large, stable drive, the advantages such as gearing noise is little, long service life.Spiral bevel gear pair is generally made up of a pair spiral bevel gear, i.e. active spiral bevel gear and driven spiral bevel gear.
The traditional production process route of spiral bevel gear comprises the multiple working procedure such as blanking, forging, thick finish turning blank, thick finish-milling tooth, heat treatment, the processing of fine grinding (grinding) tooth, and process equipment is mainly the tooth milling machine of Jackie Gleason company of the U.S., and price is high.The defect that the method exists has: 1. complex technical process, and stock utilization is low, and cost is high; 2. cut off interior metal streamline, the contact of gear and bending strength are declined, and service life has a greatly reduced quality; 3. the production cycle is long, and production efficiency is low.
The Near Shape Forging Technology of gear refers to and directly obtains complete profile of tooth by blank through finish forge, and the flank of tooth does not need processing or only needs a small amount of processing and spendable technology.Compared with conventional machining process, it is advantageous that: 1. the tissue improving gear, improves mechanical property, finish forge makes metal material along the distribution of profile of tooth uniformly continous, gear bending strength, and contact fatigue strength and resistance to impact are apparently higher than cutting pinion; 2. forging is in whole or in part without the need to follow-up machining, saves a large amount of process time, and stock utilization and production efficiency significantly improve, and reduce production cost; 3. engage stationarity good, noise is low; 4. with short production cycle, the market competitiveness is strong, and environmental pollution is low, meets modern manufacturing industry to large-scale production, low cost consumption, and the processing of severe service components is expected.
Some universities and colleges and scientific research institution begin one's study the precision die forging process of driven spiral bevel gear in recent years, and general process route is blanking, heating, jumping-up, punching, rolling ring, again heating, blocking, finish-forging, surface treatment, shaping, machined etc.This technical process is more complicated, and blank preparation needs special rolling ring equipment.Some units are in order to prepare the suitable blank of shape, and directly the annular blank close to finish-forging part made by the large diameter bar car of employing, and then heats forged is shaped, and this method machining blanks time is long, dragged slowly the whole production cycle, and stock utilization is low.
Spiral bevel gear shape is special, has the nodel line of spiral, and in forming process, metal flow resistance is large, mould filling difficulty.Mold stresses is large in the filling process, and die life is low.After shaping terminates, the demoulding is also a great problem, and when helical angle is larger, conventional vertical stripping means can damage the flank of tooth be shaped, thus makes workpiece defective.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the method for the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of a kind of automobile axle, solve conventional helical angle gear accurate thermal forging technology process complexity, poor efficiency, the problem that stock utilization is low, die life is low, solves the material filling in spiral bevel gear shaping and release problems simultaneously.
A method for the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of automobile axle, carry out in accordance with the following steps:
(1) according to constant-volume principle, calculate bar size, by bar according to the size section of being sawn into calculated, make blank;
(2) by blank heating to 1100-1200 DEG C;
(3) blank after heating is put into jumping-up under forcing press, makes it into round pie;
(4) jumping-up part is put into blocking on Preform Die, gained pre-forging shape and gear product profile close, be not with tooth, the upper and lower end band blind hole in inner side;
(5) pre-forging is put on punching die carries out punching, wash out a part of endoporus gross weight of pre-forging;
(6) punching part is put into finish-forging die and carry out finish-forging, finish-forging work step forms teeth portion.
In whole process, the linking between each operation should be compact as far as possible, and after finish-forging is terminated, the temperature of gear still more than phase transition temperature, thus reduces residual internal stress.
Described Preform Die, punching die, finish-forging die need to carry out preheating before processing, and preheat temperature is 150 DEG C-200 DEG C.
Described Preform Die, finish-forging die will make compensation, to ensure that the gear forged meets required precision to the distortion of mould and blank and thermal expansion when designing.
Described punching part with upper and lower stepped hole so that before forging in finish-forging operation after blank location and forging forging eject, middle through hole can form the center shunting of finish-forging operation, thus reduces mold stresses, extends die life.
Described finish-forging die is enclosed, to ensure good material filling, and reduces the too much material consumption because overlap brings, improves stock utilization.
