CN102424112B - Three-layer airborne flight control device for micro four-rotor aerial vehicle - Google Patents

Three-layer airborne flight control device for micro four-rotor aerial vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102424112B
CN102424112B CN201110393333.1A CN201110393333A CN102424112B CN 102424112 B CN102424112 B CN 102424112B CN 201110393333 A CN201110393333 A CN 201110393333A CN 102424112 B CN102424112 B CN 102424112B
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course
attitude
key
controller
sensor
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CN102424112A (en
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方正
张磊
苏哲宇
乔超
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Northeastern University China
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Northeastern University China
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Abstract

The invention relates to a three-layer airborne flight control device for a micro four-rotor aerial vehicle, and belongs to the technical field of micro aerial vehicles. A navigation control layer consists of a navigation controller, an inertial measurement unit, a micro laser distance measuring sensor, a micro vision sensor and a wireless fidelity (WiFi) wireless network; an attitude control layer consists of an attitude controller, a gyroscope, an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a pressure sensor, an ultrasonic sensor, a remote controller and receiver unit and a ZigBee wireless communication unit; and a motor speed regulation control layer consists of four brushless motor speed regulators and four actuator units. The attitude controller is added, so that the whole flight device becomes intelligent, can perform autonomous navigation positioning, can avoid obstacles, is independent of manual operation of a remote controller, and becomes an intelligent robot in the real sense.

Description

Three layers of microminiature quadrotor are airborne flies to control device
Technical field
The invention belongs to minute vehicle technical field, particularly three of a kind of microminiature quadrotor layers airbornely fly to control device.
Background technology
Minute vehicle (MAV:Micro Aerial Vehicle) has the features such as volume is little, lightweight, easy to carry, simple to operate, good concealment, maneuverability, modern military and civilian aspect have very wide application prospect, cause the more and more many researchers' of control field, robot field and aviation field concern in the world.In military affairs, minute vehicle can be used for the biochemical sampling of enemy's situation scouting, target tracking, electro countermeasure, lesion assessment, core, disposes sensor, trunking traffic, attack and defense even initiatively; Civilian upper, minute vehicle can be used for all kinds of monitorings, monitoring, tour, search and rescue, photography, mapping, investigation and investigation.
Although initial unmanned plane market is mainly to use and expensive towards military affairs, in recent years due to the development of micro-miniaturisation, electromechanical integration and microelectronic technique, make commercial applications microminiature, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) becomes possibility cheaply.This microminiature unmanned plane can be applicable to indoor and outdoor surroundings simultaneously, therefore has and the diverse new application of traditional unmanned plane.Yet indoor flight has also brought the challenge of unmanned plane volume, weight and dynamic role aspect, make very eurypalynous aircraft all cannot meet above requirement.Wherein a kind of aircraft that can extensively simultaneously be applicable to indoor and outdoor surroundings use is exactly rotary wind type, particularly microminiature quadrotor.Microminiature quadrotor is a kind of aircraft that four rotor oars drive, can vertical lift that passes through, and is widely used in the design of minute vehicle.Four rotors belong to non co axial formula disc-shaped flying craft in total arrangement, compare with conventional rotor craft, can produce larger lift.The other four rotors reactive torque moment of can cancelling each other, does not need special reactive torque oar.In addition, the power that it produces by four rotors of balance realizes stable spiraling and accurate flying, adopts less screw propeller, and then makes flight become safer.
But microminiature four rotor flying robots that most researcher proposes are to be all intended for open outdoor environment, adopt GPS position fixing system to realize the autonomous flight of robot more.Yet the particularity of GPS position signal depends on the quality for the number of the satellite of calculating location and reception signal to a great extent.Due to electromagnetic multipath propagation characteristic, all can make GPS locate failure with the electromagnetic interference of airborne equipment and artificial interference etc., the urban district of therefore towering at high building, the environment such as indoor often can not get failure-free GPS positioning signal.In addition, the microminiature flying machine robot system shortage mileage system due to most therefore will produce catastrophic consequence when without gps signal or gps signal mistake.So current microminiature four rotor flying robots also cannot be applicable to image processor, rescue, environment detection and the monitoring etc. in the dense fields such as urban district of indoor, dangerous mine, tunnel, building.
