CN102478832A - Three-dimensional circular interpolation method capable of realizing curved surface machining of numerical control machine and device - Google Patents

Three-dimensional circular interpolation method capable of realizing curved surface machining of numerical control machine and device Download PDF

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CN102478832A
CN102478832A CN2010105533432A CN201010553343A CN102478832A CN 102478832 A CN102478832 A CN 102478832A CN 2010105533432 A CN2010105533432 A CN 2010105533432A CN 201010553343 A CN201010553343 A CN 201010553343A CN 102478832 A CN102478832 A CN 102478832A
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孙文秀
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Dalian Chuangda Technology Trade Market Co Ltd
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Abstract

Disclosed are a three-dimensional circular interpolation method capable of realizing curved surface machining of a numerical control machine and a device, which are used for resolving the problem of three-dimensional circular interpolation. The technical scheme includes that a spatial circular curve is regarded as a portion of an intersected line of a spherical surface and a plane pi passing through the circle center of the spherical surface; a new coordinate system O-uvw is built in the plane pi; a crossed polygon approaches an arc, and interpolation calculation of the circular curve is realized by the aid of a periodic interpolation recursion calculation mode; and a calculation result is switched into an original coordinate system, and control data for numerical control machining are obtained finally. The three-dimensional circular interpolation method has the advantages that 1, circular interpolation of a three-dimensional space is realized; and 2, circular interpolation approach is realized by the aid of the crossed polygon, so that machining precision and speed are increased. Spatial circular machining, periodic interpolation and time segmentation can be realized directly, a numerical control program is simplified, and machining precision is high. The device can be used for an existing machine tool numerical control system or is provided with corresponding peripheral equipment so as to form a machine tool numerical control system.