Finisher profile of tooth die is upper, and after finish-forging terminates, finish-forging part to bottom knockout, and does small rotation relative to profile of tooth die due to inertia under butterfly spring effect, thus avoids damaging in knockout course the shaping flank of tooth and profile of tooth die.
Beneficial effect of the present invention: (1) Slug preparing is simple, technological process is simple, efficient, is applicable to large-scale production.(2) stock utilization is high, and cost is low.(3) mould structure is simple, can reduce stress suffered by mould and be heated, and extends the mold use life-span.(4) the effective demoulding of energy, does not damage the flank of tooth of gear.(5) gear internal be shaped organizes streamline continuous, and mechanical property is good, long service life.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is driven spiral bevel gear sectional view.
Fig. 2 is driven spiral bevel gear tomograph.
Fig. 3 is the hot forging flow chart of driven spiral bevel gear;
Wherein, a-blanking, b-jumping-up, c-blocking, d-punching, e-finish-forging.
Fig. 4 is finish-forging die die opening state schematic diagram;
Wherein, 41-check ring, 42-profile of tooth die, 43-disk spring, 44-formwork, 45-upper ejector pin, the pre-forging after 46-punching, jacking block under 47-, 48-counterdie, 49-push rod.
Fig. 5 is finish-forging die closure state schematic diagram;
Wherein, 51-finish-forging part.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention will be further described.
Embodiment 1
A kind of method of automobile axle driven spiral bevel gear (Fig. 1, Fig. 2) accurate forge hot, carry out in accordance with the following steps:
(1) first design forging to be respectively shaped the shape of work step, the size of bar is calculated based on volume equal principle, ensure suitable ratio of height to diameter, then (the oxide skin car of blank surface a), can first fall to improve cutting stock precision car rounding cylindricality bar by Fig. 3.
(2) bar that car is good is heated to 1100-1200 DEG C, takes out under being placed in forcing press and carry out jumping-up, be upset as the jumping-up part (Fig. 3 b) of round pie.
(3) jumping-up part is put into Preform Die, be swaged into the pre-forging (Fig. 3 c) of upper and lower band blind hole, pre-forging is ring-type, and profile is close to finish-forging part, and difference is do not have profile of tooth.
(4) pre-forging is taken out, put into punching die and carry out punching (Fig. 3 d), endoporus gross weight is washed out a part.The punching part obtained with upper and lower stepped hole so that before forging in finish-forging operation after blank location and forging forging eject, middle through hole can form the center shunting of finish-forging operation.
(5) punching part is put into finish-forging die and carry out finish-forging, obtain finish-forging part (Fig. 3 e).Finisher structure as shown in Figure 4, Figure 5.
The operation of finish-forging is crossed and is called:
As shown in Figure 4, under die opening state, punching part is put into and supports on the lower jacking block 47 that floats by push rod 49, the inner bore of step of lower jacking block intermediate raised portion and punching part lower end is utilized to locate, this one-phase, hot blank only contacts with the upper surface of lower jacking block, does not all contact with other parts of mould, be conducive to reducing the time that mould bears thermal force, improve die life.
Patrix is descending, first, upper ejector pin 45 first contacts blank, and under the effect of disk spring 43, workpiece is pressed between upper ejector pin and lower jacking block, along with the continuation of forcing press is descending, formwork 44 closes with counterdie 48, thus at counterdie, formwork, profile of tooth die 42, upper ejector pin, the die cavity that between lower jacking block, generation one is closed, blank flows in this die cavity closed, distortion, be full of the parts of tooth of die, unnecessary material, flow to the intermediate throughholes part of punching part, play the effect of center shunting, as shown in Figure 5, the stress that can greatly reduce suffered by shaping final stage mould is shunted at center, improve die life.
Patrix is up afterwards, and lower jacking block 47 upwards floats under the effect of push rod 49, and finish-forging part 51 is namely up with profile of tooth die 42, and upper ejector pin 45 lower surface acts on the stepped hole of workpiece upper end, under the effect of disk spring, workpiece is released die cavity downwards.At this moment, shrink because workpiece slightly cools, will be easy to be separated with profile of tooth die and formwork, upper ejector pin, when helical angle more greatly can not vertically the demoulding time, finish-forging part can do small rotation relative to profile of tooth die under effect of inertia, thus when do not damage the shaping flank of tooth and profile of tooth die complete the demoulding.
Should control the time of each operation, procedure connection is as far as possible compact, and after finish-forging is terminated, the temperature of forging is still more than the phase change line of material therefor.
When blocker and finisher design, thermal expansion and the elastic deformation of blank, mould be considered, make compensation targetedly, to ensure the precision of final forging.