Summary of the invention
The deficiency existing for existing apparatus, the present invention proposes that three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor are airborne flies to control device, to reach the object of Camera calibration in the situation that locating without GPS.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor are airborne and flies to control device, comprise: attitude controller, gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer, pressure sensor, ultrasonic transduter, remote controller and acceptor unit, ZigBee radio communication unit, brushless motor governor, actuator unit and supplying cell, comprise navigation controller, Inertial Measurement Unit, miniature laser distance measuring sensor, miniature vision sensor, WiFi wireless network in addition;
Described navigation controller, Inertial Measurement Unit, miniature laser distance measuring sensor, miniature vision sensor and WiFi wireless network form Navigation Control layer, realize the accurate location without gps signal region;
Described attitude controller, gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer, pressure sensor, ultrasonic transduter, remote controller and acceptor unit and ZigBee radio communication unit form attitude key-course;
Four brushless motor governors and four actuator units form electric machine speed regulation key-course;
Navigation Control layer, attitude key-course and electric machine speed regulation key-course form three layers of airborne control structure; Wherein, Navigation Control layer and attitude key-course carry out communication by USB serial ports, and the signal that Navigation Control layer collects self-sensor device is processed, and result is passed to attitude key-course;
The signal that the signal that described attitude key-course collects self-sensor device is processed or its sensor is collected sends to Navigation Control layer, after by Navigation Control layer, the signal collecting being processed, returns to attitude key-course again;
Described attitude key-course provides 4 road pwm signals to control the work of electric machine speed regulation key-course;
Described Inertial Measurement Unit is integrated gyroscope, accelerometer and magneticintensity meter in one for measuring the sensor of object angular rate and acceleration/accel, it guarantees after removing Navigation Control layer, attitude key-course is still controlled the normal operation of electric machine speed regulation key-course;
Described brushless motor governor is accepted the velocity of rotation of brushless motor in the control signal of attitude key-course adjusting actuator unit;
Described actuator unit comprises brushless motor and supporting screw propeller with it, by it, is produced lift and is driven aircraft to move.
Advantage of the present invention: increased Navigation Control layer in the present invention, after Navigation Control layer is connected with attitude key-course by serial ports, realize the intercommunication of each layer of upper sensor information data, navigation controller can transfer control signal to attitude controller, sensor information on attitude controller also can be uploaded to navigation controller computing, whole flight instruments become intelligence, can Camera calibration, evade obstacle and abandon the M/C of remote controller is relied on, become the intelligent robot in meaning.
Accompanying drawing explanation
To be that three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor of the present invention are airborne fly to control device general construction block diagram to Fig. 1;
Fig. 2 is the airborne structural representation that flies to control device Navigation Control layer of three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the airborne structural representation that flies to control device attitude key-course of three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor of the present invention;
To be that three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor of the present invention are airborne fly to control device electric machine speed regulation key-course structural frames schematic diagram to Fig. 4;
To be that three layers of a kind of microminiature quadrotor of the present invention are airborne fly to control device brushless motor and screw propeller schematic diagram to Fig. 5.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is described in further detail.
The integral structure that three layers of microminiature quadrotor are airborne flies to control device as shown in Figure 1, in the present embodiment, the model of navigation controller is M-PMI2-1.5, the model of Inertial Measurement Unit is MTi_AHRS, the model of miniature laser distance measuring sensor is URG-04LX, the model of miniature vision sensor is FFMU-03MTM/C, the model of attitude controller is Arduino MEGA2560, gyrostatic model is I TG-3200, the model of accelerometer is BMA180, the model of magnetometer is HMC5843, , the model of pressure sensor is BMP085, the model of ultrasonic transduter is PING, the model of remote controller is FT06-C, receptor model is FRP06-P, the model of wireless communication module expansion board is XBee Shield V1.0, the model of wireless communication module is XBee Pro XBP24-AWI-001, the model of wireless communication module USB adapter is XBee USB Adapter, the model of 4 brushless motor governors is HOBBYWING PENTIUM-30A, 4 actuator units adopt brushless motor, its model is A2212KV1000.