Description

Can realize the three-dimensional circular interpolation method and the device of numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface
Technical field
The present invention relates to the control technology field, be specifically related to a kind of three-dimensional circular interpolation method and device of realizing the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface.
Background technology
Numerically-controlled machine is advanced automated machine process equipment, in mechanical industry, has extensively and important use.Compare with machine tool, numerically-controlled machine possesses interpolation function, can control platen or the cutter orbiting motion according to the nc program establishment, realizes the automatic processing to various parts.Interpolating method directly influences the crudy of serviceability, machining precision, efficient and the part of numerically-controlled machine.The existing machine tool digital control system has straight line and circular interpolation function, through the combination of straight line or circular interpolation, realizes the processing to complex parts surface profile or curve.But existing circular interpolation method can only be carried out two dimension two coordinate plane circular interpolations in other words, does not possess three-dimensional space circular arc interpolation function, and reason is that the three-dimensional circular interpolation is complicated, and present digital control system can not realize.Like famous German SIEMENS A2100 system, Japan's FA NUC 18i, 21i system, German Heidenhain TNC 410M, 426M system and other machine tool numerical control system products; Have two coordinates, three-dimensional linear interpolation and two coordinate plane circular interpolations; But the function that does not possess the three-dimensional space circular arc interpolation; Influenced giving full play to of numerically-controlled machine function and efficient; Mainly show as when the three-dimensional space curve of processed complex part or curved surface, numerically-controlled machine can only approach with linear interpolation or plane circular interpolation, thereby causes the very big increase of nc program; Repeatedly calling, transmit and loading of a large amount of program segments reduces the reliability of digital control processing process.Add man-hour carrying out five-coordinate linkage numeric control,, increased the complicacy of calculating tool space attitude and machining locus, influence the machining precision and the efficient of part because digital control system only possesses straight line and plane circular interpolation function.
To this; Someone has proposed a kind of multi-axis numerical control system and inter-linked controlling method; This method proposes curved surface to be processed is resolved into element displacement section that segment curved surface, each segment curved surface be decomposed into each kinematic axis again, calculates each kinematic axis and carry out the linear interpolation computing in each displaced segments with respect to the displacement of a virtual reference axle, kinematic axis is controled according to operation result by computing machine.This method has solved the multi-shaft interlocked control difficult problem of Single-chip Controlling unit, but this method numerical control patching plug program is comparatively complicated, in practical application, has restricted the raising of numerically-controlled machine process velocity.
Summary of the invention
Problem to be solved by this invention is the deficiency that overcomes existing machine tool numerical control system interpolating method, and a kind of three-dimensional circular interpolation method and device of realizing the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface is provided.
Another problem to be solved by this invention provides the device of this method of employing.
Problem of the present invention realizes with following technical proposals: a kind of three-dimensional circular interpolation method that realizes the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface, and its step is following: a. resolves into the segment circular arc with space curve to be processed; B. regard the space circular arc curve as sphere and a part of crossing plane, sphere center of circle Ji intersection; On the π of plane, set up new coordinate system O-uvw, the initial point and the former coordinate system of new coordinate system.The initial point of one z of section overlaps, the ou of new coordinate system, ov coordinate axis on the Ji of plane, the make even normal direction of face π of ow coordinate axis; C. will convert the plane circular curve of new coordinate system O-uvw at the space circular arc curve of former coordinate system O-uvw; D. utilize a crossing polygon to approach circular arc, adopt cycle interpolation recursion account form, this plane circular curve is carried out circular interpolation; E. the interpolation coordinate figure that calculates is transformed to former space coordinates again, try to achieve the interpolated point coordinate figure of three-dimensional space circular arc cycle recursion interpolation; F. deduct the coordinate figure of interpolated point last time with this interpolated point coordinate figure respectively, try to achieve each increment of coordinate of this circular interpolation, said increment of coordinate is the cycle rough interpolation calculation control data of three-dimensional space circular arc curve.
