CN102545360A - Intelligent charger for storage battery of electric vehicle - Google Patents

Intelligent charger for storage battery of electric vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102545360A
CN102545360A CN2012100290217A CN201210029021A CN102545360A CN 102545360 A CN102545360 A CN 102545360A CN 2012100290217 A CN2012100290217 A CN 2012100290217A CN 201210029021 A CN201210029021 A CN 201210029021A CN 102545360 A CN102545360 A CN 102545360A
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storage battery
circuit
charging
connected
electric vehicle
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CN2012100290217A
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Chinese (zh)
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刘德军
黄勇
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刘德军
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the electronic technique field and storage battery charging, and relates to an intelligent charger for a storage battery of an electric vehicle. The intelligent charger for the storage battery consists of 220V alternating current, a power transformer T, a full-wave rectification circuit, a pulse direct current indicating circuit, unidirectional controllable silicon and a trigger circuit thereof, a biasing circuit of a PNP triode VT1, a charging output terminal and a charging state indicating circuit. The intelligent charger for the storage battery of the electric vehicle has multiple protective functions of preventing a polar plate of the storage battery from falling off or electrodes of the storage battery from being disconnected, preventing the storage battery from being subjected to short circuit, preventing inverted connection of a positive electrode and a negative electrode of the storage battery, preventing nominal voltage of a storage battery module from being deflected, preventing the polar plate of the storage battery from being subjected to lead sulfate formation, charging quickly, self-stopping until the storage battery is full of power and the like, so that a great convenience is supplied to a storage battery user; and the intelligent charger is suitable to be extensively used by an electric vehicle user and also suitable for developing charging and maintenance services in a shop or a stall.

Description

CN 102545360 A CN 102545360 A

电动车蓄电池智能充电器技术领域 Electric car battery charger intelligent technology field

[0001] 本发明属于电子技术与蓄电池充电技术领域,是关于一种电动车蓄电池智能充电器。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the field of electronics and battery charging technology, it relates to a smart charger batteries for electric vehicles.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 蓄电池的容量大、性价比较高是各种可充电电池所无法比拟的。 [0002] The battery capacity, the higher cost of rechargeable batteries is unmatched. 目前,电动自行车用的电池普遍采用免维护铅酸蓄电池作为动力源,所以蓄电池性能的好坏直接影响着电动自行车的工作性能。 At present, general electric bicycle battery maintenance-free lead-acid batteries as a power source, the battery performance directly affects the performance of electric bicycles. 因此,如何使用、维护蓄电池是消费者最为关心的事情。 Therefore, how to use and maintain the battery is what consumers are most concerned about. 蓄电池充电器多数是电动车的配套装置,尽管蓄电池对充电方式有很大的包容性,但如果长期使用劣质充电器会加速蓄电池的老化和容量快速下降,从而导致电动自行车续航里程变短,载重能力下降等问题。 Most battery chargers are supporting apparatus for an electric car, despite the battery has a lot of tolerance for charging, but if long-term use of poor quality will accelerate the aging of the battery charger and the rapid decline in capacity, resulting in shorter electric bicycle mileage, truck the ability to drop other issues. 市场上用于蓄电池充电的充电器种类繁多,但几乎都要求蓄电池的正负极与充电器的正负极必须正确连接,否则一旦正负极连接出错,那么轻则降低蓄电池的性能或使用寿命,或者烧坏充电器中的电子元件;重则烧坏整个充电器或充坏蓄电池;甚至有可能发生蓄电池暴炸损物、伤人的严重后果;并且普通充电器绝大部分没有修复功能,在充电时对蓄电池极板形成的硫酸铅无修复作用,而极板的硫酸盐化为不可逆过程。 On the market for a battery charger for charging a wide range, but almost always require battery positive and negative polarity of the charger must be connected properly, or if the positive and negative connection error, then ranging from reduced performance or battery life or burn charger electronic components; burned the entire weight of the battery charger or charge bad; battery may occur even damage the explosive was wounding serious consequences; and not the majority of normal charger repair function, lead sulfate during charging of the battery plates formed without repair, and sulfates plate into an irreversible process. 长期使用性能较差的充电器,对蓄电池性能会造成十分不利的影响,且这种不利影响会日积月累,最终导致其容量迅速下降、使用寿命大幅度缩短。 Long-term use of poor performance charger, battery performance will result in a very negative impact, and this will adversely affect over time, eventually leading to its rapid decline in capacity, service life greatly reduced.