In the present embodiment, three of a kind of microminiature quadrotor layers airbornely fly to control device, and the annexation of each parts is:
Navigation Control layer: the data input pin of navigation controller connects mouth, the mouth of miniature laser distance measuring sensor and the mouth of miniature vision sensor of Inertial Measurement Unit, the wireless signal input/output terminal of navigation controller connects the input/output terminal of WiFi wireless network;
Attitude key-course: the data input pin of attitude controller connects the mouth of gyrostatic mouth, accelerometer, the mouth of the mouth of magnetometer, pressure sensor and the mouth of ultrasonic transduter, attitude controller is connected with the signal output part of remote controller and acceptor unit, and the wireless communication port of attitude controller connects the input/output terminal of ZigBee radio communication unit;
Electric machine speed regulation key-course: the mouth of brushless motor governor connects the input end of actuator unit;
To be that three layers of microminiature quadrotor are airborne fly to control each parts in device and power supplying cell.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of Navigation Control layer, navigation controller is the whole airborne brain that flies to control device, its receives collected by Inertial Measurement Unit airborne and flies to control setting angle speed, three-dimensional acceleration and geomagnetic field intensity real time data, the view data being collected by miniature vision sensor, miniature laser distance measuring sensor collects the distance real time data between aircraft and surrounding object, realization is to flying to control the location of device, navigation and map building, realized in the precision navigation location without gps signal region, solved the urban district of towering at high building, the indoor environment that waits, electromagnetic interference due to electromagnetic multipath propagation characteristic and other electronic machines, can not get a difficult problem for failure-free GPS positioning signal.
The navigation controller M-PMI2-1.5 that the present embodiment adopts is single board computer, meet PC/104 protocol specification (PC/104, PC/104-Plus, PCI/104 and PCI/104-Express), M-PMI2-1.5 is an embedded main board, above integrated treater, chipset and peripheral interface adaptor union, in the present embodiment, use its 4 USB ports and 1 COM1 serial ports, wherein, 4 USB2.0 sockets are provided on embedded main board, each USB2.0 socket has 4 contact pins, representation signal USBVcc, USB-, USB+, GND, insert on 4 contact pins of USB2.0 socket first subsidiary wiring one end that producer is provided, the first subsidiary wiring other end is exactly normal USB output interface, embedded main board has 4 USB mouths, be USB1, USB2, USB3 and USB4, COM1 serial ports on embedded main board, meet RS232 agreement, it is 10 cushion holes, wherein 9 contact pins have signal definition, COM1 serial ports is inserted in second subsidiary wiring one end that producer provides, the second subsidiary wiring other end is as mouth, under be operated in+5V of whole navigation controller voltage, having two power interface Power1 and Power2 on mainboard, is all 10 cushion holes, 1,7,9 contact pins represent ground connection GND, 2,8, represent+5V of 10 contact pins, the subsidiary wiring that the present embodiment is used one of them power port Power1 ,Yong producer to provide is drawn, receive in switch, be connected on power supply lithium cell,
The model that Inertial Measurement Unit is measured is IMU, it is a kind of integrated gyroscope, the sensor of accelerometer and magnetometer, the mouth of the second subsidiary wiring of navigation controller connects 7 core circle sockets of Inertial Measurement Unit, the USB1 end of navigation controller connects the MinUSB1 end of miniature vision sensor, the USB2 port of navigation controller connects the MiniUSB2 port of miniature laser distance measuring sensor, the USB3 port of navigation controller connects the mouth of wireless network card WLG-12254M, the USB4 port of navigation controller turns USB end by USB connection lead and the serial ports of attitude controller and is connected, draw+5V of Power1 port and the GND signal of navigation controller, connect respectively miniature laser distance measuring sensor Power end+5V and GND signal, reconnect layer switch and power supply lithium cell, wherein, described miniature laser distance measuring sensor can not directly be powered by USB,
The block diagram of attitude key-course as shown in Figure 3, attitude controller adopts chip microcontroller, the attitude that the general aircraft recording device of being built by attitude key-course and electric machine speed regulation key-course also can be realized aircraft is flown, but need remote controller to control manually, and attitude controller needs an extra PC support, in the present embodiment, increased Navigation Control layer, after Navigation Control layer is connected with attitude key-course by serial ports, realize the intercommunication of each layer of upper sensor information data, navigation controller can transfer control signal to attitude controller, sensor information on attitude controller also can be uploaded to navigation controller computing, it is intelligent that whole flight instruments becomes, can Camera calibration, evade obstacle and abandon the M/C of remote controller is relied on, become the intelligent robot in meaning.