The above-mentioned three-dimensional circular interpolation method that is used for numerically-controlled machine; After said cycle rough interpolation calculation procedure, set up smart INTERPOLATION CONTROL OF PULSE step; Three-dimensional cycle rough interpolation calculation control data-switching is become the smart interpolation signal of Servo System of CNC Machine Tool, and control numerically-controlled machine x, y, z coordinate move.
The above-mentioned three-dimensional circular interpolation method that is used for numerically-controlled machine, said control signal is level controling signal or pulse control signal.
It can be to intersect polygon that the above-mentioned three-dimensional circular interpolation method that is used for numerically-controlled machine, said polygon are approached circular arc, also can be inscribed polygon.
Another problem that need solve of the present invention is realized by following technical scheme:
A kind of three-dimensional circular interpolation device of realizing the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface; It constitutes; It is made up of single-chip microcomputer, data-carrier store, program storage, programmable parallel interface circuit, D/A converter; The corresponding port of said data-carrier store, program storage and single-chip microcomputer joins; Interpolation calculation procedure and smart interpolation Output Control Program are stored in the program storage, and the data output end of single-chip microcomputer and programmable parallel interface circuit join, and three parallel interfaces of the latter are connected to the servo-drive system of numerically-controlled machine respectively through D/A converter.
The above-mentioned three-dimensional circular interpolation device of realizing the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface is set up signal amplifier K between the servo-drive system of D/A converter and numerically-controlled machine.
The above-mentioned three-dimensional circular interpolation device of realizing the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface; Said programmable parallel interface circuit, D/A converter can adopt programmable timer to replace; The data output end of said single-chip microcomputer and the corresponding interface of timer join, and the latter's 30 pulse output interfaces are connected to the servo-drive system of numerically-controlled machine respectively.
The advantage that the present invention compared with prior art has is: 1. adopt the interpolation computing method of two dimensional surface to realize three-dimensional interpolation; 2. adopt and intersect polygon circular interpolation approximatioss, process velocity is improved; 3. tangent plane carries out circular interpolation layer by layer, directly circular arc processing, and one section of computed in software, one section of hardware processing, the cycle interpolation, the time is cut apart, and numerical control program is simplified, and machining precision is high; 4. output level or arteries and veins as required) in two kinds of signals, two-dimentional, three-dimensional interpolation all can.The present invention can be used for existing machine tool numerical control system or disposes respective peripheral device constituting the machine tool numerical control system use.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a three-dimensional space circular arc curvilinear coordinates conversion synoptic diagram;
Fig. 2 intersects polygon circular interpolation synoptic diagram;
Fig. 3 is inscribed polygon synoptic diagram (e is the permission approximate error of polygon to circular arc among the figure);
Fig. 4 is the electrical schematic diagram of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the patching plug program block diagram of apparatus of the present invention.
Embodiment
The concrete computing method of three-dimensional circular interpolation method of the numerically-controlled machine the realized Machining of Curved Surface among the present invention do, establish the center of circle through certain section curve sphere at true origin o, and circular curve can be regarded the part of sphere and the intersection of crossing sphere center of circle plane π as.In coordinate system O-uvw, the starting point of space circular arc curve be p0 (x0, y0, z0), terminal point be pn (see, yn, zn).In order to realize coordinate transform, on the π of plane, set up new coordinate system O-uvw, the initial point of new coordinate system overlaps with the initial point of former coordinate system O-xyz, newly the Ou of coordinate system, Ov coordinate axis on the π of plane, the make even normal direction of face Ji of Ow coordinate axis.Like this, the space circular arc curve in coordinate system O-xyz is being for conversion into a plane circular curve on the π of plane in new coordinate system O-uvw, the coordinate of its starting point and terminal point be respectively pO (uO, vO) and pn (un, vn).According to rectangular space coordinate conversion principle, have position relation between two coordinate systems of same origin fully by the angle between their coordinate axis, just the angle between the coordinate vector decides.If the angle of Ox axle and ou, Ov, ow axle is respectively α 1, α 2 and α 3, the angle of 0y, oz axle and Ou, Ov, Ow axle is respectively β 1, β 2, β 3
With γ 1, γ 2, γ 3, then can obtain following coordinate transform formula:
(1)