[0003] 本发明仅使用少量普通分立元器件实现了蓄电池充电器具有智能保护功能。 [0003] The present invention uses only a few discrete components to achieve a common battery charger having a smart protective function. 以下详细说明本发明所述的电动车蓄电池智能充电器在制作过程中所涉及的相关技术内容。 The following detailed description of the present invention, the electric vehicle battery charger intelligent content related art in the production process involved.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 发明目的及有益效果:本发明电动车蓄电池智能充电器的多重保护功能给蓄电池用户的使用带来很大方便,适合于门面、摊点开展蓄电池充电、维修业务或电动车用户的粗放使用。 [0004] Object of the invention and beneficial effects: the invention of electric car battery charger intelligent battery of multiple protection features to users great convenience to use, suitable for facade, stalls carry out the battery charge, the extensive use of electric vehicles or repair business users .

[0005] 蓄电池电压设定为36V,若被充蓄电池极板脱落或电极断开,造成蓄电池组不通, 或某组蓄电池出现短路,那么蓄电池的端电压就会降低或为零,这时本充电器将无充电电流输出; [0005] The battery voltage is set to 36V, if they are charged battery plates or electrodes falling off causing unreasonable battery pack, short circuit or set of batteries, the battery terminal voltage is lowered or zero, the present charging time will output no charging current;

[0006] 若误将蓄电池的正负极接反,则单向可控硅触发电路反偏截止,无触发信号,单向可控硅不导通,充电输出端的充电电流为零; [0006] If the battery positive and negative erroneously reversed, the reverse bias unidirectional SCR trigger circuit is turned off, no trigger signal, the one-way SCR is not conducting, charging output charging current is zero;

[0007] 若被充蓄电池电压偏离设定电压,如:误接了24V或12V蓄电池时,该充电器无输出电流; [0007] if they are charging the battery voltage deviates from the set voltage, such as: when a misconnection 24V or 12V battery, the charger is no output current;

[0008] 采用脉动直流电充电,有助于抑制蓄电池极板硫酸铅化的形成,有利于延长蓄电池的寿命;由于经全波整流后是脉动直流电,只有当其波峰电压大于蓄电池电压时单向可控硅才会导通,而当脉动直流电压处于波谷范围时,单向可控硅则反偏截止,停止向蓄电池充电; [0008] The pulsating direct current charging, help inhibit the formation of lead sulfate of the battery plates, help extend the life of the battery; because the full-wave rectified pulsating DC is, only when it is the peak unidirectional voltage greater than the battery voltage will thyristor is turned on and when the trough is in the range of the pulsating DC voltage, the reverse bias unidirectional thyristor is turned off to stop charging to the battery;

[0009] 快速充电,充满自停;由于刚开始充电时蓄电池两端的电压较低,因而充电电流较大;当蓄电池即将充满时(36V蓄电池的端电压可充电到43V),由于充电电压越来越接近脉动直流电输出电压峰值时,则充电电流将会越来越小,最后变为涓流充电;当蓄电池两端电压被充到接近整流输出的波峰最大值时,充电过程接近停止。 [0009] fast charging, stoped; lower because the voltage across the battery when the beginning of charging, the charging current is thus larger; when the battery is nearly full (the terminal voltage of 36V to 43V rechargeable battery), since the charging voltage of increasingly when pulsating direct current closer to the peak output voltage, the charging current will become smaller and smaller, and finally to trickle charge; and when the voltage across the battery is charged to a maximum near the peak of the rectified output, stops the charging process approaches.

[0010] 电路工作原理:220V交流电经电源变压器T降压,经全波硅堆QZ整流后,得到约45V的脉动直流电压。 [0010] The circuit works: 220V AC power source via the step-down transformer T, after the full-wave rectifier silicon stack QZ, to give the pulsating DC voltage of about 45V. 当输出端按极性接入被充蓄电池后,若整流输出脉动电压的每个半波峰值超过蓄电池的端电压时,PNP型三极管VTl的集电极产生触发电流使单向可控硅SCR导通,充电电流经单向可控硅SCR给蓄电池充电。 When access by the polarity output terminal of the battery is charged, if the peak value of each half-wave rectified output ripple voltage exceeds the battery voltage, the collector of a PNP transistor current VTl trigger the SCR is turned on one-way , the charging current through the thyristor SCR way to charge the battery. 脉动电压接近或等于蓄电池电压时,单向可控硅SCR被关断,蓄电池停止充电。 When the ripple voltage equal to or near the battery voltage, the unidirectional thyristor SCR is turned off, to stop charging the battery. 调节电位器RP可改变PNP型三极管VTl的导通电压。 Adjusting the potentiometer RP can change the ON voltage of the PNP transistor VTl. 附图I中的红色发光管LEDl用作脉动直流电指示,绿色发光管LED2用作蓄电池充电状态指示。 The figures I red LED LEDl pulsating direct current as an indication, as the green light emitting tube LED2 battery charge indication.