The D2 of attitude controller~D7 end connects THRO (throttle) end of receptor successively, ALLE (aileron) end, ELEV (lifting) end, RUDO (direction) end, GEAR (alighting gear/gyroscope) end and AUX (wing flap/pitch) end, the SDA serial data end A4 of attitude controller, serial clock terminal A5 connects respectively SDA-H end and the SCL-H end of logic level translator, and the SDA end of logic level translator connects respectively the data terminal of magneticintensity meter, the SDA end of accelerometer, the SDA end of gyro meter and the SDA end of pressure sensor, the SCL end of logic level translator connects respectively the SCL end of magneticintensity meter, the SCL end of accelerometer, the SCL end of gyro meter and the SCL of pressure sensor end, logic level translator+3.3V end connect respectively magneticintensity meter+3.3V holds, accelerometer+3.3V end, gyro meter+3.3V end and pressure sensor+3.3V end, the GND that the GND end of logic level translator connects respectively magneticintensity meter holds, accelerometer+GND end, the GND end of gyro meter and the GND end of pressure sensor, the D20 port of attitude controller connects the SIG end of ultrasonic transduter, the D8-D11 end of attitude controller connects the input end of four brushless motor governors by 1~No. 4 pin on its interface card, DI end and DOUT that the TX end of the I/O end of attitude controller and RX end are connected a ZigBee wireless communication module by Xbee expansion board hold, attitude controller+3.3V hold with GND hold by Xbee expansion board be connected a ZigBee wireless communication module+3.3V holds and GND holds, the DI end of second Zigbee, DOUT end connect DI end, the DOUT end of USB adapter, and USB adapter connects by USBDuan Yu ground station,
The Inertial Measurement Unit on upper strata is integrated, and gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer act on the sensor of one, its survey precision is higher than this layer, the introducing of Inertial Measurement Unit is not unnecessary, its precision is high, the compensation of integrated temperature, three installation errors and the impact of sensor cross axle, can contrast correction data information; The use of the single gyroscope in middle level, accelerometer, magnetometer, makes aircraft still can provide attitude real time data for system after laying down upper strata Navigation Control layer.
Working sensor voltage in attitude key-course is at 3.3V, and the micro controller system operating voltage that attitude controller uses is 5V, need to carry 5V-3.3V logic level translator, therefore using the analog input end A4 of attitude controller and A5 as serial digital SDA and serial clock SCL signal end, and add level+3.3V and the ground connection GND after conversion, with corresponding connection of mode and gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer sensor, pressure sensor of bus.
In remote controller, there is encode circuit, electromagnetic wave is modulated, make password in electromagnetism wavestrip, receptor is received after signal, password is differentiated, controlled signal, for receptor, its working frequency range is at 72MHz, operating voltage range 4.8-6V, six passages, the antenna of receptor is preferably wrapped in the little plastic pin of 30cm left and right, in order to guarantee that good radiofrequency signal receives, as for remote controller, for PPM coded system, use the lithium battery power supply of 9.6-12V, when remote controller is worked, emissive power is less than or equal to 100mW, working current is less than or equal to 160mA.
Zigbee radio communication unit comprises Zigbee wireless communication module and corresponding expansion board and USB adapter, ground station can be to the order of attitude controller transfer control and task, the information such as while receiving sensor real time data, when aircraft does not have upper strata Navigation Control layer, while more precisely there is no WiFi wireless network, mainly rely on radio communication unit to carry out communication, when aircraft is far away away from ground distance, need to be by means of the WiFi wireless network of Navigation Control layer.