Claims (3)

1. a method for the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of automobile axle, is characterized in that, carry out in accordance with the following steps:
(1) according to constant-volume principle, calculate bar size, by bar according to the size section of being sawn into calculated, make blank; First the oxide skin car of blank surface is fallen to improve cutting stock precision;
(2) by blank heating to 1100-1200 DEG C;
(3) blank after heating is put into jumping-up under forcing press, makes it into round pie;
(4) jumping-up part is put into blocking on Preform Die, gained pre-forging shape and gear product profile close, be not with tooth, the upper and lower end band blind hole in inner side;
(5) pre-forging is put on punching die carries out punching, wash out a part of endoporus gross weight of pre-forging;
(6) punching part is put into finish-forging die and carry out finish-forging, finish-forging die is enclosed, and profile of tooth die, upper, is specially:
Under die opening state, punching part is put into and supports on the lower jacking block that floats by push rod, utilize the inner bore of step of lower jacking block intermediate raised portion and punching part lower end to locate, this one-phase, punching part only contacts with the upper surface of lower jacking block, does not all contact with other parts of mould;
Patrix is descending, and first, upper ejector pin first contacts blank, and under the effect of disk spring, be pressed in by workpiece between upper ejector pin and lower jacking block, along with the continuation of forcing press is descending, formwork and counterdie close, thus the die cavity that generation one is closed between counterdie, formwork, profile of tooth die, upper ejector pin, lower jacking block, blank flowing in this die cavity closed, distortion, be full of the parts of tooth of die, unnecessary material, flow to the intermediate throughholes part of punching part, play the effect of center shunting;
Patrix is up afterwards, lower jacking block upwards floats under the effect of push rod, finish-forging part is namely up with profile of tooth die, upper ejector pin lower surface acts on the stepped hole of workpiece upper end, the demoulding is rotated down under disk spring and effect of inertia, workpiece is released die cavity downwards, thus avoids damaging in knockout course the shaping flank of tooth and profile of tooth die;
Punching part with upper and lower stepped hole so that before forging in finish-forging operation after blank location and forging forging eject, middle through hole can form the center shunting of finish-forging operation, thus reduces mold stresses, extends die life;
Control the time of each operation, after finish-forging is terminated, the temperature of forging is still more than the phase change line of material therefor.
2. the method for the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of a kind of automobile axle according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described Preform Die, punching die, finish-forging die need to carry out preheating before processing, and preheat temperature is 150 DEG C-200 DEG C.
3. the method for the driven spiral angle gear accurate forge hot of a kind of automobile axle according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described Preform Die, finish-forging die will make compensation, to ensure that the gear forged meets required precision to the distortion of mould and blank and thermal expansion when designing.
CN201210041302.4A 2012-02-21 2012-02-21 Method for precisely carrying out hot forging on driven spiral bevel gear of automobile rear axle Expired - Fee Related CN102581208B (en)

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CN105215629A (en) * 2014-07-02 2016-01-06 西安航空动力股份有限公司 A kind of forging method of complicated stainless steel forging part of thin rib tape interstitial hole
CN104384877A (en) * 2014-11-13 2015-03-04 四川省雅安市羌江机械有限责任公司 Processing process of rear axle circular cone driven gear
CN104815936A (en) * 2015-04-24 2015-08-05 江西景航航空锻铸有限公司 Forge forming method and special mold for fork type pieces such as high reinforcing bars and thin web plates
CN105081179B (en) * 2015-09-28 2017-10-31 四川联茂机械制造有限公司 The hollow pipe processing technique of engaging sleeve and processing mold
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CN106271470A (en) * 2016-08-02 2017-01-04 盐城市鑫海机械有限公司 A kind of processing method of balance shaft gear
CN107020484B (en) * 2017-04-18 2019-01-01 汉德车桥(株洲)齿轮有限公司 A kind of manufacturing method of three teeth
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CN110216232A (en) * 2018-03-01 2019-09-10 上海汽车变速器有限公司 The monoblock type conjunction gear gear forging technique of conjunction gear is shaped after first punching
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JP2010234410A (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-10-21 Sato Neji Seisakusho:Kk Forging apparatus for spiral bevel gear
CN101927309A (en) * 2010-08-03 2010-12-29 北京机电研究所 Precision plastic forming manufacture technology of spiral bevel gear
CN102166610A (en) * 2010-02-25 2011-08-31 蒋永宋 Method for processing drive axle half-axle gear by hot forging

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JP4942214B2 (en) * 2008-05-30 2012-05-30 武蔵精密工業株式会社 Method for forging bevel gears

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101480691A (en) * 2009-01-08 2009-07-15 上海交通大学 Hot forging method of magnesium alloy straight bevel gear
JP2010234410A (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-10-21 Sato Neji Seisakusho:Kk Forging apparatus for spiral bevel gear
CN101780515A (en) * 2009-12-23 2010-07-21 青岛三星精锻齿轮有限公司 Process for precisely forging triple gear of dual-drive tandem
CN102166610A (en) * 2010-02-25 2011-08-31 蒋永宋 Method for processing drive axle half-axle gear by hot forging
CN101927309A (en) * 2010-08-03 2010-12-29 北京机电研究所 Precision plastic forming manufacture technology of spiral bevel gear

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