[0011] 技术方案:电动车蓄电池智能充电器,由220V交流电、电源变压器T及全波整流电路、脉动直流电指示电路、单向可控硅及其触发电路、PNP型三极管VTl的偏置电路、充电输出端子及充电状态指示电路组成,其特征包括: [0011] Technical Solution: electric car battery smart charger, a 220V AC power transformer T and the full-wave rectifying circuit, a pulsating direct current indication circuit, and one-way thyristor trigger circuit, the PNP transistor type bias circuit VTl, a charging output terminal and a charging status indication circuit, characterized by comprising:

[0012] 交流变压器T及全桥整流电路:电源变压器T初级线圈LI的两端分别接220V交流电,电源变压器T次级线圈L2的两端分别接全桥整流硅堆QZ的交流电输入端,全桥整流硅堆QZ的正极输出端接脉动直流电的正极VCC,全桥整流硅堆QZ的负极输出端与电路地GND相连; [0012] AC transformer T and the full-bridge rectifier circuit: the power transformer T across the primary coil LI of AC 220V, respectively, both ends of the secondary coil L2 of the power transformer T are respectively connected to full bridge rectifier silicon stack QZ AC input, the whole termination bridge rectifier positive output pulsating DC silicon stack QZ positive VCC, QZ silicon stack full bridge rectifier negative output terminal connected to circuit ground GND;

[0013] 单向可控硅SCR及其触发电路:单向可控硅SCR的阴极接电路地GND,单向可控硅SCR的控制极接充电状态指示灯LED2的负极,充电状态指示灯LED2的正极接电阻R2的一端,电阻R2的另一端接PNP型三极管VTl的集电极,PNP型三极管VTl的发射极接脉动直流电的正极VCC,单向可控硅SCR的阳极接充电输出端子的负极; [0013] and the one-way thyristor SCR trigger circuit: the cathode of the SCR is unidirectional circuitgrounded the GND, unidirectional thyristor SCR control electrode connected to the negative electrode charge status indicator LED2, the charging status indicator LED2 emission cathode connected to one end of the resistor R2, the collector of PNP transistor VTl the other end of the resistor R2 of the PNP transistor VTl electrode connected to the VCC positive pulsating direct current, the SCR anode to unidirectional negative output terminal of the charge ;

[0014] PNP型三极管VTl的偏置电路:PNP型三极管VTl的基极与电阻R3的一端、电位器RP的一端相连,电阻R3的另一端接脉动直流电的正极VCC,电位器RP的另一端接单向可控硅SCR的阳极。 [0014] PNP transistor type bias circuit VTl: PNP type transistor is connected to the base VTl, one ends of the resistor R3, the potential RP is, the other end of the resistor R3 of the pulsating direct current the VCC positive electrode, the other end of the potentiometer RP then the SCR anode way.

[0015] 充电输出端子中充电输出端子的正极接脉动直流电的正极VCC,充电输出端子的负极接单向可控硅SCR的阳极。 [0015] The charging output terminal is connected to the positive output terminal of the DC positive pulsating VCC, a negative output terminal connected to the charge-way thyristor SCR anode.

[0016] 脉动直流电指示电路:红色发光二极管LEDl的正极接脉动直流电的正极VCC,红色发光二极管LEDl的负极串接电阻Rl后接电路地GND。 [0016] pulsating direct current indication circuit: red light emitting diode LEDl is positive then the positive pulsating direct current VCC, the red light emitting diode LEDl series resistor Rl connected to the negative electrode circuit ground GND.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0017] 附图I是本发明提供一个电动车蓄电池智能充电器的实施例电路工作原理图。 [0017] FIG. I is the present invention to provide a smart battery charger electric vehicle of the circuit operation principle embodiment FIG. 具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0018] 按照附图I所示有多重保护功能的电动车蓄电池充电器的电路工作原理图和附图说明,并且按照发明内容所述的各部分电路中元器件之间的连接关系,以及实施方式中所述的元器件技术参数要求进行实施即可实现本发明。 [0018] According to Figure I there is shown multiple protection functions of the electric vehicle battery charger circuit schematic drawings and description, and in accordance with the connection relationship between the respective parts of the circuit components in the Summary and embodiments the components in the embodiment of technical parameters required for embodiments of the present invention can be realized.