Fig. 4 is electric machine speed regulation key-course structured flowchart, the brushless motor governor of take is example, its annexation is described: the Vdd that the Vdd end of brushless motor governor connects middle level switch holds the positive pole that connects again lithium cell, the GND that the GND end of brushless motor connects middle level switch holds the GND end that connects again lithium cell, the S end of No. 1 pin on the interface card of the input end connection attitude controller of brushless motor governor, brushless motor governor+5V end connection attitude controller+5V end, the GND end of brushless motor governor connects the GND end of attitude controller, the three phasevoltage output terminals A of brushless motor governor, B, C connects respectively the three phase electric machine input end of brushless motor, the method of attachment of four brushless motors is identical therewith,
Fig. 5 is brushless motor and the corresponding supporting propeller arrangement schematic diagram of miniature quadrotor, four rotors are installed on respectively four vertex positions of brushless motor, be divided into two groups of cw and conter clockwises, be positioned at two rotors on same diagonal line on the same group, before and after 1, on the same group, left and right 3,4 rotors on the same group for 2 rotors.Because rotor diagonal angle is fixed, can only realize by controlling the rotating speed of four rotors the flight of aircraft and control.During hovering, the rotating speed of four rotors equates, with the anti-twisted moment of cancelling out each other; Simultaneous equal ground increases or reduces the rotating speed of four rotors, can cause and rise or descending motion; When increasing the rotating speed of a certain rotor, reduce equally the rotating speed of another rotor on the same group, can produce pitching or roll and rotate; Increase the rotating speed of a certain group of rotor, and equivalent reduces the rotating speed of another group rotor, will produce yawing rotation.Therefore, otherwise just have and divide about the selection of screw propeller, the rotation of brushless motor also have forward and reverse not.In the present embodiment, the model that brushless motor adopts is A2212 KV1000, and wherein KV value size represents the numerical value that the every rising 1V of voltage brushless motor speed increases, and brushless motor speed is fast, is enough to provide the lift of micro air vehicle.

Claims (4)

1. three of a microminiature quadrotor layers airbornely fly to control device, comprise: attitude controller, gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer, pressure sensor, ultrasonic transduter, remote controller and acceptor unit, ZigBee radio communication unit, brushless motor governor, actuator unit and supplying cell, is characterized in that: also comprise navigation controller, Inertial Measurement Unit, miniature laser distance measuring sensor, miniature vision sensor, WiFi wireless network;
Described navigation controller, Inertial Measurement Unit, miniature laser distance measuring sensor, miniature vision sensor and WiFi wireless network form Navigation Control layer, realize the accurate location without gps signal region;
Described attitude controller, gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer, pressure sensor, ultrasonic transduter, remote controller and acceptor unit and ZigBee radio communication unit form attitude key-course;
Four brushless motor governors and four actuator units form electric machine speed regulation key-course;
Navigation Control layer, attitude key-course and electric machine speed regulation key-course form three layers of airborne control structure; Wherein, Navigation Control layer and attitude key-course carry out communication by USB serial ports, and the signal that Navigation Control layer collects self-sensor device is processed, and result is passed to attitude key-course;
The signal that the signal that described attitude key-course collects self-sensor device is processed or its sensor is collected sends to Navigation Control layer, after by Navigation Control layer, the signal collecting being processed, returns to attitude key-course again;
Described attitude key-course provides 4 road pwm signals to control the work of electric machine speed regulation key-course.
2. three of a kind of microminiature quadrotor according to claim 1 layers airbornely fly to control device, it is characterized in that: the gyroscope in described attitude key-course, accelerometer and magneticintensity meter, guarantee after removing Navigation Control layer, attitude key-course is still controlled the normal operation of electric machine speed regulation key-course.
3. three of a kind of microminiature quadrotor according to claim 1 layers airbornely fly to control device, it is characterized in that: described brushless motor governor is accepted the velocity of rotation of brushless motor in the control signal of attitude key-course adjusting actuator unit.
4. three of a kind of microminiature quadrotor according to claim 1 layers airbornely fly to control device, it is characterized in that: described actuator unit comprises brushless motor and supporting screw propeller with it, by it, is produced lift and is driven aircraft to move.
CN201110393333.1A 2011-11-30 2011-11-30 Three-layer airborne flight control device for micro four-rotor aerial vehicle Expired - Fee Related CN102424112B (en)

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