In new coordinate system O-uvw, the w coordinate identically vanishing of circular curve, the space circular arc curve of promptly in coordinate system O-xyz, representing converts in coordinate system O-uvw for a plane circular curve.Confirm ou, ov coordinate axis, utilize the relation between following formula and the direction cosine, can calculate the starting point coordinate pO of circular curve in coordinate system O-uvw (u0, v0) with terminal point coordinate pn (un, vO).With pO (uO, vO) and pn (un vn) makes the plane circular interpolation for circular arc starting point and terminal point.
When interpolation is calculated, adopt and intersect polygon (or inscribed polygon, but be not as effective as the former) and approach circular arc, wherein intersect the outside of two end points of polygonal each line segment at circular arc.If the radius of circular curve is R, polygon is e to the permission approximate error of circular arc, and when the end points of line segment and mid point equated the approximate error of circular arc, line segment approached circular arc and reached maximum length, thereby obtains the best effect of approaching.After the arrangement of deriving, obtain circular arc cycle interpolation recursive operation formula and be (2):
ui+1=Rcos(βi+α)=?aui-bvi,
vi+1=Rsin(βi+α)=?aui+bvi (i=0,1,2,……n-2) ?(2)
Constant in the formula
Figure 639030DEST_PATH_IMAGE002
According to the rectangular coordinates transformation principle, utilize following formula, the plane circular arc interpolated point coordinate that can formula (2) be calculated (ui+1 vi+1) transforms among the former coordinate system O-xyz, obtains formula (3):
Figure 481084DEST_PATH_IMAGE003
(3)
What formula (3) provided is exactly the interpolated point coordinate figure of three-dimensional space circular arc cycle recursion interpolation, and this interpolated point coordinate figure of usefulness deducts the coordinate figure of interpolated point last time respectively, has just obtained each increment of coordinate of this circular interpolation.
Said method has realized that the numerical control rough interpolation of three-dimensional interlock space circular arc calculates.
After each increment of coordinate of space circular arc interpolation calculates; Through the hardware interpolation device; Convert each increment of coordinate into corresponding level controling signal or pulse control signal; Accomplish the smart interpolation output of circular interpolation, the output signal of interpolating device drags numerically-controlled machine through the lathe servo-drive system and accomplishes the processing feed motion.
In the device of the present invention; CPU adopts 80C196KCj interpolation calculation procedure and smart interpolation Output Control Program to be stored among the erasable ROM (read-only memory) EPROM27256; Among the serial line interface input read-write memory RAM6264 of data such as circular curve starting point and terminal point through single-chip microcomputer; Patching plug program is calculated the cycle interpolation increment of x, y, z coordinate axis through interpolation; Smart INTERPOLATION CONTROL OF PULSE program is sent into x, y, z coordinate interpolation increment respectively A mouth, B mouth and the c mouth of programmable parallel interface 8255A; The coordinate interpolation increment of the A mouth of 8255A, B mouth and c mouth carries out the D/A conversion through 3 ADC0832 chips, and all through three signal amplifiers, and KY, K2 amplify the level signal that back output control numerically-controlled machine coordinate moves; Perhaps as requested, smart INTERPOLATION CONTROL OF PULSE program is sent the coordinate interpolation increment into programmable timer 8253 respectively, and the interpolation pulse by timer T1, timer T2 and timer T3 output respective coordinates increment utilizes moving of pulse signal control numerically-controlled machine coordinate.Output level control signal or pulse control signal can be decided the requirement of control signal according to Servo System of CNC Machine Tool.Through the servo-drive system of numerically-controlled machine, drag platen or cutter, accomplish working motion, finally realize three-dimensional space circular arc interpolation and linear interpolation.
Method of the present invention can be used for existing machine tool numerical control system or disposes respective peripheral device constituting the machine tool numerical control system use.Use the present invention that many space circular arc curves have been carried out the interpolation processing, the result shows that interpolation process and result are correctly reliable.Below provide several concrete interpolation instances:
Routine 1: establish the space circular arc center at coordinate origin o, it is e=O.001 (unit is volume, down together) that circular arc allows approximate error, circular arc half: footpath chi=58mm, and circular arc starting point coordinate xo=48.084 .yo=22.662,, shame 23.202; Circular arc terminal point coordinate Tianjin 22.662, string 32.433,, great 42.409; The circular interpolation calculation times is power=36 time, and maximum interpolation error O.0013mm.
Example 2: establish the space circular arc center at coordinate origin o, it is e=0.001m that circular arc allows approximate error, arc radius R=200I purt, and circular arc starting point coordinate x0:117.557, yO=100,, zO=127.202; The circular arc terminal point coordinate) m=165.808, yn=78.146,, zO:80.006; Circular arc cycle interpolation number of times is n:41 time, and maximum interpolation error O.0011Inrn.