[0019] 元器件的选择及其技术参数 [0019] Component selection and technical parameters

[0020] 以下以电动车36V蓄电池为例: [0020] The following 36V battery to electric vehicles as an example:

[0021] 电动车蓄电池智能充电器电路中全桥整流硅堆QZ,可选用塑封方形8-10A的全桥,因硅堆QZ功率较大应安装在铝质散热板上; [0021] The electric vehicle battery charger intelligent full bridge rectifier circuit QZ silicon stack, the choice of plastic square 8-10A full bridge, because silicon stack QZ large power to be installed in an aluminum heat dissipation plate;

[0022] 单向可控硅SCR可选用10A/100V金属封装的单向可控硅,可将与全桥整流硅堆QZ 用螺母固定在同一块铝质散热板上,注意元件之间的绝缘处理; [0022] The optional one-way thyristor SCR 10A / 100V metal-encapsulated way thyristor, the stack may be between the insulating member is fixed in the same block QZ aluminum cooling plate by a nut, and the full-bridge rectifier silicon note deal with;

[0023] VTl为单向可控硅触发电路所设,应选用PNP型三极管,参数为Vceo彡60V, IM = 1A,电流放大倍数P > 80,选用2SB536、B564或B1008等型号的三极管; [0023] VTl unidirectional SCR trigger circuit is provided, should use a PNP transistor, parameters Vceo San 60V, IM = 1A, current amplification factor P> 80, selection transistor, etc. 2SB536, B564 or B1008 model;

[0024] LEDl为0 5红色发光二极管;LED2为$ 5绿色发光二极管; [0024] LEDl is a red light emitting diode 05; LED2 green light emitting diode is $ 5;

[0025] 电阻选用金属膜电阻,电阻Rl的阻值为3. 3KQ、功率为1/2W ;电阻R2的阻值为 [0025] Selection resistance metal film resistors, the resistance of the resistor Rl 3. 3KQ, the power of 1 / 2W; resistance of resistor R2

4. 7KQ、功率为1W;电阻R3的阻值为IKQ、功率为1/4W; 4. 7KQ, 1W power; a resistance of the resistor R3 IKQ, a power of 1 / 4W;

[0026] RP为线性电位器、其阻值36KQ、功率为2W ; [0026] RP is a linear potentiometer, the resistance 36KQ, power of 2W;

[0027] 电源变压器T可选用BK200型的控制变压器,输出电压选用42V挡,输出电压空载时约41〜42V。 [0027] The choice of the power transformer T BK200 type control transformer, the output voltage selection block 42V, the output voltage from about 41~42V load.

[0028] 电路制作要点与电路调试说明 [0028] Production points debugging circuit and the circuit described

[0029] 因电动车蓄电池智能充电器的电路结构比较简单,一般只要使用的元器件性能完好,元器件的物理连接正确无误,电路不需要进行调试就可以正常工作; [0029] The circuit configuration of the electric vehicle due to the smart battery charger is relatively simple, as long as the performance of the general integrity of the components used, the components of the physical connection is correct, the circuit does not require debugging can work normally;

[0030] 电路中全桥整流后的脉动直流电切不能随意添加滤波电路,否则蓄电池在充电过程中的修复作用将会变差; [0030] circuit full bridge rectified pulsating DC cut can not be free to add a filter circuit, the battery during the charging process or the repair will be poor;

[0031] 全桥整流输出脉动直流电空载电压为45V,调节电位器RP的阻值可改变PNP型三极管VTl的导通电压,一般将电位器RP由大阻值向小阻值调整,调整到PNP型三极管VTl 导通时,能够同时触发单向可控硅SCR导通即好; [0031] The full bridge rectifier output pulsating DC load voltage is 45V, the resistance of the potentiometer RP regulator may change the ON voltage of the PNP transistor VTl, generally by the potentiometer RP large value to adjust the resistance is small, is adjusted to when VTl PNP transistor is turned on, the SCR can be triggered simultaneously turned way that is good;

[0032] 经过试验:在给36V电动车蓄电池充电时(三组12V/14Ah蓄电池串联),电源变压器T次级线圈的交流电压满载时降低为40V,串接上直流电流表测量平均充电电流为I. 8〜 [0032] After testing: When charging a 36V battery electric vehicles (three 12V / 14Ah batteries in series), the AC voltage of the secondary winding of the power transformer T is reduced to 40V when fully loaded, the DC ammeter connected in series to measure the average charge current is I . 8~

2. 2A。 2. 2A.