Claims (3)

1. the three-dimensional circular interpolation method that can realize the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface is characterized in that, it adopts following steps to carry out:
A. space curve to be processed is resolved into the segment circular arc;
B. regard the space circular arc curve as sphere and a part of crossing plane, sphere center of circle Ji intersection; On the π of plane, set up new coordinate system O-uvw; The initial point of new coordinate system overlaps with the initial point of former coordinate system O-xyz; The Ou of new coordinate system, Ov coordinate axis on the Ji of plane, the make even normal direction of face π of 0w coordinate axis;
C. the space circular arc curve of former coordinate system O-xyz is converted to the plane circular curve of new coordinate system O-uvw;
D. utilize a crossing polygon to approach circular arc, adopt cycle interpolation recursion account form, this plane circular curve is carried out circular interpolation;
E. the interpolation coordinate figure that calculates is transformed to former space coordinates again, try to achieve the interpolated point coordinate figure of three-dimensional space circular arc cycle recursion interpolation;
F. deduct the coordinate figure of interpolated point last time with this interpolated point coordinate figure respectively, try to achieve each increment of coordinate of this circular interpolation, said increment of coordinate is the cycle rough interpolation calculation control data of three-dimensional space circular arc curve; Can realize that the three-dimensional circular interpolation method of numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface sets up smart INTERPOLATION CONTROL OF PULSE step after said cycle rough interpolation calculation procedure; Three-dimensional cycle rough interpolation calculation control data-switching is become the smart interpolation signal of Servo System of CNC Machine Tool, and control numerically-controlled machine x, y, z coordinate move; Said control signal is level controling signal or pulse control signal; It can be to intersect polygon or inscribed polygon that said polygon approaches circular arc.
2. the three-dimensional circular interpolation device that can realize the numerically-controlled machine Machining of Curved Surface; It is characterized in that; It is made up of single-chip microcomputer, data-carrier store, program storage, programmable parallel interface circuit, D/A converter; The corresponding port of said data-carrier store, program storage and single-chip microcomputer joins; Interpolation calculation procedure and smart interpolation Output Control Program are stored in the program storage, and the data output end of single-chip microcomputer and programmable parallel interface circuit join, and three parallel interfaces of the latter are connected to the servo-drive system of numerically-controlled machine respectively through D/A converter.
3. the three-dimensional circular interpolation device that is used for numerically-controlled machine according to claim 2 is characterized in that, between the servo-drive system of D/A converter and numerically-controlled machine, sets up signal amplifier K; Said programmable parallel interface circuit, D/A converter adopt programmable timer to replace, and the data output end of said single-chip microcomputer and the corresponding interface of timer circuit join, and three pulse output interfaces of the latter are connected to the servo-drive system of numerically-controlled machine respectively.
CN2010105533432A 2010-11-22 2010-11-22 Three-dimensional circular interpolation method capable of realizing curved surface machining of numerical control machine and device Pending CN102478832A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN102799145A (en) * 2012-08-13 2012-11-28 中国科学院数学与系统科学研究院 S-curve acceleration linear interpolation method adopting multi-period constant-acceleration transition for corner
CN103176428A (en) * 2013-04-16 2013-06-26 易兴 CNC (computerized numerical control) system interpolating algorithm based on spherical coordinates and device for realizing same
CN103676788A (en) * 2013-12-31 2014-03-26 苏州大学 Smooth processing-oriented numerical control processing track processing method
CN103809521A (en) * 2012-11-14 2014-05-21 中国科学院沈阳计算技术研究所有限公司 Spline curve interpolation method based on secant method
CN104597845A (en) * 2013-10-31 2015-05-06 中国科学院沈阳计算技术研究所有限公司 Spline curve interpolation algorithm for high quality processing
CN103383552B (en) * 2012-11-21 2015-08-26 深圳市智信精密仪器有限公司 A kind of arbitrary plane circular interpolation motion controller and control method thereof

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102799145A (en) * 2012-08-13 2012-11-28 中国科学院数学与系统科学研究院 S-curve acceleration linear interpolation method adopting multi-period constant-acceleration transition for corner
CN102799145B (en) * 2012-08-13 2014-08-06 中国科学院数学与系统科学研究院 S-curve acceleration linear interpolation method adopting multi-period constant-acceleration transition for corner
CN103809521A (en) * 2012-11-14 2014-05-21 中国科学院沈阳计算技术研究所有限公司 Spline curve interpolation method based on secant method
CN103383552B (en) * 2012-11-21 2015-08-26 深圳市智信精密仪器有限公司 A kind of arbitrary plane circular interpolation motion controller and control method thereof
CN103176428A (en) * 2013-04-16 2013-06-26 易兴 CNC (computerized numerical control) system interpolating algorithm based on spherical coordinates and device for realizing same
CN104597845A (en) * 2013-10-31 2015-05-06 中国科学院沈阳计算技术研究所有限公司 Spline curve interpolation algorithm for high quality processing
CN103676788A (en) * 2013-12-31 2014-03-26 苏州大学 Smooth processing-oriented numerical control processing track processing method
CN103676788B (en) * 2013-12-31 2015-02-04 苏州大学 Smooth processing-oriented numerical control processing track processing method

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