Claims (3)

1.一种电动车蓄电池智能充电器,由220V交流电、电源变压器T及全波整流电路、脉动直流电指示电路、单向可控硅及其触发电路、PNP型三极管VTl的偏置电路、充电输出端子及充电状态指示电路组成,其特征包括:交流变压器T及全桥整流电路中的电源变压器T初级线圈LI的两端分别接220V交流电,电源变压器T次级线圈L2的两端分别接全桥整流硅堆QZ的交流电输入端,全桥整流硅堆QZ的正极输出端接脉动直流电的正极VCC,全桥整流硅堆QZ的负极输出端与电路地GND 相连;单向可控硅SCR及其触发电路中的单向可控硅SCR的阴极接电路地GND,单向可控硅SCR的控制极接充电状态指示灯LED2的负极,充电状态指示灯LED2的正极接电阻R2的一端,电阻R2的另一端接PNP型三极管VTl的集电极,PNP型三极管VTl的发射极接脉动直流电的正极VCC,单向可控硅SCR的阳极接充电输出端子的负极 An electric vehicle battery smart charger, a 220V AC power transformer T and the full-wave rectifying circuit, a pulsating direct current indication circuit, and one-way thyristor trigger circuit, the PNP transistor type bias circuit VTl, charging output terminals and charging status indication circuit, characterized by comprising: a primary coil of the transformer T across the power supply AC transformer T and LI full bridge rectifier circuits respectively connected 220V AC power at both ends of the secondary coil L2 of the transformer T are connected to the full bridge silicon rectifier AC input stack QZ, the positive output end full-bridge rectifier ripple DC silicon stack QZ the VCC positive electrode, is connected to full bridge rectifier QZ silicon stack negative output terminal of the GND circuit ground; unidirectional thyristor SCR and the trigger circuit of thyristor SCR unidirectional cathode connected to the GND circuit, a one-way thyristor SCR control electrode connected to the negative electrode charge status indicator LED2, the charging status indicator end of the cathode of LED2 is connected to the resistor R2, the resistor R2 the other end of the collector of the PNP transistor VTl, VTl the PNP transistor emitter electrode connected the VCC positive pulsating direct current, the SCR anode to unidirectional negative output terminal of the charge ;PNP型三极管VTl的偏置电路中的PNP型三极管VTl的基极与电阻R3的一端、电位器RP的一端相连,电阻R3的另一端接脉动直流电的正极VCC,电位器RP的另一端接单向可控硅SCR的阳极。 ; PNP transistor is connected to one end of the bias circuit VTl PNP transistor base VTl and resistor R3, the potential RP is, the other end of the resistor R3 of the pulsating direct current the VCC positive electrode, the other end of the potentiometer RP anode of the thyristor SCR is unidirectional.
2.根据权利要求I所述的电动车蓄电池智能充电器,其特征是:充电输出端子中充电输出端子的正极接脉动直流电的正极VCC,充电输出端子的负极接单向可控硅SCR的阳极。 Electric vehicle according to claim I of the smart battery charger, wherein: the output terminal is connected to the charging output positive pulsating VCC positive DC terminal, an output terminal connected to the negative charge unidirectional thyristor SCR anode .
3.根据权利要求I所述的的电动车蓄电池智能充电器,其特征是:脉动直流电指示电路中红色发光二极管LEDl的正极接脉动直流电的正极VCC,红色发光二极管LEDl的负极串接电阻Rl后接电路地GND。 According to claim I of the electric vehicle smart battery charger, characterized in that: indicating pulsating direct current circuit of the red light emitting diode LEDl pulsating direct current positive terminal of the VCC of the positive electrode, the negative electrode of the red light emitting diode LEDl the series resistance Rl ground circuit ground GND.
CN2012100290217A 2012-02-09 2012-02-09 Intelligent charger for storage battery of electric vehicle CN102545360A (en)

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